Choose the most general word of each set:
spoon, knife, crockery, fork
1. furniture, table, cupboard, sofa
2. mammal, animal, dog, pet
3. car, vehicle, traffic, van
4. keeping to diets, going in for sport, keeping fit, doing exercise
5. learn words, study language, do grammar tasks, write quizzes
Match sets of words with topics:
Exercise 1.3 (Homonymy)
Choose the correct word (consult the dictionary if necessary):
1. To affect/effect the prices
2. To beat/beet the opponent
3. The cent/scent of herbs
4. Web cite/sight/site
5. Chili/chilly pepper
6. Complement/compliment of the chef
7. City council/counsel
8. To die/dye hair
9. Disc/disk jockey
10. Fare/fair hair
11. Finish/Finnish sauna
12. Cake made with flower/flour and eggs
13. Back and forth/fourth
14. Thunder and lightening/lightning
15. Marry/Merry Christmas
16. Minor/miner disease
17. My muscles/mussels began to ache
18. She passed/past away
19. The War and Piece/Peace
20. The rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain/plane.
21. The North Pole/Poll
22. The Newtonian principle/principal of inertia
23. Sole/soul mate
24. Walk up the stairs/stares
25. Keep quiet/quite!
26. To/too/two good to be true!
27. She tied the apron around her waste/waist.
28. I am not sure weather/whether this is true or not.
Exercise 1.4 (Suffixes & Endings)
Consult the dictionary if necessary:
Exercise 1.5 (Doubling Consonants)
Mind that consonants double except for:
Rate => rated (ending with –e)
Clear => clearing (two vowels before the last consonant)
Sharp => sharper (ending with two consonants)
Benefit => benefited (three and more syllables)
Fill in the gaps where needed:
The crowd began to wave handkerchiefs and to shout good-byes.
He entered a university and she started to work.
Keeping fit is a hobby. But playing computer games is an addiction.
Very carefully, we moved from the room into the kitchen.
What experience teaches you, you never forget.
3. Participle clauses (or subordinate clauses):
The capital of Syria is Damascus. Damascus is probably the oldest city in the world. => Being the capital of Syria, Damascus is probably the oldest city in the world. OR The capital of Syria is Damascus, probably the oldest city in the world. OR The capital of Syria is Damascus which is probably the oldest city in the world.
4. Do not overdo with so:
His parents were poor, so they couldn’t afford to send him to college => Being very poor, his parents couldn’t afford to send him to college OR His parents, who were very poor, couldn’t afford to send him to college.
5. Do not overdo with pronouns:
After lunch our friends walked around the garden, and they left in an hour. => After lunch our friends walked around the garden and left in an hour.
Rewrite sentences using parallel constructions:
Example: Don’t go too close to that dog: it may attack you and you may be bitten => Don’t go too close to that dog: it may attack and bite you.
1. Chimpanzee is a monkey, but is related to humans.
2. The orangutans have long arms, and their hair is reddish-brown.
3. Gracefully and silent, the deer moved into the woods.
4. From the window he could see his dog in the yard. The birds on the tree were also visible.
Rewrite the text applying inversion:
The Bermuda Isles are in the Atlantic Ocean about seven hundred miles from New York. They were discovered by Juan Bermudez in 1515. The voyagers, landing in Bermuda, stayed there for ten months. Their reports were so enthusiastic that permanent settlers soon arrived.
Rewrite sentences applying participle and subordinate clauses or just excluding unnecessary words:
1. The girls were on their way to Montgomery. Here they hoped to find their father.
2. After lunch we were less ambitious, so we gathered our fishing and decided to go to the cinema.
3. The national parks have become very popular, so they are in danger.
4. The workers were on a strike, and they slept on their work places.
(Linking Cause and Effect)
Where are the causes and the effects in these pairs? Mind that in one pair there is no linking.
1. Mothers shouldn’t work — Children shouldn’t spend time with nannies
2. Classmates help each other — People tend to make best friends at school
3. «Honesty is the best policy» — We trust honest people
4. Fast food is tasty — McDonald’s is dangerous for health
5. «Tastes change with age» — Elderly people are more experienced and wise
Explain your reasons (2—3):
1. I want to live in a big house with all my relatives because…
2. There is always a leader in friendship because…
3. Women should use make-up because…
4. A businessman should be selfish because…
5. I want to work in the shopping industry because…
Exercise 2.3 (ei-ie)
Mind that for the sound [i: ] we write IE (believe), except for after — c (receive).
For all other sounds we write EI (their).
Fill in the gaps with EI or IE:
Exercise 2.4 (Apostrophe)
Mind that we use the apostrophe all possessive forms (girl’s, girls’, Jones’s), except for personal pronouns (theirs, hers).
Put the apostrophe where needed:
Mr. Jones has two sons. This is the boys room. All the toys are theirs. Cars and robots are among their favorite ones. They always argue about whose cars are faster. But in fact theyre real friends. Everybody knows that their robots are the best at school. If anybody elses robot appears better, than Mr. Jones buys a new toy for his children. Joneses are really happy.
Exercise 2.5 (Compounds)
(Paragraph: Order of Sentences)
1. Time order:
I was born… went to school… entered the university… graduated… started my career…
2. Space order:
The apartment was… there were four rooms… my room was…
She is… her skin… her hair… her eyes…
3. Order for climax (most frequently used in an essay with the elements of argumentation):
from the least important fact to the most important one.
Applying one of the three ways of ordering sentences (each once), organize each set:
___ His parents enrolled him in a conservatory, where he could learn the music theory.
___ As a child he learnt to read music notation and to play the piano by ear.
___ Born in 1948 in a small New Mexican town, Robert Own was destined to become famous.
___ In school, his teachers were aware that Robert had a special talent and they encouraged him to devote as much time as possible to his music.
___ His professional career was now launched.
2. The fifty-five mile an hour speed limit should be retained.
___ Driving at fifty-five miles an hour conserves gas.
___ This limit can prevent accidents.
___ Riders can see more of the country by driving slowly.
3. Describing a person.
___ deep-set brown eyes
___ sitting nervously on the edge of a chair
___ long graceful neck
___ cotton summer dress
___ hands twisting a handkerchief
Write a paragraph on each topic applying one of the ways of ordering sentences (each once):
1. Describe your dream: I want… because… (Three reasons)
2. Describe an event: It was one of the most exciting moments in my life… (Then describe what happened in more detail: write about five sentences)
3. Describe a person: from general characteristics to details (3 details)
Find mistakes in the parameters of comparison if any. Correct them:
1. Football is a typical hobby for boys. Tennis is an expensive sport.
2. Fast food is cheap. Chinese cuisine is not expensive.
3. Buying clothes is time consuming. Buying food is boring.
Match sentences to compare from two columns. There is one extra sentence in each column.
Exercise 3.3 (Synonyms)
Exercise 3.4 (be concrete)
After breakfast he started in our nice car. => After breakfast he started for work in our new fast car.
1. By three o’clock we were not in good shape.
2. He had a bad character and started arguing in the restaurant.
3. For the special case the invited several people for lunch.
4. She is an interesting person who is able to be a good teacher.
(Paragraph: Coherence of Sentences)
Coherence of sentences in a paragraph can be achieved by:
1. Repetition of important words and pronouns
2. Synonyms and substitutions
3. Transitional expressions
What sentences are repeated or substituted in the paragraph? Underline them and their substitutions:
I have always considered my father a very intelligent person. His intelligence is not the type usually tested in schools; but he never finished high school. Rather, my father’s intelligence is his ability to solve problems creatively as they arise. Intelligent solutions to unforeseen problems were typical of him. In fact, my father’s brand of brains — accurate insight, followed by creative action — is the kind of intelligence that I admire.
Write a paragraph about a famous person describing his most outstanding trait. Repeat and substitute important words. Underline them.
Learn transitional expressions:
Fill in the gaps:
Since Clyde has been saving money for months, he will be able to afford the vacation of his dreams. He imagines himself on different cruises, __________ (illustration) a boat trip on the Amazon River. __________ (contrast) he does not have money to go far away. __________ (result) he brings his lunch every day and puts the money in a special vacation fund. __________ (addition) he saves all the cash that comes his way as gifts. It may take a while, but Clyde will take the vacation of his dreams.
Improve your paragraph from exercise 6, adding transitional expressions
Rationalization is the process of concealing real motives by inventing plausible reasons.
Which of the following are examples of rationalization?
Reading is not a popular hobby because there are no good writers. => Rationalization because reading is not popular for other reasons, for instance, as we prefer TV and computer to books.
1. Modern teenagers spend a lot of time in front of the computers because they do not have enough homework to do and books to read.
2. Computer games are the most popular with children since board games are not involving.
3. Teenagers tend to belong to some subcultures as they need to show off and to feel a member of a community.
4. People prefer extreme sports since they are more competitive than traditional ones.
Find three plausible reasons for each item in the previous exercise.
Exercise 4.3 (Subject-Predicate Agreement)
Tom and Alice are guilty
Tom or Alice is guilty
Neither Tom nor Alice is guilty
Choose the correct form of the verb:
1. Neither endurance nor skill is/are enough.
2. Mary, Jane or Toledo is/are to report at once.
3. The Democratic Party has/have the power.
4. Apple pie and strawberry mousse is/are her favorite dishes.
5. The boss, like his workers, deserves/deserve a holiday.
Exercise 4.4 (Agreement of Pronouns)
The team gave its all (the whole group) BUT The team cleaned their lockers (members of a group)
Choose the correct word:
1. The company had a new policy; from now on it/they would build more small cars.
2. Everybody brings his/their lunch.
3. Whose/who’s on first?
4. I wish my son looked less like I/me and more like she/her.
5. My father worked hard to give we/us a good education.
Exercise 4.5 (Agreement of Participle and Subordinate Clauses)
Painting the windows black, they became opaque. => PaintED black the windows became opaque.
1. At the age of three my parents took me to Buffalo.
2. By heating the water, the pot begins to boil.
3. Renowned for his humor, everyone reads Mark Twain.
4. Running down the street, his house could be seen.
(Paragraph: Consistency of Sentences)
Consistency of sentences in a paragraph can be achieved by:
1. Consistency of tense:
We strolled down the street as the jazz band started to play
We stroll down the street as the jazz band start to play
2. Consistency of the number and the person:
The jogger chooses his or her running shoes with care
The joggers choose their running shoes with care
3. Discourse consistency:
In one paragraph apply either direct or indirect speech.
Two seconds before the buzzer sounded, Larry Bird sank a basket from midcourt, and the crowd goes wild. => Two seconds before the buzzer sounded, Larry Bird sank a basket from midcourt, and the crowd WENT wild.
1. I told you this will happen.
2. Dreams fascinate me; it is like another world.
3. A good job is not as easy to come by as they were ten years ago.
4. John asked me do you know who won the Saturday’s game.
5. John asked me I knew who won the game.
Write a paragraph describing your yesterday’s conversation with a friend about a match which took place the day before yesterday. Apply indirect speech and pay attention to the consistency of tense.
Find at least three arguments that contradict the following prejudices:
1. I will never marry a foreigner.
2. All fans are crazy.
3. Airplanes are the most dangerous things in the world.
Do you have any prejudices? Choose one or imagine it and write three arguments that contradict it.
(Spelling and Punctuation)
Exercise 5.3 (Writing Numbers)
October, 20 (dates)
362 Adams street (addresses)
Page 321 (pages)
8 499 123 45 67 (telephone numbers)
108, 1200, 1500234 (long numbers)
There are 34 pupils in my class, 24 learn English, 6 study Maths and 4 specialise in history. (sentences with a few numbers).
The college is twenty-five miles away from home (short numbers)
Six hundred thirty dollars was collected for the community chest (numbers at the beginning of sentences)
Fill in the gaps:
1. I was born on _____________________________________ (date of birth).
2. I live at __________________________________________ (full address).
3. Now I am doing exercise___________ on page___________.
4. At_____________ today I will go to bed.
5. My expenses for the week are: room, $_____________;
food, $_______________; transport $____________.
Exercise 5.4 (Capitalisation)
Yale Club, General Motors Corporation (organisations)
Democrats, Catholic, Brazilian (nationalities and other groups) BUT puritanical ideas, roman type, etc. (common nouns)
West, Amazon River, St. George Hotel (geography) BUT city of Philadelphia, state of Arkansas
World War II, Reign of Terror, Magna Charta (historic periods and documents)
Times, Washington Is Like That (literature and mass media)
Monday, June, Labour Day (dates) BUT summer (seasons)
General, the President (titles)
Uncle Henry, Mother or mother BUT your mother (relatives).
1. After general bliss had visited the house of representatives and heard a report, he journeyed to the white house to see the president of the united states.
2. My english teacher asked whether i had read from the bottom up or the lure of the labrador wild.
3. John who had previously attended a high school in the west now attends a high school in new jersey.
4. They had a lunch on broadway.
5. The secretary of war invited general simpson for dinner.
Exercise 5.5 (Comma)
1. Faithful, sincere friend (equal definitions, we can fill in and) BUT Solid gold watch (solid define the word combination gold watch)
2. He is clever, energetic and wise. BUT He is clever and energetic and wise (the conjunction is repeated).
3. Ann has a son, Mary has two daughters.
4. The full moon was obscured by clouds, but the pirates went their way on. (long sentence) BUT I called but she was away (short sentence)
5. If it rains, we won’t go for a walk. BUT We won’t go for a walk if it rains.
6. He played tennis, since (as, for) it had been his hobby for many years. BUT He played tennis because it had been his hobby for many years.
7. Dear Mr, indeed, nevertheless, etc. (like in Russian)
Fill in the commas:
1. He is a fit healthy person because he has a wise beautiful wife.
2. He played tennis and went to the swimming pool and had long walks in the park.
3. Beauty is dominating when choosing a girlfriend personality is dominating when choosing a wife.
4. Hobbies affect the way we spend free time but music creates our personalities and affects our life style.
5. I enjoy window shopping if I don’t have money.
6. Nowadays many people keep to a diet since they want to look younger.
7. The mobile that doesn’t work properly needs repairing.
8. I have three mobile phones and the one which is the newest needs repairing.
(Paragraph: Variety of Sentences)
Rewrite the paragraph, alternating short and long sentences: