Science, Culture and Youth. Сборник трудов по материалам VII Международной студенческой научно-практической конференции (25 марта 2022 г.)

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Секция «Актуальные проблемы современности»

Азаренко А. Н. 
Should the younger generation fear Genetically Modified products?

Azarenka A., 3rd year student {Customs Affairs}

Scientific adviser: Yumagulova M., Senior Lecturer

Belarussian State University, Minsk, Belarus

Genetically modified foods have existed since the 1990s, but still there is a great number of disagreements and opinions about the benefits and harms of such products. Can Genetically Modified Crops provide a solution to global hunger? How do genetically engineered crops affect humans and animals? The article examines the issue of genetically modified products and the influence of such foods on the health and environment.

Keywords: genetically modified foods, famine, genes, malnutrition, biodiversity.

Modern society is trying to solve one of the main global problems, which mankind may face in the near future. Scientists predict shortage of food and global famine. It goes without saying, that famine is one of the greatest global challenges of the 21st century. Despite some improvements within the last two decades, this trial is again on the rise, with the 2020 data indicating that more than 800 million people around the world suffer from malnutrition. The use of genetically modified crops is one of the proposed solutions — but is it really an effective solution?

Modern technologies as well as genetic engineering are used in the sphere of agriculture. The achievements of modern science make it possible to transfer genes of any organism to the cells of another one in order to get a plant, an animal or a microorganism with altered genes and new traits. For instance, to create a new sort of wheat, resistant to drought, a scorpion’s gene was used. Genetically modified food is a product developed from a different genetically modified organism (GMO) such as a crop plant, animal or microorganism. Genetically modified foods have existed since the 1990s and been represented in a variety of plants: soybean, maize, cocoa beans, rice and cotton seed oil.

Nowadays young people are concerned about the issue of genetically modified products, because such products can lead to uncontrollable consequences. People are worried that cultivation and consumption of such crops will bring about both health and environmental problems. According to VTsIOM, more than 80% of the Russian population are against genetically modified products. Similar surveys were also conducted in the United States, France and Germany. In these countries, about 90% of the population also have a negative attitude toward such products.

Undoubtedly, every coin has two sides. On the one hand, whatever we have created and have on hands (GM ingredients) can be used rationally for sustainable production without any kind of risk, which might or might not happen in the future. Many people claim that genetically engineered crops can help to combat world famine, but there is enough food on Earth, the problem is, however, that it is not distributed fairly. For instance, Asia and Africa have the largest number of people suffering from starvation, but the problem of deprivation there has not yet been solved to this day. We live in a world that produces a plenty of food to feed everyone, suffice it to see how much of it is wasted in advanced countries due to expiration date. Therefore, food deprivation results from inequity rather than shortage, i.e. it is unequal distribution of food among impoverished communities that is the primary cause for today’s world starvation, not insufficient quantity of food stocks. For those suffering from malnutrition, access to quality food depends on a variety of political, environmental, and socioeconomic factors.

On the other hand, technologies of getting transgenic animals allow to hasten their growth, change the level and character of fatness and taste characteristics. As a result, it leads to improved productivity for farmers and lower prices for consumers. There are case stories for success: adoption of genetically modified cotton in India has improved productivity, family income and, as a result, reduced hunger.

But nowadays many people are concerned about the negative influence of genetically modified foods on their health and environment. One of the reasons is that such food can become allergic and toxic. For humans, number one most common side-effect of consuming genetically modified food is an allergic reaction. This happens when a certain allergen, present in the genetically modified crop, enters the body and stimulates an immune response. In addition, there is also the fear that new allergies could develop because of the mixing of genes from two organisms. Also, because some inserted genes come from bacteria and viruses, the possibility for transfer of disease also exists. Moreover, using special genes could affect people’s ability to defend against illnesses, as some genetically modified products contain genes that make them resistant to certain antibiotics, and this resistance could pass on to humans. As a result, people from all over the world are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics. So, it can be impossible to cure such diseases as tuberculosis or pneumonia.

It is also necessary to mention that a potential drawback of genetically modified food technology is that some organism in the ecosystem might be harmed, which could lead to a lower level of biodiversity. For instance, when we remove a certain pest that is harmful to crops, we may as well remove a food source for a certain species. Besides, genetically modified crops could be toxic to some organisms, which can reduce their numbers or even make them extinct.

Sure, genetically modified foods have the right to exist, but they must be obligatorily labeled, as sometimes it is difficult to distinguish which crops are organic and which are not. Consumers, in particular the younger generation, must know what they are buying. It is up to them whether to choose such products or not. How do genetically engineered crops affect humans and animals? The answer is — no one knows. That is why people should carefully consider which products they buy. The younger generation want genetic engineering scientists to be more open, as they are responsible for using the latest discoveries and technologies in such a field as genetically modified products. We need safe food and safe environment!


1. GMO Crops, Animal Food, and Beyond // [Электронный ресурс]. — URL: https://www.fda.gov/food/agricultural-biotechnology/gmo-crops-animal-food-and-beyond (Дата обращения: 03.03.2022).

2. Как устроены ГМО и почему мы их так боимся // [Электронный ресурс]. — https://trends.rbc.ru/trends/industry/608c0db79a7947d866061ddd (Дата обращения: 03.03.2022).

3. Что такое ГМО: Угроза здоровью или будущее планеты // [Электронный ресурс]. — https://www.wonderzine.com/wonderzine/health/wellness/219403-gmo (Дата обращения: 05.03.2022).

Агапитова В. О., Андреева А. А. 
Human as the main problem of modernity

Agapitova V.O., Andreeva A.A., 2nd year students {Business Informatics}

Scientific adviser: Atrokhin A.M., PhD {Philology}, Associate Professor

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

In today’s world there is a rethinking of the human values and the relationship between humans and the world around them. The exacerbation of global problems has created a fundamentally new environment for human development, an environment of constant, real threats to life on earth. One can see the prospect global problem solving of solely through conscious and rational human activity, involving the establishment of an entirely rational relationship with nature. Therefore, attempts to address and solve them in isolation are ineffective. Global problems must be solved comprehensively, in a coordinated manner, by the efforts of all mankind.

Keywords: man, global problems, modern society, civilisation.

In the current context of heightened global public interest in global issues, whether the threat of international terrorism, environmental pollution, natural resource depletion, population growth on the planet or irreversible climate change on earth. There is a significant revision of human values of life and human interactions with the natural as well as the social world around them. The wide-ranging impact of human activity in nature, across national boundaries and often undermining the foundations of life, scientific and technological advances affecting all areas of human existence and raising concerns about their short-term use, socio-economic and political crises in some regions of the world affecting the development of other regions and of the world economy as a whole, the global interconnectedness and interdependence of countries, nations and states, and the interconnectedness and interconnectedness of cultures.

In recent decades, in studies of global problems, focus of is not so much of on the development of the essential forces of the individual, his of her inner wealth and spiritual world, but on the survival of mankind. Today we can say that the problem of mankind’s survival has come to the foreground of many scientists’ considerations about the fate of man and human civilization, when the focus is not an individual in his uniqueness and identity, but humanity as a global and generally meaningful structural formation, uniting all people on our planet by one fate.

It would be incorrect to deny the significance of the problem of human survival in the modern world, in which not only has accumulated a significant nuclear potential, quite enough to wipe out all life, but there is also a deepening of all kinds of conflicts of raw material, geopolitical and informational nature.

By focusing on the problem of man as the centre of all global problems, around which meaningful relations between the subject of activity and the object of transformation, whether nature, society or humanity, are structured, we thereby introduce the understanding of global problems into a historically and logically established learning process that deals with the understanding of culturally and socially determined paradoxes and contradictions of being human in the world.

Speaking about man as a global-unique problem of modernity, we only set methodologically, epistemologically and ideologically justified reference points necessary for theoretical cognition and practical resolution of a whole complex of other problems, including global ones. It is that the problem of man, as a focus, reflects a complex and contradictory picture of scientific and technological, social and moral development, taken not in itself, without reference to the subject of the historical process, but in a semantic, meaningful, humanistic and specific perspective.

In objective reality, we are not dealing with an aggregate, but with a system of global problems. Its characteristic feature is that it is extremely complex and multifactorial. And it is manifested, first of all, in the fact that the essential basis of the system of global contradictions is social interrelations, determined by fundamental laws of social development. There are no purely social or purely natural global problems. They all express some or other aspects of a single process of social and natural development. A characteristic feature of today’s global problems is that, having arisen for social reasons, they lead to consequences more than social ones, affecting the biological and physical foundations of human existence.


1. Проблема человека в современной философии — Проблемы философской антропологии URL: https://lfirmal.com/problema-cheloveka-v-sovremennoy-filosofii/ (дата обращения: 11.03.2022).

2. Проблема человека в современной философии URL: https://spravochnick.ru/filosofiya/sovremennaya_filosofiya/problema_
cheloveka_v_sovremennoy_filosofii/ (дата обращения: 11.03.2022).

3. Человек и глобальные проблемы современности — Студопедия. URL: https://studopedia.ru/8_44799_chelovek-v-tehnicheskoy-realnosti.html (дата обращения: 11.03.2022).

4. Человек и глобальные проблемы современности. Проблема ненасилия. URL: https://megaobuchalka.ru/16/39014.html (дата обращения: 11.03.2022).

Артеменко Е. А., Карелова Е. А. 
The interdependence of exports and imports between the Russian Federation and the USA and its impact on the development of the countries’ economies

Artemenko E.A., Karelova E.A., 3rd year students {Economic Security}

Scientific adviser: Krasikova T.I., PhD {Philology}, Professor

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The article examines the relationship and the main indicators of export and import activities between the Russian Federation and the United States. The details of export and import indicators are presented. The impact of sanctions decisions on both foreign and domestic economic activities of the countries is described. Possible ways of import substitution and establishment of cooperation in the most priority directions of trade and economic activity development are revealed.

Keywords: Import substitution, international trade, export, import, sanctions pressure.

The rapid development of world trade and the expansion of the scale of global capital flows led to the fact that many companies began to focus not only on domestic, but also on foreign markets. The impact of such processes is ambiguous. On the one hand, producers spend a considerable amount of resources to enter international markets, and on the other hand, interaction with the markets of other countries helps to accelerate the growth of the domestic market of the country.

The efficiency of the two most important processes, import and export, depends on many factors, such as the geopolitical situation, the country’s resources, logistics, and the like. Import and export activities have a significant impact on the country’s GDP as well as on the exchange rate, inflation rates and even interest rates. If imports exceed exports, it can upset the balance of trade and devalue the country’s currency, which in turn causes a change for the worse in citizens’ quality of life.

The demand for economic relations between the United States and the Russian Federation is promoted by the high interest of businesses of the countries in mutually beneficial cooperation, despite the constantly imposed sanctions and changes in tariffs in customs and other areas. The coronavirus pandemic in 2020 played an important role, forcing countries to pay more attention to domestic producers, which also had a negative impact on the development of foreign economic relations.

In 2021, total exports and imports from Russia to the United States were $34.9 billion, $11 billion more than in 2020.

Mineral products are the main exports to the U.S., accounting for 49.4% of all exports. Metals and products and jewelry account for 15.2% and 13.6%, respectively. Wood and wood products (3%) and machinery, equipment, and apparatus (3%) were the least sought-after in the United States (figure 1).

Figure 1. Major exported goods. Mineral products are highlighted in blue, metals and their products in red, jewelry in orange, chemical products in green, wood and wood products in blue, machines, equipment and apparatus in pink, other goods in light green, plastics and rubber in brown

As we know, nowadays petroleum products are tightly integrated into the life of any production, as well as of any person. With its help we get light, heat, it drives cars, tractors, planes and ships, many everyday things are created from oil products. Without a doubt, one of the most important uses of petroleum remains as a fuel. Oil exports to the United States account for approximately 4% of the Russian Federation’s trade turnover. Given the current situation, this figure will obviously decrease because of the sanctions imposed, but it will affect the economies of both countries. As of March 11, 2022 the price of a gallon of gasoline in the US broke the record of 2008 at $4.32. The situation is unhappy primarily with citizens, who now have to overpay for the maintenance of their vehicles. Higher fuel prices, and subsequently higher energy prices, will lead to accelerated inflation, which in turn will cause significant increases in the prices of both consumer goods and services.

A decline in export volumes will also affect Russia’s economy, since the sale of energy resources occupies the first place in the country’s foreign economic trade. Lower revenues will necessitate budget redistribution and a change of partners in global trade, which will push inflation and unemployment to record highs.

Russia’s dependence on goods from the United States is also noteworthy. In 2020, the volume of imports amounted to $10.8 billion, and in 2021 rose to $17.7 billion. First of all, this was facilitated by increased demand among citizens, but we should not forget about the lack of domestic production, which needs imported goods for activities. The main imports are machinery and equipment (parts), accounting for 19.8% of the total, and transport (15%).

Figure 2. Main imported goods. Hidden goods are highlighted in blue, machinery and equipment in red, chemical products in orange, transport in green, tools and apparatus, watches in purple, other goods in blue, plastics, rubber and rubber in pink, metals and their products in light green, food products, drinks and tobacco in brown

As you can see from the diagram, the automotive market in the Russian Federation is quite dependent on supplies from the United States. To date, given the sanctions imposed and the suspension of auto parts shipments, maintenance has more than doubled in price for Russians. Due to the strong volatility of the ruble and the unstable geopolitical situation, we can conclude that in the future, if supplies are resumed, prices for spare parts for motorists may increase by at least 30—40%, not taking into account domestic inflation. Undoubtedly, these actions will affect the U.S. economy as well, reducing the flow of money and reducing the demand for the production of these goods, which in the worst case would lead to an increase in unemployment.

In conclusion, we can say that the maintenance of trade and economic relations between Russia and the United States, even in the current economic and political conditions, predetermines mutually beneficial cooperation between the countries. With the adoption of sanctions there is a trend in the need for trade exchange, which in turn indicates the possible establishment of cooperation. The prospect of continued foreign trade relations between Russia and the United States is due to a number of factors, namely:

1. The U.S. depends on the export of certain goods (aluminum and non-ferrous metals, titanium and titanium products, RD-180 rocket engines, nuclear fuel), which are important to the U.S. economy and the economies of their main partners.

2. Russia depends on imports from the United States of important products for the Russian economy and society, namely: aircraft and spare parts for them, software, drilling rigs, medical devices and equipment, and medicines. All these factors force Russia to maintain relations with the United States and make concessions on many economic issues.

These factors indicate that Russia and the U.S. need to establish and develop foreign trade relations, because the markets of both countries are attractive.

Thus, existing foreign trade relations between Russia and the U.S. are mutually beneficial. Their further development and strengthening will be a key factor influencing the efficiency of the economies of both countries. Finding new areas of cooperation between Russia and the United States will be the basis for reducing sanctions pressure, and this in turn will lead to the development of trade and economic relations.


1. Kim Gen Hwa, Kubrakova Alexandra Aleksandrovna The United States: Export and Import Structure // St. Petersburg Economic Journal. 2013. №4. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/ssha-struktura-eksporta-i-importa (date of reference: 17.03.2022).

2. Panishko Elena Pavlovna VneshneTORgovyh RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE US: FEATURES AND TENDENCES // Russian Customs Policy in the Far East. 2020. №3 (92). URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/vneshnetorgovye-otnosheniya-mezhdu-rossiey-i-ssha-osobennosti-i-tendentsii (date of reference: 17.03.2022).

3. Chereshneva K.K. Main ways of diversification of Russian exports // Innovations and Investments. 2019. №7. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/osnovnye-sposoby-diversifikatsii-rossiyskogo-eksporta (date of reference: 17.03.2022).

4. Export and import of Russia by goods and countries. URL: https://oec.world/en/profile/country/rus/ (date of reference: 17.03.2022).

5. Export and import activity of the Russian Federation. URL: https://ru-stat.com/analytics/9244 (access date: 17.03.2022).

Архипов С. В. 
Эстетика красоты и уродства в альбоме Мирона «Oxxxymiron» Фёдорова «Красота и уродство»

Архипов С. В., студент 1 курса {Мехатроника и робототехника}

Научный руководитель: Серова Т. О., кандидат филологических наук, доцент

ГБОУ ВО МО «Технологический университет», Королёв, Россия

В данной статье автором был произведён сравнительный анализ текстов из альбома М. Я. Фёдорова «Красота и уродство» и стихотворений из сборника Шарля Бодлера «Цветы зла». Автор пришел к выводу, что проблема понимания «красоты» и «уродства» до сих пор не решена и может быть отнесена к так называемым вечным проблемам.

Ключевые слова: М. Фёдоров, «Красота и уродство», Ш. Бодлер, «Цветы зла».

Красота и уродство — понятия давние, и у каждого человека есть своя шкала оценивания чего-либо как «красоты» или «уродства». Целью данной работы является сравнение текстов из альбома М. Я. Фёдорова «Красота и уродство» и стихотворений из сборника Шарля Бодлера «Цветы зла».

Мирон Янович Фёдоров (1985) — коренной петербуржец с филологическим образованием, полученным в Оксфорде.

«Красота и уродство». Альбом состоит из 22 треков и идёт 1 час 7 минут. Что же означает название альбома? Есть несколько предположений, так как автор никак не комментировал выход этого творения.

Первое — Мирон показывает свои разные «стороны», и красивые, и уродливые. Подтверждением того является строчки из трека «Дрейдл» [1]:

«Четыре грани: Спец, Дитя, Хаос и Тень

И всё это намешано в тебе, как и во мне».

Дрейдл (идиш ‏דרײדל‏‎ — дрэйдл) — четырёхгранный волчок, с которым, согласно традиции, дети играют во время еврейского праздника Ханука. На каждой грани дрейдла написана еврейская буква: нун, гимель, хей и шин. Это начальные буквы слов в предложении «נס גדול היה שם» (Нес гадоль хайя шам — «Чудо великое было там»). В мистической традиции этим буквам придаются также и иные значения (например, «душа», «тело», «разум» и «целое».

В тексте Мирон предлагает свою мистическую трактовку, его 4 грани — «спец», «дитя», «хаос» и «тень». Но как их можно различать в песнях? У каждой «грани» есть свои особенности. «Спец» любит всё усложнять, вставлять различные отсылки и создавать красивые речевые конструкции. Так, например, в открывающем альбом треке «Хоп-механика» присутствует 20 упоминаний различных личностей — от Демна Гвасалия до Ницше. Смешением русского и английского языков у Мирона получилось сделать приятную на слух игру слов — В треке «Эминем» есть строчка [1]: «Эй! Твой IQ, судя по вью — kinda cute».

«Дитя» — инфантильная сторона Оксимирона. Она не задумывается о проблемах и последствиях, а просто живёт в моменте и наслаждается жизнью, как обычный ребёнок. Можно выделить весь припев трека «Пантеллерия» [1]:

«Звёзды над Пантеллерией

И над риадом, спрятанном в медине

От всего мира сквозь балдахин

Они мерцают, как глаза твои ночные

В планетарии посреди пустыни

Ночные облака висят лепниной

Напоминая нам старых квартир ампир

Той сталинской высотки, где мы жили»

«Хаос» — агрессивная черта личности автора. У неё есть огромное желание сделать что-то странное или подколоть кого-то. Эта грань, как мне кажется, писала «Африканские бусы» — трек, полный агрессивных панчей в сторону рэперов и параллельно демонстрирующий превосходство Мирона над иными игроками рэп-сообщества, вместе со всем этим воссоздающий атмосферу творчества Оксимирона в начале 2010-х. Из интересных строчек можно выделить эти [1]:

«А и Б, сидя на медийной игле

Получали ЗП из АП на ИП»

Тут автор явно намекает на то, что нынешние артисты не против работать с государством, хотя они понимают, что за данный поступок может пострадать их медийная репутация.

Для «Тени» выделен целый одноименный трек. В нём рассказывается о плохой стороне Мирона, все его грехи. Мирон иносказательно продолжает линию «гиперкомпенсации», начатую им в треке «Кто убил Марка»: «Ведь я снова жертва, и я снова компенсирую». Во втором куплете он рассказывает, как потратил «опять пол-ляма за ночь» на порочные развлечения, а во второй части куплета о встрече с семьёй, которая не захотела принимать его дорогие подарки. В конце куплета звучит риторический вопрос о том, кого скорее следует удивлять широкими жестами.

Вторая теория происхождения названия довольно-таки интересная. Он назвал альбом так, потому что хотел подойти к данным двум понятиям с точки зрения социальной несправедливости в России. Идёт сравнение богатых и бедных, их мысли и проблемы [1]:

«Убийства чести и женское обрезание

Через дорогу — званый обед в торжественном зале

Проблемы первого мира: депрессии, терзания

Медленный интернет, РПП и стресс от экзаменов»

И тут я хотел бы вспомнить Шарля Бодлера с его сборником стихов «Цветы зла» [2]. Сборник начинается с вступления и стихотворения «Благословение». Во «вступлении» описывается уродство внешнего мира, и автор показывает свою неприязнь к нему. В следующем стихотворении рассказывается о появлении поэта в этом мире и о тяжелой судьбе поэта — его не любит даже мать, вдобавок жена не уважает. Для матери он — «чудище смешное», «возмездье за позор», «мерзкий плод, источенный чумой». Мир, в общем и целом, тоже к нему глубоко враждебен.

Что-же у Мирона Яновича? Стоит сразу отметить, что для него уродством считается не просто что-то некрасивое, а то, что не хочется показывать окружающему миру, за что будет стыдно (к этому можно отнести его различные психологические травмы или подтверждённый диагноз биполярного расстройства личности). У него тоже всё непросто. Родился в сложное время, уехал заграницу в малом возрасте, имел сложные отношения со сверстниками, т.к. был «не от мира сего» (Даже имеется одноимённый трек 2012 года). В треке «Лифт» автор анализирует свои проблемы и видит их корень в чрезмерной опеке матери. Трек представляет собой поиск ответов на вопрос о воспитании в себе «мужского стержня» без примеров со стороны отца.

Возвращаемся к Бодлеру. После описания «уродства» себя и окружающего мира он приходит к мысли, что само страдание — залог величия поэта, оно приближает его к небесам — и поэт начинает воспевать воспарение («Воспарение»[2]), утверждать мысль об избранничестве поэта и о его величии: поэту внятен язык самой природы, со всеми ее цветами, звуками и запахами. Этим начинается «красивая» часть произведения.

У Бодлера одна тема идёт за другой, в то время как у Мирона треки идут вперемешку: к «уродству» относятся «Чувствую», «Празднуй», «Намешано», «Лифт», «Улёт», «Эминем», «Рецензия», «Тень» и «Дрейдл». Остальные же треки, как не сложно понять, относятся к «другой» стороне альбома.

Там и «Хоп механика», с посылом того, что он является культовой персоной в жанре и сейчас покажет молодым, как надо писать песни, и противопоставление системе в треках «Агент», «Нон-фикшн» и «Рашн Роуд Рейдж». В данных работах прослеживается то, что автор уверен в себе и превозносит себя над другими, что является полной противоположностью того, что в остальных треках он же утверждал.

Бодлер в 19м веке, выпустив свой сборник, показал обществу, что у уродства тоже есть своя эстетика и ею можно восхищаться. В 21 веке М. Фёдоров подтвердил эту идею с поправкой на время и актуальные проблемы молодого поколения. Он открылся перед зрителями, показал уродливую сторону своей личности и описал это так красиво, что хочется слушать и стараться понять. Таким поступком он намекает, что и слушателям, которые особо не отличаются от него, тоже нужно открыться, не бояться рассказывать о себе и о своих проблемах. Вера в себя — самое важное:

«Рабы нытья… дитя, не пасуй, живёшь только дважды

Ведь если я способен вернуться — способен каждый.»

В конце хочется сказать, что данный альбом является очень важным для всей музыкальной индустрии. Своей работой автор попал точно в цель — написал то, что он сам хочет, не поддаваясь трендовым веяниям, и то, что понравилось не только его преданным поклонникам, но и более широкой аудитории. И ко всему этому он ещё смог по-другому подойти к мысли, над которой размышляли уже сотни лет выдающиеся писатели. Он показал, что во времена, когда популярная музыка не содержит никакой смысловой нагрузки и её предназначение — только чтобы «качало», «Лучший момент, чтоб двигаться трендам наперекор» (строчка из трека «Мы все умрём»).

Проведя сравнительный анализ текстов из альбома М. Я. Фёдорова «Красота и уродство» и стихотворений из сборника Шарля Бодлера «Цветы зла», автор пришел к выводу, что проблема понимания «красоты» и «уродства» до сих пор не решена и может быть отнесена к так называемым вечным проблемам.

Список литературы:

1. Шарль Бодлер. «Цветы зла», 1864 — URL: http://lib.ru/POEZIQ/BODLER/flowers.txt

2. Oxxxymiron — Красота и Уродство (Beauty & Ugliness) Lyrics and Tracklist | Genius — URL: https://genius.com/albums/Oxxxymiron/Beauty-ugliness

Афанасьев Н. А., Шабанова В. А. 
The economic method of stimulation

Afanasiev N.A., Shabanova V.A., 2nd year students {Business Informatics}

Scientific adviser: Atrokhin A.M., PhD {Philology}, associate professor

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The ability of the manager to fully reveal the potential of the organization’s employees determines the productivity and quality of the company’s work. This is based on motivation, because it encourages employees to work productively, ensuring the company’s profit in the future. The purpose of this work is to determine the effectiveness of the economic method of stimulation.

Keywords: stimulation management, economic stimulation, monetary reward

Motivation as the basis of activity

Motivation is a psychological process that motivates a person to act. This is a kind of internal motivation for activity, which can be caused by both internal motives and external stimuli (despite the external, physical impact, motivation is a mental, internal, individual process).

Staff incentives

In itself, staff stimulation is a set of measures aimed at improving the efficiency of employees, improving the efficiency and quality of their work. Stimulation is necessary, because without it, employees may lose interest in work, start performing light tasks for long periods of time and generally do their work poorly.

If motivation pushes activity from the inside, then stimulation attracts it from the outside with the possibility of satisfying needs. To stimulate labor, to ensure the necessary level of labor activity, the management of the enterprise needs to determine a set of benefits that will be the basis for stimulating employees. All benefits are recorded in the form of benefits, advantages, types of incentives in the internal labor regulations of the institution and are fixed in other local regulatory legal acts.

Methods of stimulating staff

Many economists often assert the fact that the highest quality method of stimulation is administrative. I do not share this point of view. Yes, many people need a «stick» (from the saying «stick and carrot») to start doing at least something. In this situation, quality is out of the question, because a person is obsessed with the idea that he will not be well if he does not close the report on time or does not send his part of the project.

Also, some economists are adherents of the psychosocial method. I can’t agree with that either. Of course, a warm atmosphere in the team is extremely important, but you will not be satisfied with persuasion and a kind «thank you».

Let’s go back to our saying about «carrot and stick». In my opinion, the most effective method of stimulation is economic (the same «carrot» that a person receives in case of high-quality and timely completion of the task).

Effectiveness of economic methods of stimulation

People by their nature are looking for benefits everywhere, this is how the consciousness of society develops at the moment. You can be indignant about this, but you can skillfully use this vice of society. Having designated a monetary «prize» when performing a certain task at the appointed time, the manager clearly defines the framework and creates some kind of illusion that the employee earns himself and works for himself. This awareness is extremely important, because understanding their benefits and realizing their priorities, a person will work harder, and the work will be done better.

Everyone strives to meet their needs. In relation to work, a need is a human condition that acts as a source of his active activity and is created by the need that he feels in relation to the objects necessary for his existence. It is the economic stimulation of personnel that allows employees to receive physical remuneration and satisfy their primary needs.

We all remember Maslow’s pyramid, in which the boundaries between primary and secondary human needs are clearly defined. The manager should understand that if an employee «makes ends meet», then another diploma for hard work and praise from the director is unlikely to help him.

Therefore, a competent manager analyzes the economic condition of a person and, based on it, chooses a method of stimulation. But I believe that even a well-off employee will smile after receiving a round sum on the card as a bonus.

Therefore, I can safely call economic methods of stimulation the most effective.

Examples of economic incentives for staff

Let’s consider examples of material incentives for personnel


Expresses the direct interest of employees, is reflected in the cost of production and is distributed among individual employees depending on the labor expended, as well as supply and demand for products. But wages are not always the main motivator of an employee to work. Often incentive payments motivate him to do a better job.

Guarantees and compensation

Guarantees are understood as the means, methods and conditions by which the exercise of the rights granted to employees in the field of labor relations is ensured, while compensations are monetary payments that reimburse employees for the costs associated with the performance of their duties.


The employer can pay his employees a bonus for the results of work, depending on the profit. Bonuses are a great way to financially motivate staff in the company.

Benefits and privileges

They can be used as a reward or compensation, as an addition to personal forms of remuneration: pension provision, reimbursement of telephone costs, provision of credit cards, etc. Many people work in one place for a long time to ensure a decent pension and spend a noble old age.


The motivation of the staff and its stimulation were analyzed in the work. The economic approach has also been compared with other incentive methods. A brief description of each of the incentive methods (bonus, social benefits, etc.) was given.

Thus, we can conclude that the economic approach is the most effective, comparing it with the psychosocial and administrative method. After all, it is he who allows a person to satisfy his primary needs.

By the way, monetary rewards can also satisfy secondary needs, because by buying a new shirt, an employee will receive compliments from colleagues and relatives and will feel his importance. But that’s another story.


1. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/e/economic-stimulus.asp

2. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51511672_Perspective_on_the

Ачох Д. А. 
Особенности использования мнемотехнических средств при изучении английского языка

Ачох Д. А., студентка 4 курса {Психология}

Научный руководитель: Захарова Н. Л., доктор психологических наук, профессор

ГБОУ ВО МО «Технологический университет», Королёв, Россия

Статья описывает эффективность авторского тренинга на тему «Мнемотехника», который направлен на увеличение объема запоминаемой информации студентами. Так же были определены условия для наиболее эффективного применения мнемотехник при изучении английского языка. Результатами исследования стало определение условий: при использовании мнемотехник следует подбирать текстовую или визуальную информацию.

Ключевые слова: мнемотехника, студенты, объем запоминаемой информации.

C развитием технологий способы передачи информации упростились, и люди получили доступ как к большому объему полезного материала, так и к информационному мусор. Главная сложность заключается в фильтрации и хранении этой информации. Память — универсальный носитель, который также под воздействием мира изменяется и развивается, но все равно нуждается в проработке и улучшении, особенно у студентов.

В промежуток, преимущественно с 17 до 24 лет, проходит экзаменационный период, студенты высших учебных заведений сдают экзамены, а на последних курсах происходит активная подготовка к диплому. При этом изучение иностранных языков в таком возрасте все еще является актуальным. В такой период несоразмерное количество информации приходится учить, притом, что выученный материал должен быть обработан и осознан. Внимание, мышление и память включены в эти процессы и испытывают существенную нагрузку, из-за которой не только не увеличивается количественная составляющая, но и ухудшается качественная. Одним из оптимальных способов развить, ускорить и улучшить запоминание является освоение мнемотехники.

Для многих студентов в обучении сохранение и запоминание информации часто является трудной задачей. Как показали исследования, один из лучших способов помочь студентам преодолеть эту проблему — научить их мнемоническим техникам, иногда называемые стратегии по улучшению памяти. Мнемонические стратегии используют визуальные или слуховые подсказки, чтобы помочь студентам установить связь между их собственными предыдущими знаниями и новой информацией.

С. Ю. Головин рассматривает мнемотехнику в «Словаре практического психолога» как «систему различных приемов, облегчающих запоминание и увеличивающих объем памяти путем образования дополнительных ассоциаций».

Для реализации этой задачи нами был организовано обучение мнемотехнике в виде тренинга. В исследовании принимали участие студенты 1 — 4 курсов, обучающиеся в ГБОУ ВО МО «Технологический университет» имени дважды Героя Советского Союза, летчика-космонавта А. А. Леонова, находящегося по адресу г. Королев, ул. Гагарина, д. 42.

Респондентами стали 45 студентов. Из общего количества участников 5 женского пола, 40 мужского пола, средний возраст респондентов — 19 лет. Составление групп происходило путем рандомизации. Во время исследования были, по возможности, устранены внешние воздействия на результаты: тренинг проводился в период с 9:00 до 10:00 часов, отсутствие посторонних.

Структура тренинга состояла из нескольких этапов:

1. Первичное тестирование

2. Вводная часть

3. Теоретическая часть

4. Практическая часть

5. Повторное тестирование

6. Сравнение результатов.

Для первичного и повторного тестирования (контроля результатов) была выбрана методика «Запоминание 10 слов» А. Р. Лурии и адаптирована под цели тренинга. Адаптация заключалась в изменении регламента проведения методики под групповое исследование и фиксации, которая проводилась уже после первой попытки.

Введение и теоретическая часть состояли из общей информации о памяти и о понятии мнемотехника, принципах ее работы, и способах использования. Были указаны плюсы и ситуации, где можно использовать данные техники, в частности про подготовку к экзаменам.

В практической части были использованы классические мнемотехники, а именно:

1. Метод Цицерона;

2. Метод ассоциаций

Во время практики студенты по желанию выходили к доске и использовали рассказанные им мнемотехники на основе другого ряда слов: bazaar, east, hare, book, lime tree, sky, tomato, salt, color, life. После озвучивания мной этого ряда слов, ученик должен был использовать любой из предложенных методов, а затем рассказать, как проходил этот процесс: при методе «Цицерона» как расположил по комнате, при методе «сказка» какое взаимодействие между словами было придумано и в каком порядке. К примеру, для данного ряда слов путем использования метода «сказка» одним из учеников была придумана история о восточном базаре, на котором продавалась липовая книга о зайце, который смотрел на небо и ел помидор, посыпанный солью, которая была белого цвета, но было съедено большое количество соли, и заяц лишился жизни. Таким образом, учащимся был запомнен весь ряд, состоящий из 10 слов.

Главной идеей является необходимость внедрения обучающих материалов, лекций на тему «мнемотехника» как минимум в ВУЗах, так и в дальнейшем адаптация под школы, в виду уже имеющихся положительных результатов на основе проведения только одного тренинга.

Для достижения цели исследования нами было проведено несколько тестирований. Информация (слова) для запоминания представлялась в 3 видах, как и при первичном тестировании, так и вторичном — аудиально, визульно, графически. Так же использовался опросник определения типа мышления и уровня креативности Джерома Брунера.

Для сравнения групп между собой по восприятию информации был использован критерий H-Крускалла-Уоллеса. Данные представлены в таблице 1:

Таблица 1. Эмпирические значения критерия H-Крускалла-Уоллеса

Различия по шкале «Текстовая информация» не значимы. Максимальное значение наблюдается в группе «Символическое мышление» (среднее значение = 8.692), минимальное значение в группе «Предметной мышление».

Различия по шкале «Визуальная информация» не значимы. Максимальное значение наблюдается в группе «Образное мышление» (среднее значение = 9.429), минимальное значение в группе «Предметной мышление».

Между группами существуют значимые различия по шкале «Аудиальная информация» (Н=6.565, p <0,05). Максимальное значение наблюдается в группе «Символическое мышление» (среднее значение = 9.154), минимальное значение в группе «Предметной мышление».

Эти данные говорят о том, что при использовании мнемотехник следует подбирать текстовую или визуальную информацию, так как в этом случае тип мышления не играет значимую роль. При этом запоминание аудиальной информации при помощи мнемотехник лучше всего подходит для представителей символического мышления.

В перспективах дальнейших исследований стоит задача изучить влияние использования мнемотехники в изучении английского языка в течение длительного периода.

Список литературы:

1. Большой психологический словарь / сост. и общ. ред. В. П. Зинченко, Б. Г Мещерякова. — СПб.: Прайм-ЕВРОЗНАК. — 2017. — 672 с.

2. Бура Л. В. Теоретические основы применения методов и приемов мнемотехники в современном образовании // Гуманитарные науки. 2018. №4 — 44 с.

3. Верстунина И. В. Вербальные мнемотехники в процессе обработки информации: магистерская диссертация Урал. гос. пед. ун-т, 2019 — 16 с.

4. Дюпина С. А. Изучение мнемических способностей младших школьников // Вестник Костромского государственного университета. Серия: Педагогика. Психология. Социокинетика. 2018. №1. — 31с.

5. Жуина Д. В., Прошкина Л. И. Развитие мнемических способностей у подростков // Проблемы современного педагогического образования. 2018. №59—3.

6. Караханян К. Г. Возрастные особенности памяти и их влияние на успешность в обучении // Общество: социология, психология, педагогика. 2016. №4 — 314 с.

7. Козаренко В. А. Учебник мнемотехники. Система запоминания «Джордано». — М. 2021. — 153 с.

8. Славкина И. А., Славкина Я. С., Алиева М. Г. Обучение русскому языку младших школьников с опорой на мнемотехники // Проблемы современного педагогического образования. 2019. №63—4.

9. Тихоненко М. А., Лазинина Е. В. Мнемоника в рамках иностранного (английского) языка // ПНиО. 2018. №5 — 35 с.

Бархо А. М. 
Conflict behavior as an innate human quality and its possible consequences

Barkho A. M., 1st year student {Applied Informatics}

Scientific adviser: Arutyunyan D. D., PhD {Pedagogy}, associate professor

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The question of the influence of conflict behavior in the history of mankind, as a kind of innate human quality, is considered. Extreme forms of this behavior are shown to be capable of forming certain bookmarks in the human consciousness that are transmitted in society for many subsequent generations.

Keywords: war, conflict, weapons, atom.

Human civilization continues its development, regardless of crises and pandemics. It is impossible to stop people, you can only slow them down. And the global problems that have been following a person for a long time are coping with this extremely effectively.

These acute world problems are very specific, but it is this property that allows them to influence the state and well-being of all mankind [1].

One of the oldest problems that have reached us through the centuries is the establishment of peace on our planet. Related problems are sprouting from it. Prevention and cessation of wars.

Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the world has experienced two world wars that have caused damage to hundreds of millions of human lives only during these two short periods of time. The impact of these events cannot be measured in numerical terms [2].

For human civilization, conflicts are a way to achieve more, being an incentive for development. Through wars, people have been solving problems since ancient times: lack of fertile land or necessary resources, population or access to the sea [3], the desire to possess what they will never get in peacetime, wealth, freedom, power. The base goes hand in hand with the sublime.

Armed with loud slogans and exciting ideas, thousands embark on this journey. And we see it all the time. Every day we are told about it from TV screens, Iran, South Africa, the Ukraine.

Day after day we hear about the riots that sweep across countries from West to East. Everything happens the same as before. Only the scale of the problem changes. Previously, it grew and developed in a tiny corner of a couple of tens of kilometers, and now the whole planet can become a battlefield.

It is worth noting that a person by nature is prone to unleashing conflicts [4]. Conflict behavior is considered to be the most important innate quality of humans and higher animals, allowing them to interact [5]. Aggression is characteristic of people, which is the opposite type of social interaction to violence. All this is in order to avoid the collapse of the social structure, which can be generated by the selfish interests of individuals. It is worth clarifying, with interests that only cause harm. Conflict behavior is an innate method of regulating relationships.

Contradictions in human society related to differences in traditions, wealth, status and religion have been accumulating for centuries and millennia. The heterogeneity of the human population does not contribute at all to solving the problems that arise, since many peoples differ from each other only by multiple and, most often, negative rules of interaction with the surrounding nature and each other [6]. And it all accumulates in society until it is ready for release. Sometimes only a tiny spark is missing in order for the fire to engulf the whole world.

The twentieth century can be considered the opening of the ancient Greek Pandora’s box, which released horror and pain into the world before the clash of many states, before a battle involving millions of soldiers. This fear has taken root in our very essence, preventing reasonable people from supporting military conflicts [7]. It doesn’t matter where on our planet they pass. The mere thought of hundreds of civilian and military dead in these clashes causes rejection.

And these conflicts, which were considered incredible wars in the Middle Ages and antiquity, in our era have only the status of local ones. Tiny, when compared with the past world wars, in which thousands of people per day died. In the twenty-first century, even such events can be devalued, turned into only a few pages in the history book that cause painful sadness.

Hundreds of new types of weapons can incinerate the country in a matter of minutes. A nuclear war will destroy almost all of humanity in one day [8]. Our huge planet is nothing compared to the power of thousands of warheads that will easily poison the skies, the soil and the oceans. Nuclear war is the fear that is inside us. its incarnation, the quintessence of destruction that will throw us back thousands of years and change the world irrevocably.

And a person should understand that not only the atom has catastrophic consequences. The most ordinary weapon, improved by new advances in science, is capable of destroying mountains and creating canyons. War can easily leave unhealed wounds on the planet.


1. Svetlov V. A., Semenov V. A. Conflictology: studies. stipend. St. Petersburg: Peter, 2011. p. 17.

2. Kreveld M. Transformation of War. M., 2005. p. 329.

3. Meyer P. Ethnocentrism in human social behavior. Some biosocial considerations // The Sociobiology of Ethnocentrism / Ed. V. Reynolds et al. London; Sydney: Croom Helm, 1987. P. 84.

4. Darwin Ch. The origin of species by natural selection. — Saint Petersburg: Nauka, 1991. — 539 p.

5. Polyakov E. M. Conflict, aggression and violence: conceptual interrelation // Bulletin of OmSU. 2013. No. 3 (69).

6. Tetior A.N. Heterogeneity of mankind hinders the solution of problems of positive development of the planet // Sciences of Europe. 2018. №25—3 (25).

7. Kurochko M. M. Non-classical wars of the modern era: to the formulation of the problem // Problems of security: bulletin of the scientific research center «Science — XXI». 2008. No. 3. p. 4.

8. Asner P. Violence and peace. From the atomic bomb to ethnic cleansing: trans. from the French St. Petersburg: World Word, 1999. p. 36.

Будилина Д. Р. 
The fourth industrial revolution

Budilina D.R., 2nd year student {Business Informatics}

Scientific adviser: Kyuregyan M.P., Senior Lecturer

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The article focuses on the history and description of Industry 4.0. The article sets out the theoretical formulation of the concept of «Industry 4.0» and describes key processes carried out during technological development today. In addition, the consequences of transition to a new stage of progress.

Keywords: technological progress, technology, economics, science, globalisation


Today, the era of the third industrial (or digital) revolution, which began in the second half of the last century with the creation of computers and the subsequent modernization of information technology, reigns. It is gradually being transformed into the fourth industrial revolution, that is a fusion of technology and a blurring the lines between the physical, digital, and biological scientific areas. It was described this way by Klaus Schwab, founder and chairman of the World Economic Forum.

The main part

Germany was the first on the path of Industry 4.0. There, within the framework of the developed «high-tech strategy», investment in the new Internet infrastructure and creation of global standards at 40 billion euros per year was started. Similar programs are being implemented in other developed countries — China, South Korea and the United State. In the US the non-profit consortium, named Industrial Internet, was established in 2014, among which founders are General Electric, AT&T, IBM and Intel.

According to a survey conducted specifically for the Davos Forum among 800 leaders of technology companies, the main drivers of change will be cloud technologies, the development of Big Data collection and analysis, crowdsourcing, sharing economics, and biotechnology. Among other forecasts of experts lead «smart» clothes connected to the Internet, unmanned cars and medicine based on 3D-printing. For example, the Internet of Things is essentially a network concept between devices. Within IoT, people can communicate with «things», and «things» can communicate with each other. The Internet of Things (IoT) combines devices into a computer network and allows them to collect, analyze, process, and transmit data to other objects through software, applications, or technical devices. What happens when the temperature is too high or there’s a burglar in the house? The system notifies the user or performs further actions — for example, turns on the air conditioner or calls the police. First, the devices collect data — for example, the temperature in the apartment or the heart rate of the user — and then the data is sent to the cloud. There the software processes them, and the Internet of things is inextricably linked to Big Data. Big Data are structured or unstructured large data sets. They are processed with special automated tools for use in statistics, analysis, forecasting and decision-making. With each passing day, the volume of data in government, industry, medicine, retail, social networks, banks, and the Internet of things is only expanding. Conventional software cannot analyze this amount of data, so terabytes and zettabytes of information are processed by machine learning. New possibilities for analyzing huge arrays affect business, health, communication and entertainment. Experts pay particular attention to these technologies. In addition, 45% of respondents are also convinced that by 2025 artificial intelligence will be able to stay on the boards of large companies. This is also what Klaus Schwab said in his speech at the forum: «The possibilities of billions of people connected to each other by mobile devices with gigantic power and memory, providing access to all the knowledge of mankind, are truly limitless. And these capabilities will be multiplied many times over by ever-increasing breakthroughs in the fields of artificial intelligence, robotics, the Internet of Things, autonomous transport, nanotechnology, materials science, and quantum computers. Artificial intelligence is already here in the form of autonomous machines, drones, virtual assistants, translation programs». At the same time, it should not be forgotten that the change of the direction of technological development leads not only to the opening of new prospects, but also to the emergence of new social problems, especially in the labour market. The Fourth Industrial Revolution could lead to an enormous increase in class and gender inequality. The number of investments in projects focused on artificial intelligence tends to rise because the introduction of such technologies helps enterprises to save money significantly. Innovation can result in drastic job losses, especially for office and administrative employees. However, many of the now sought-after and well-paid professions did not exist ten years ago, so the speed of changes in the labor market grows every year. The decline in employment due to robotization of production can be partially compensated by multi-million-dollar growth in engineering, finance, and information professions. It was time for States to consider restructuring education and training, modernizing infrastructure to create new jobs and drafting progressive tax legislation. However, in the foreseeable future artificial intelligence will not be equal to man, because the best AI-systems work when they are guided by man, sets goals for them, suggests best methods of solutions.


People should not be frightened by the new methods, in front of the eyes of changing the economy and everyday life. «We will not be able to take full advantage of the opportunities provided by the complexity of technologies and consider them as external, deterministic forces beyond our control», — says Klaus Schwab.


1. RBC [Electronic resource]. What is industry 4.0 and what you need to know about it — URL: https://trends.rbc.ru/trends/industry/5e740c5b9a79470c22dd13e7 (accessed: 03/20/2022)

2. World Economic Forum [Electronic resource]. The Fourth Industrial Revolution: what it means, how to respond — URL: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-what-it-means-and-how-to-respond/ (accessed: 03/20/2022)

Валюкевич Е. Ю.
 The role of the media in confronting terrorism

Valyukevich E. Yu., 3rd year student {Customs}

Scientific adviser: Vinichenko N.V., senior teacher

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The article deals with the coverage of the problem of terrorism in the modern media. The importance of mass media and the nature of terrorism are considered, the global terrorism index is given. The main issues on messages of terrorism are highlighted. The negative consequences of covering terrorist activities are analyzed. Measures for regulatory and legal support for combating it are proposed.

Keywords: terrorism, moral, media, information war.

The mass media has always played a huge role in our society. At present, due to the digitalization of society, more and more new sources of information are emerging. Newspapers, radio, television are being replaced by social networks and news feeds. Undoubtedly, they influence the consciousness of the world community and, as it is known, they all receive different reactions from all over the world due to differences in the way of thinking of each person, differences in the attitude to decision-making, everyday social relations, and cultural differences of states [2].

Today, people all over the world can see and find out what is happening in various parts of the world and sometimes it is not as pleasant as we would like it to be. Unfortunately, the 20th century, the 21st century continues to be full of military conflicts and terrorist attacks: War in Afghanistan, 9/11, Beslan school siege, Moscow Metro bombing, November 2015 Paris attacks, 2016 Berlin truck attack, 2017 Saint Petersburg Metro bombing, Israel-Palestine crisis, and many others [3].

Terrorism is the sustained, clandestine use of violence, including murder, kidnapping, hijacking, and bombings, to achieve a political purpose. In a broad sense terrorism is a generic term for all kinds of political violence, especially as manifested in revolutionary and guerrilla wars. The intensity of terrorist activity varies significantly in different periods of the development of society but today it has quite high indicators.

Picture 1. Global Terrorism Index 2022 [5]

Modern mass media in order to ensure the circulation of information and the request of the audience must cover terrorist attacks. In fact, reports of terrorism in the media can be divided into several groups:

— Urgent reports of terrorist attacks that have occurred. These texts contain not only the information. Some of the materials are consciously written using methods of attracting attention (novelty, sensationalism, appeal to universal human experience).

— Reports on the consequences of the terrorist attacks on the health of the victims, investigations, and detentions of those involved. As a rule, such materials are relevant for about a month after the terrorist attack, and then the frequency of their release gradually decreases, then the topic is closed completely. Journalists write about particularly resonant events remembering the victims and tracking the fate of the survivors. On the one hand, such contents do not allow you to forget about the tragedy and leave people alone with their grief, on the other hand, they cause severe psychological trauma: primarily to emotional people reading the media and passing events through themselves, sympathizing with the heroes of the material, secondarily to the victims and their relatives.

— Reports on measures to prevent terrorist attacks and the work of special services. Such media texts are a kind of reports to society about the work done and about the guarantees of security. They become a counterbalance to the materials far exceeding them in terms of the number of terrorist attacks committed, investigated, and being prepared, causing feelings of panic in society, distrust of the government, which unable to protect people. At the same time, an excessive number of messages about such actions can lead to the opposite effect.

— Reports of alleged terrorists and incidents called terrorist attacks by the media. Such mentions cause the effect of «neutrality», which brings chaos to society’s understanding of the very concept of «terrorism» i.e., the word «terror» is mentioned only in the title and serves to attract the readers’ attention.

— Opinions of experts and officials on the problem of terrorism.

— Messages posted on the Internet about calls to terrorism and extremism. Today this type of media texts is gaining popularity. There have also been many publications about lawsuits against netizens who posted appeals to terrorism and extremism on their social media pages.

— Reports about blocking messengers due to information security. After such statements, a resonant case was initiated to close messengers, in particular, because of their refusal to transfer encryption keys from user correspondence to the federal security service. However, social networks themselves actively check the content of community and user’s pages, periodically closing those that call for violence [1].

The negative functions performed by the media when covering the actions of terrorists can be attributed to the following aspects: reporting on terrorist attacks has some information about the counter-action of the government, which can then serve as a source of information for terrorist organizations, which can harm the ongoing counter-terrorism operation; terrorists use the media for their own purposes: to whip up an atmosphere of fear, to recruit new members in their ranks, etc.; coverage of terrorist attacks can contribute to the spread of panic in society; when covering terrorist attacks, the media sometimes focus on showing the victims and the scale of the tragedy, rather than condemning the actions of terrorists; through the media, terrorists seek to put pressure on the government of one or more countries to make a political decision beneficial to them [3].

To develop guidelines in the coverage of terrorism, it is proposed to improve the system of legal support in relation to terrorism. Firstly, to establish laws on countering terrorism at the state level and ethical codes of the media, which include rules for the use of descriptive terms, genres, and subjects of stories, restricting access to some information; secondly, state regulation of media coverage of terrorist acts is necessary. It involves establishing principles that would guide journalists when covering terrorist attacks. These include accessibility, clarity, accuracy, entertainment, timeliness, correctness of information.

These installations are reflected in the relevant legislative acts of the Russian Federation. Especially, in the Federal Law «On Countering Extremist Activity», which provides warnings to the editorial office, as well as the termination of media activities. However, criminal liability is also provided for calls to carry out terrorist activities or public justification of terrorism, to which an individual who produces mass media, an editor-in-chief and a journalist can be brought. In accordance with the Criminal Code, Article 205.2, the penalty may be a fine (from 300 thousand up to 1 million rubles or in the amount of the convicted person’s salary or other income for a period of three to five years) or imprisonment for a term of five to seven years with deprivation of the right to hold certain positions or be engaged in certain activities for up to five years [4]. Keeping that in mind, journalists need to be extremely careful when expressing their opinion about the problems of terrorism.

After all, today the media is the most prompt and effective tool of influencing the mass consciousness and the sphere of countering terrorism. This is as dangerous as it is an effective weapon in an irreconcilable and uncompromising war imposed on humanity by the forces of international terrorism. Competent use of it can ensure great success. Therefore, the most important task of all subjects of information counteraction to terrorism and the journalistic community is to form a mechanism that ensures coverage of terrorist activities exclusively from negative positions, regardless of what they are trying to cover and disguise it with.


1. Дементьева, К. В. Тенденции освещения проблемы терроризма в современных СМИ (по материалам «Российской газеты») / К. В. Дементьева // Медиа исследования. — 2018. — №5. — С. 126—130. URL: https://www.elibrary.ru/download/elibrary_36066238_11760232.pdf

2. Коновалова, О. В. Роль СМИ в освещении противодействия идеологии терроризма / О. В. Коновалова, Т. Ф. Череватенко, В. В. Копысова // Противодействие идеологии терроризма: материалы Круглого стола с международным участием, Ростов-на-Дону, Таганрог, Курган, Карачаевск, Пятигорск, 22 ноября — 06 2019 года. — Ростов-на-Дону, Таганрог, Курган, Карачаевск, Пятигорск: Южно-Российский институт управления — филиал федерального государственного бюджетного образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования Российская академия народного хозяйства и государственной службы при Президенте Российской Федерации (ЮРИУФ РАНХиГС), 2019. — С. 201—205. URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=41773184

3. Ли, Ж. Проблемы освещения терроризма в СМИ / Ж. Ли // Век информации. — 2017. — №2—1. — С. 188—189. URL: https://elibrary.ru/download/elibrary_28820664_72116372.pdf

4. Федеральный закон от 25 июля 2002 г. №114-ФЗ «О противодействии экстремистской деятельности» // СПС «Гарант»

5. Vision of Humanity // Global Terrorist Index URL: https://www.visionofhumanity.org/maps/global-terrorism-index/#/

Вахидова В. П., Дернова А. С.
 Comparison of marriage arrangements in the USA and Japan

Vakhidova V.P., Dernova A.S., 1st year students {Business Informatics}

Scientific adviser: Kyuregyan M.P., Senior Lecturer

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The article examines the marriage systems of the USA and Japan, describes the legislative norms necessary for marriage. The article also discusses divorce procedures in these countries. The local laws in these countries, the minimum age of marriage and the most interesting points of the marriage legislation were also considered.

Keywords: marriage, USA, Japan, same-sex marriage, divorce.

A family is an association of people based on consanguinity, marriage or adoption, connected by common life and mutual responsibility for raising children; family members often live in the same house. For most married couples in America, the process of forming a new family begins with romantic love, which becomes the basis of marriage. I would like to note that America has the highest marriage rate among industrial countries, but the average age of people getting married for the first time usually varies depending on social and economic factors. The rules of endogamy and exogamy limit the possibilities of choosing a partner for each member of society. Factors such as religion, race, social class and level of education determine the group within which an individual prefers to look for a life partner.

In the United States, even non-residents can officially register their relations, but, say, Russians who find themselves in one of the cities of this country on a tourist visa. But regardless of gender, citizenship or age, the future spouses must first obtain a marriage license [1]. Thus, in order to conclude a family union on the territory of the United States of America, you must first obtain a documentary permit for this, which is called a Marriage License. You can do this either in the city hall of any city, or in the district court. To do this, you need to write an application, in some states you can even fill it out online, bring identity documents and pay a state fee. According to official data, men and women who have reached the age of 18 have the right to marry and get married in the United States [1]. The exception is the state of Mississippi, in which the minimum age of marriage is set at 21. Non-residents must provide official documents about their full name, age, legal opportunity to stay in the country and documentary evidence that they are not currently married. Usually a word or a divorce certificate is enough for this, but all this must be in English and legally confirmed. Citizens of the country and persons with a residence permit, in addition to similar documents for obtaining a marriage license, provide a copy of social insurance or simply enter its number in the questionnaire, as well as attach an official confirmation of payment of all taxes. But these are general rules that, for example, are suitable for the city of New York or the District of Columbia, but many other states have their own additional formalities, due to non-compliance with which couples may be denied a Marriage License.

In the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, Missouri, Minnesota, a marriage license is sold only to persons who have passed a special blood test. If its results show that there is a genetic relationship between the bride and groom, then they will definitely be denied the possibility of registering a marriage. However, in Utah, where future newlyweds also have to do a DNA test, there is an amendment. Marriage between blood relatives is allowed, but only if the future spouses are over 65 years old. Well, if the bride, who turned out to be a relative of the groom, is younger than 55 years old, then she will still be able to get a marriage license if she attaches a medical certificate confirming her physical inability to have biological children to the list of other documents. In any other case, couples, even those who were distant relatives, will be denied a Marriage License. But this does not mean that this ban puts an end to the official registration of relationships with such people. Future spouses can go to get a Marriage License, for example, to Washington or Las Vegas and get married there, and in their home state provide officials with a ready-made marriage certificate. In Connecticut, future newlyweds must be tested for syphilis before applying for a Marriage License. The attached analysis result must be negative. In the same state, any bride under the age of 50 is required to take a rubella tolerance test and receive a so-called «Premarital Health Certificate», valid only for 35 days. Therefore, with the collection of the remaining documents, she must meet the deadline to get a Marriage License. At the same time, there is no ban in any state of the country on registering a marriage with a person who has been diagnosed with HIV. But the bride or groom is obliged to officially notify the officials about this and attach an appropriate certificate to the package of documents. In addition to blood tests, there are other requirements for obtaining a Marriage License. For example, in the state of Texas, future spouses must notarize a special document in the presence of two witnesses, according to which they undertake to provide financially for their unborn children. To do this, you will need to attach bank statements to the package of documents. According to the international information and analytical agency Washington ProFile, in no US state is a Marriage License issued to persons wishing to marry a representative of their own sex. At the same time, on June 26, 2015, the Highest court in the United States ruled that the US Constitution guarantees the right of same-sex couples to marry [3]. The contradiction is resolved by an amendment to the marriage legislation, according to which, instead of a Marriage License, same-sex spouses acquire Domestic Partnership Certificates [3]. This is a kind of certificate of family partnership, which gives same-sex couples approximately the same legal rights that traditional families have. On its basis, it is also possible to conduct a wedding procedure. However, on November 6, 2014, the U.S. Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals declared such a document invalid in the states of Kentucky, Ohio, Michigan and Tennessee [3]. In them, same-sex marriage is officially prohibited. I would also like to note that there is a large number of divorces in the USA

Now let’s turn to the state in the Pacific Ocean, which is famous for its densely populated cities, imperial palaces, national parks, temples and sanctuaries — Japan. Let’s talk about the peculiarities of marriages in the land of the rising Sun. The most common type of marriage is «omiai», this is explained by the historically established traditions of Japan, for example, the «yuino» ceremony. Since the 19th century, «omiai» has spread among all segments of the country’s population [2]. Such marriages were concluded, as a rule, without the knowledge of the bride and groom, and sometimes without their participation. The essence of omiai is that «unmarried young men and women receive recommendations from their parents and get acquainted with their permission. Then the parents ask their son or daughter if he or she likes the proposed potential life partner, but if this party is beneficial to the family, the answer is optional, because it does not play any role»[2]. It is worth noting that although omiai remains the dominant form of marriage, renai is increasingly gaining popularity among Japanese residents. Thanks to these data, it can be assumed that the Japanese are beginning to consider arranged marriage a kind of relic of the past, which gives impetus to the evolution of marriage in Japan, the emergence of new forms [2]. For example, there is already such a precedent as a registered marriage of a dying person with his rubber doll. The attitude towards marriage begins to change in connection with the chosen course of the state, as well as the internationalization of the state. The age of marriage is set as follows: for men from 18 years, for women from 16. There is also a critical age of marriage for women. After overcoming a certain age threshold, a woman passes into the category of urenokori, that is, she acquires the status of an unnecessary, stale product. But in each province, this age can be changed, as well as the minimum age of marriage. Each province has its own peculiarities of marriage, up to changes in traditional rituals and features of marriage ceremonies. Even the number of wedding gifts that the groom should give varies: in some provinces it is 9 gifts, in some 5. Next, let’s turn to same-sex marriages in Japan.

Officially, same-sex marriages are not allowed, but they are not prohibited either, which creates the possibility of certain exceptions and indulgences. In the land of the rising sun, if we analyze the legislation, there are no laws prohibiting or allowing the conclusion of gender-neutral marriages. Coitus between persons of the same sex is legal, but different provinces have their own age threshold for such actions, as a rule, the age threshold is much higher than for heterosexual partners. But the Japanese family order is quite strictly regulated. And same-sex marriage is far from the only restriction in it.

The law still does not recognize the presence of different surnames for the wife and husband. As recently as May of this year, the Tokyo Court once again rejected the claim on this issue, recognizing the phenomenon as «illegal».

The number of illegitimate children in Japan does not exceed 2%. This is a very low figure compared, for example, with the countries of Northern Europe and France, where there are more than half of such children, or America, where they are 40%. Moreover, the Japanese Civil Code recognizes that illegitimate children have the right to inherit only 50% of what their brothers or sisters born in marriage receive. Also in Japan, it was not customary to enjoy your own life while married. By getting married, a Japanese man lost many of his personal rights (for example, to live a free sexual life) and acquired many responsibilities as a spouse. Having a child was also supposed to be the prerogative of exclusively married couples. Thus, in the land of the rising Sun there is a conservative policy regarding the creation of a family.


1. Romanovskaya Vera Borisovna, Serpukhova Olga Yuryevna The revolution of family law in Western countries in the XX century (on the example of the USA) // Bulletin of KSU. 2019. No. 1. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/revolyutsiya-semeynogo-prava-v-stranah-zapada-v-xx-veke-na-primere-ssha (accessed: 03/25/2022).

2. Vorkina Ksenia Sergeevna Aspekti semeynoy jizni yapontsev. Svadebniy obryad V jizni samuraev I gorojan na primerax yaponskoy xudojestvennoy literaturi / / Polilingvalnost I transkulturnie praktiki. 2014. №2. URL: <url> / https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/aspekty-semeynoy-zhizni-yapontsev-svadebnyy-obryad-v-zhizni-samuraev-i-gorozhan-na-primerah-yaponskoy-hudozhestvennoy-literatury (data abratsheniya: 25.03.2022).

3. Nazarova Anna Sergeevna Legal regulation of non-traditional family unions in the USA // Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Jurisprudence. 2017. No.5 (66). URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/pravovoe-regulirovanie-netraditsionnyh-semeynyh-soyuzov-v-ssha (accessed: 03/25/2022).

Виноградов А. В. 
Язык и речь с точки зрения информатики

Виноградов А. В., студент 1 курса {Прикладная математика и информатика}

Научный руководитель: Серова Т. О., кандидат филологических наук, доцент

ГБОУ ВО МО «Технологический университет», Королев, Россия

В данной статье автором были рассмотрены понятия языка и речи с точки зрения информатики. Автор исследует различие способов кодирования и декодирования информации на уровне языка и речи.

Ключевые слова: язык, речь, кодирование, декодирование, мысль.

Разделение понятий язык и речь ввел швейцарский лингвист Фердинанд де Соссюр, заложивший основы структурализма в лингвистике. Цель данной статьи — рассмотреть понятия языка и речи с точки зрения информатики.

Язык и кодирование. Язык — множество символов и совокупность правил, определяющих способы составления из этих символов осмысленных сообщений.

Кодирование — это перевод информации в удобную для передачи, обработки или хранения форму с помощью некоторого кода.

Хотелось бы отметить, что информация в мозге хранится на физическом уровне не с помощью языка или образов. Следовательно, даже для восприятия, а тем более для передачи, людям необходимы инструменты, обеспечивающие информации вид, с которым возможно взаимодействие.

Основными функциями языка являются:

— Коммуникативная функция (функция общения) — использование языка для передачи информации;

— Когнитивная функция (гносеологическая) — накопление и сохранение информации, её передача;

— Аккумулятивная функция (накопительная) — накопление и сохранение знания.

Разберём каждую функцию языка в отдельности.

Коммуникативная функция осуществляется благодаря возможности языка преобразовать мысль в форму, подходящую для передачи её слушателю. Иными словами, происходит кодирование информации, которую хочет передать отправитель, то есть подготовка информации к транспортировке.

Когнитивная функция являет собой обработку информации, восприятие её сознанием и сохранение в памяти. Из-за непрерывного потока мыслей кажется, что информация так и хранится в голове с помощью языка. Однако любая мысль — цепь сложных взаимодействий нейронов. Тогда вся информация, хранящаяся в человеческом мозге, должна пройти процесс декодирования для попадания в память, а затем процесс кодирования для ее обработки и использования.

Аккумулятивная функция возможна только благодаря кодированию информации с помощью знаков, которые можно зафиксировать на физическом носителе.

В общем и целом, язык является средством кодирования и декодирования информации с целью её передачи, хранения, использования и модификации, при том не только в реальном времени.

Речь и передача информации. Речь — исторически сложившаяся форма общения людей посредством языковых конструкций, создаваемых на основе определённых правил.

Для того чтобы собеседник воспринял информацию, её необходимо донести, передать собеседнику с помощью сигналов, которые будут воздействовать на его органы чувств.

Таким образом, выделяем следующие отличия языка и речи:

— Функциональное.

— Материальное.

— Различие устройств.

Функциональное отличие языка и речи. Основным отличием языка и речи с точки зрения информатики является функциональное отличие, иными словами язык и речь — два разных средства. Язык — средство кодирования информации. Речь — передача информации.

Материальное отличие языка и речи. Речь являет собой нечто материальное, то, что может воспринять любой. При взаимодействии, например, с иностранцем человек может понять, что собеседник хочет донести информацию с помощью речи, однако не понять смысл сказанного из-за незнания языка.

Материальной стороной языка являются звуки речи и письменные знаки (буквы, иероглифы и т.п.). Однако стоит понимать, что язык являет собой их совокупность и совокупность правил, по которым они сочетаются для смыслообразования, но написание и произношение их уже является передачей, а значит относится к речи.

Различие устройств. Язык в конкретный момент времени имеет конечное количество элементов. Язык хоть и не является закрытой системой, он восприимчив к внешним воздействиям и постоянно изменяется, однако в определённый момент времени можно посчитать количество элементов в нём. Речь же бесконечна, т.е. речь невозможно остановить ни на секунду.

Язык имеет внутреннюю организацию и иерархию. В речи все её элементы имеют равное значение, она линейна.

Список литературы:

1. Ганеев Б. Т. Противоречия в языке и речи. — Уфа: Издательский цех БГПУ, 2004. — 470 с.

2. Левонтина И. Б. Речь и язык в современном русском языке // Язык о языке. Сб. статей / Под общ. рук. и ред. Н. Д. Арутюновой. — М.: Языки русской культуры, 2000. — C. 271—289.

3. Ломтев Т. П. Общее и русское языкознание. — М., 1976. — С. 54—60

4. Николаева, В. В. Эстетика языка и речи/ В. В. Николаева- Л.: Наука, 1979. — 216с.

Водяницкая С. И.
 Development of small business in Russia

Vodyanitskaya S.I., 3rd year student {Business Informatics)

Scientific adviser: Fedotova T.V., senior lecturer

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

Small business is an important part of the development of the country’s economy. It performs a number of functions that allow the economy to develop quietly. Anyone can start a small business; in case of failure, the losses will not be as large as compared to a heavy business, but all the risks will fall on one person.

Keywords: Small business, economic situation, economic barriers.

The essence of small business in Russia

Entrepreneurship or business is an independent citizens’ activity aimed at making a profit. Citizens start a business at their own risk, they bear a full property responsibility [3].

There are no generally accepted criteria for defining a small business; each country has its own definition conditions. If we consider the world practice, we can note the following main criteria by which business is recognized as small business:

— the number of working personnel for the reporting period at the enterprise;

— the size of the authorized capital of the enterprise;

— the value of the enterprise’s assets;

— turnover of the enterprise.

In Russia, there is the Federal Law «On the development of small and medium-sized business in the Russian Federation», which sets out the criteria by which an enterprise can be recognized as small business.

1. The first criterion is the membership of the founders.

Business is recognized as small only if the share of public organizations, state ownership and foreign founders does not exceed 25%. The only exceptions are the assets of investment funds. Also, in order to recognize business as small, it is necessary the number of shares owned by legal entities not having the status of small business does not exceed a quarter of the total number of shares of the enterprise.

2. The second criterion is an average number of personnel.

Based on the federal law, a small business is an enterprise with a staff quantity from 16 to 100 people.

In Russia, micro-enterprises also exist; they are organizations where the average number of employees varies up to 15 people per a calendar year.

3. The third criterion is the revenue from the sale of products or services.

The value of the maximum income for a calendar year is written in the law within which a business can be considered small.

For small business it is 800 million rubles, for a micro-enterprise it is 120 million rubles.

Problems of small business development in Russia

Small business is one of the most important parts of the market economy. Without small entrepreneurs, it is impossible to imagine a market structure in principle. Small business does not only push the development of the country’s economy, but also actively promotes technological development. The market is constantly changing, and small business has amazing flexibility and the ability to adapt to any changes.

The state is doing its best to support people who start small business trying to protect them from risks, and also pay attention to those who have already started their small business and provide them with various benefits.

However, even with the realization of the small business importance for the country and with all the support from the state in Russia, small business is at a fairly low level of development if we compare the indicators with other developed countries.

Since 2002, the World Bank has been implementing the Doing Business project, which collects and analyzes information about small business in different countries. Data for each country is presented in the form of reports where you can see how it is easy to do business in that country, as well as what reforms should be made to improve the condition of small business. These reports are designed to encourage countries to develop small business.

Within the framework of this project, the annual Doing Business rating is compiled. According to the data for 2020, Russia has a score of 78.2 and ranks 33rd in the ranking of countries around the world [7].

The regions of Russia such as Moscow and St. Petersburg are separately marked in this rating. Moscow is on the 31st place with the score 78.3 and St. Petersburg is on the 36th place with the score 77.9.

For the comparison, Table 1 shows the top 10 countries with the best conditions for doing small business according to the Doing Business rating 2020.

Table 1. 2020 Doing Business Ease of Doing Business rating

This table clearly shows that the conditions for doing small business in Russia cannot be called completely unfavorable, but our country has something to improve and where to strive, especially considering that developed countries do not stay at the same level and every year introduce new types of supporting small business.

Small business in Russia face a number of challenges:

— unavailability of credit resources;

— high tax burden;

— lack of premises and high rent;

— search for qualified employees;

Let us consider each of the reasons for the difficulty of small business development in Russia separately.

1. High lending rates.

A lot of people would like to start their own business, but not everyone has the financial opportunities to start their own project. Therefore, entrepreneurs at the initial stage of establishing of their business apply to the bank for a loan and face the problem of refusing to get money to start their small business.

Banks often refuse a loan because they are afraid that the entrepreneur will not be able to return the funds to the bank because the percentage is not small. Table 2 shows the interest rates of lending in different banks.

Table 2. Conditions for lending to small business in Russian banks

If we compare with European countries, the interest rate on lending is approximately 4% [4].

All this indicates unfavorable conditions for Russian citizens who want to start their own business. It is worth noting that more favorable lending conditions appeared during the pandemic, only the damaged sectors of the economy get loans of 3% per annum.

I believe that in order to develop small business in Russia, first of all, the state should provide favorable lending conditions for both who want to start a business and entrepreneurs who have encountered financial problems during the development of their business.

2. High tax burden.

The next problem that an entrepreneur may face after successful obtaining a loan is a large tax burden.

There are four special tax regimes for small business in Russia:

— simplified taxation system (STS);

— patent system of taxation (PST);

— single agricultural tax (SAT);

— professional income tax (PIT) — only for the self-employed.

The very existence of different tax regimes for small business shows that the state cares about its development. However, even despite of the existence of such regimes, sometimes the burden of taxation becomes an unbearable barrier for small business.

For example, in 2013, contributions to the Russian pension fund increased, and as a result, around 0.5 million small business ceased to operate throughout the country.

It should be mentioned that the state announced «tax holidays» for the years ahead and also provided benefits for small and medium-sized business. Thanks to these steps, in 2014 and 2015 there was an increase in registration in the field of small and medium entrepreneurship.

It is worth noting that at the moment the situation with taxation is more positive, as the state has reduced insurance premiums for small and medium-sized business in the pandemic.

3. High rent and lack of premises.

Taking into consideration how much it could cost to get a loan from a bank, an entrepreneur simply cannot afford to rent a large room in a passable area of the city, simply because the entire loan will go to pay for the rent in a few months. Therefore, small business has to crowd in small premises in unpromising places in the city.

In such a situation, the entrepreneur will be forced to spend a lot of money on advertising so that customers can get to know about them. Moreover, customers would like to get to their office, which may be located on the outskirts of the city. Meanwhile, other entrepreneurs of large companies can afford to place their offices in a passable area of the city and spend less money on advertising.

Therefore, for the successful development of small business in Russia, favorable rental conditions are required in fairly presentable areas of the city.

4. Difficulties in hiring qualified personnel.

Another problem in the development of small business is the difficulty in finding qualified personnel. Large companies may lure personnel by promising people high wages and good working conditions, while small business may not have the resources to compete with such offers from large firms.

In such circumstances, a manager of small business is forced to hire staff who need training to perform the required duties effectively, but this is extra cost.

According to all written above, we can conclude that our state is doing its best to improve the situation of small business. However, there are still a lot of problems that will have to be overcome before Russia becomes a place where young and promising entrepreneurs can easily create and develop their business.

Summing up, I would like to say that small business in Russia is now experiencing difficulties in development and only the state can help it this situation. If we want to achieve high economic indicators in the field of small business, first of all, we must increase citizens’ confidence in the state and create favorable conditions for small business development throughout our country.


1. Federal Law «On the development of small and medium-sized businesses in the Russian Federation» dated July 24, 2007 N 209-FZ (last edition) URL: https://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_52144/

2. Borobov D.V. Rol` malogo biznesa v razvitii e`konomiki Rossii. Putevoditel` predprinimatelya. [The role of small business in the development of the Russian economy. Entrepreneur’s Guide.] 2011; (11):50—61 URL: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=18793805

3. Dudin M. N., Lyasnikov N. V., Senin A. S. Menedzhment malogo biznesa (Upravlenie maly`m predpriyatiem): uchebnoe posobie. [Small Business Management (Small Business Management): Study Guide] Publishing house «Elite», 2016. 397 p. URL: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=32609642&

4. Galy`sheva M. I., Problemy` razvitiya malogo predprinimatel`stva v Rossii [Problems of small business development in Russia] // EGO Economy State Society 2017 №1. URL: https://reader.lanbook.com/m/journalArticle/545476#1

5. Loginova A.G., Yuricheva E. Yu. Aktual`ny`e problemy` malogo i srednego predprinimatel`stva sovremennoj Rossii [Actual problems of small and medium-sized businesses in modern Russia] // Bulletin of the Mari State University. Series «Agricultural sciences. Economic Sciences. 2016. №7. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/aktualnye-problemy-malogo-i-srednego-predprinimatelstva-sovremennoy-rossii (date of the application: 28.02.2022).

6. Mamedova, N. A., E. A. Devyatkin. Maly`j biznes v ry`nochnoj srede: uchebnoe posobie [Small business in a market environment: a study guide] — Moscow: Eurasian Open Institute, 2011. — 151 p. — Access mode: by subscription. — URL: https://biblioclub.ru/index.php?page=book&id=91068 (date of the application: 28.02.2022). — ISBN 978-5-374-00282-9. — Text: electronic.

7. Official site «DoingBusiness» / «Ease of Doing Business Indicator» [Electronic resource] — access mode: https://russian.doingbusiness.org/ru/data/doing-business-score

Гончар А. С.
 Positive externalities of gender equality in the labor market

Gonchar A.S., 1st year master degree student {Economics}

Scientific adviser: Zakharyeva L.V., PhD, associated professor, the head of the foreign languages department

Belarusian State Agrarian Technical University, Minsk, Belarus

Gender equality refers to the equal level of opportunities, participation and presence of both genders (social sexes) in various spheres of public and private life. The female part of the population makes up half of the world’s population, which is equivalent to half of humanity’s potential. The involvement of women in society contributes to increased productivity and economic growth.

Keywords: gender equality, labor market, positive externalities.

Analyzing the gender statistics of the countries of the world, we can conclude that the Republic of Belarus takes one of the leading positions in the overall ranking. According to the level of education of women, their participation in the labor market and the number of women in parliament, Sweden, Finland, Norway, and Germany can be called leaders. Among the CIS countries, the Republic of Belarus is an absolute leader, ahead of Poland, Lithuania, the Russian Federation and Ukraine [1]. However, Belarus is a country with no gender discrimination completely.

The number of women in Belarus is 5.1 million, or 53.4% of the total population [2]. Gender statistics in the Republic of Belarus for 2021 shows:

• women outnumber men by 2% among students of specialized secondary educational institutions;

• there are 9.75% more women among students in higher education institutions;

* the number of female graduate students in 2020 was 2,729, which is 365 more than men [3];

* 56.3% of women are engaged in public administration;

* 81.4% and 85.6% of the total number of employees work in education and healthcare, respectively;

* 57.4% of women and 42.6% of men work in the technical, scientific and professional spheres [2].

* the educational level of women is higher than that of men. Among employed women, 38% have higher education, 27% have specialized secondary education (among men — 27% and 18% respectively) [1].

A classic example of positive externalities is education. This benefits individual consumers: educated people usually receive higher incomes than less educated ones. But education provides great benefits to the whole society. In society, every member of it benefits from the fact that other citizens receive a good education. The economy as a whole also benefits from having a more versatile and more productive workforce. It is no coincidence that in a post-industrial society, such a factor of production as human capital is becoming increasingly important (compared with the decreasing role of physical capital and natural resources). Investments in human development are becoming increasingly important.

The main object of gender discrimination in Belarus can be called the difference in wages. Thus, the average level of earnings of women is 25,4% less than of men [1].

Why is this situation taking place in the modern world? A large number of social, historical, economic and cultural factors influence the existence of wage inequality. The literature indicates three main types of causes of wage inequality.

First, there is the difference in human capital between men and women. In many countries, «traditionally» women are more engaged in household work, and, accordingly, have fewer opportunities to improve their skills and, consequently, are «unattractive» to employers.

Secondly, the concentration of men and women in different sectors of the economy and in different positions.

Thirdly, discrimination against women in the labor market. The mobility of female and male labor is different, Thus, the cost and supply curves have different elasticities. It is assumed that the productivity of female and male labor is the same.

The reasons for this discrepancy in wages can be seen in the following:

* restriction of employment of women in harmful working conditions by labor legislation;

* interruption of women’s working career by unpaid leave (maternity leave, temporary disability to care for the sick, etc.);

* women’s limited ability to improve their qualifications due to the birth and upbringing of their children;

* it is impossible for a woman to occupy a position higher than the lower management staff at large enterprises;

* national mentality with traditional ideas about the purpose of a woman for household management and child rearing.

It was noted above that in the fields of education and health care of the Republic of Belarus, most of the workers are women. In these areas, wages are significantly lower than in the rest. For this reason, low wages in these areas force women to work for more than a rate, but this is not reflected in the official statistics, where the average salary is calculated as the actual income of the employee, which masks discrimination of this type.

We can be noted f small number of women in the highest authorities. For example, in the apparatus of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus, only four out of 30 seats are occupied by women at the beginning of 2022. There are generally no women among the Presidium of the Council of Ministers and Deputy Prime Ministers. There are no women among the governors of the regions, only 3 women represent Belarus in the international arena with the rank of ambassador (ambassadors to the Republic of Korea, the Republic of Tajikistan and the Latvian Republic). Insignificant representation of women in international organizations (UN, international organizations in Vienna, UNESCO, CIS and others) [1].

The low number of women in government and, accordingly, in decision-making does not allow the development of new management styles. Men and women have different experience, knowledge, instinct. Inefficient use of human resources results in large losses for society. Due to the limited number of women, society faced with the fact that all women’s abilities become invisible in the field of decision-making.

An important problem for women is employment, where women are more vulnerable when hiring and in case of reduction.

According to official statistics, as already noted, the salary of women is 74.6% of the salary of men. The level of education doesn’t guarantee employment growth prospects for working women. The existence of gender stereotypes in the labor market and the lack of democratic appointment procedures to positions leads to vertical segregation. The status of women in Belarus, despite the high level of education and professional qualifications, is not adequate for their leading role in the employment structure.

As women and men are always confronted with various types of discrimination, they tend not to recognize it. This is because, on the one hand, traditional behavioral gender roles are preserved in the public consciousness, and on the other hand, the social myth of gender equality and women’s emancipation is firmly rooted.

However, the problem cannot remain unnoticed. There are the most common tasks that can minimize discrimination in the labor market.

1. Creating a system of values based on respect for the individual, recognition of human rights and freedoms, the rule of law and compliance

with ethical standards, which should result in an attitude to discrimination as a socially unacceptable phenomenon for society.

2. Identification of the main activities that contribute to reducing discrimination at different levels of the labor market

3. Mobilization of resource potential to achieve the intended goals. Content of the activity defines its main directions: economic; social; methodological; normative; informational.


1. Статистика: больше всего женщин Беларуси занято в сферах здравоохранения, образования и оказания услуг [Электронный ресурс] — Режим доступа: https://belretail.by/news/statistika-bolshe-vsego-jenschin-belarusi-zanyato-v-sferah-zdravoohraneniya-obrazovaniya-i-okazaniya Дата доступа: 07.03.2022

2. Буклет «Образование в Республике Беларусь» 2021 г. [Электронный ресурс] — Режим доступа: https://www.belstat.gov.by/upload/iblock/ 5d6/5d62c11490270d88d396c8788f28b95d. pdf Дата доступа: 07.03.2022

Гритченко С. Н., Павлович Д. М.
 Why can’t tolerance be tolerated anymore?

Gritchenko S., Pavlovich D., 3rd year students {Customs Affairs}

Scientific adviser: Yumagulova M., Senior Lecturer

Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus

This article focuses on the key points related to the problem of tolerance in the modern world. The fact that a good idea has been distorted by bad meanings is considered in the article as well. Also, an example of how tolerance often goes beyond normality to become a banal propaganda is provided.

Key words: intolerance, mutual acceptance, propaganda, tolerance.

Nowadays tolerance attracts widespread attention due to the fact that it is considered to be an essential part of society and plays an important role in interpersonal communication. The process of globalization taking place in modern society implies a transition from the system of relations, which is based on domination and subordination to the system of relations, built on democracy and tolerance.

Several studies have suggested that tolerance contributes to our own mental balance, calmness, and development. If we do not feel irritation, hostility or hatred toward certain people, we get an opportunity to ask them for help, to learn from them, to appreciate a different perception of the same situation, which helps to find new and correct solutions.

It is a well-known phenomenon that tolerance is crucial to freedom. Tolerance is about putting up with views and opinions you may deeply disagree with; it does not require abdicating judgement, only a firm belief that it is in the cut and thrust of debate that there is the best chance of finding the truth. Judging means using reasoning and empathy, to the best of our abilities, to discriminate and discern; not caring is a form of, literally, antisocial behaviour, abandoning our duties and obligations to other people.

However, under the guise of tolerance, under the pretense of good ideas and intentions, there is a manipulation of people’s minds, often the substitution of the true values with false concepts. The main disadvantage of tolerance is that a good idea has been distorted by bad meanings, what should come from the heart is being demanded and literally enforced, and supporters of political correctness and tolerance too aggressively and furiously promote these ideas and wave provocative slogans.

Currently, a vast majority of ethnic, religious, gender and sexual and other «minorities» defend their interests, which are recognized as priority over all others. In this situation, extreme tolerance towards members of the group is intolerance towards everybody else, while the necessary conditions for the survival of the peoples in the modern world is the recognition of the independence and values of each nation and its culture. All this means that the interaction between people can develop when they seek to achieve mutual understanding and conformity, without resorting to violence, suppression of human dignity, through a dialogue and cooperation.

It is a generally accepted fact that tolerance is indeed preferable to intolerance. However, it does not lead to equality or justice to a society; in reality, it highlights the vulnerabilities of one group of people to another and perpetuates societal oppression. So that society could address the full range of contemporary social injustice, it is a decisive initiative, rather than tolerance, that must be taken against injustice and inequality. Tolerance actually allows society to be more divided, while implying that minority groups that are oppressed should simply be left alone and «tolerated».

The problem is that tolerance — understood in its classical liberal sense as a virtue essential to freedom — has been appropriated and impoverished. Dragged into the politicization of identity, tolerance has become a form of polite etiquette. Where once it was a question of tolerance for individuals and their opinions, now it has been relocated to resolve group conflicts. Once it was about opening the mind to competing beliefs, now it is about one that different groups affirm. Along this slippery path, much of the original importance of tolerance has been distorted or lost.

Tolerance has segued into meanings of bias, recognition, acceptance, even implicit disrespect. It frequently slips into a vague indifference — «do-what-you-like» type of attitude to the people you live amongst.

Nowadays, tolerance often goes beyond normality to become a banal propaganda. To illustrate what we mean, let’s take as an example the case that happened in Hungary. The writers Dorottia Redai and Boldissar Nagy published a book called «Tales for Everybody».

«Our goal was to make children’s literature in Hungary more diverse and to show children how colorful and beautiful life is. We wanted to write stories that reflect and celebrate the lives of all young people today,» said Baldissar Nadia.

However, despite the good intentions of the authors, the book turned out to be a mere propaganda. The fact is that the authors of «Fairy Tales for Everybody,» taking classical plots as a basis, just changed their characters in the spirit of «progressive» trends. Thus, Cinderella is no longer a pretty girl, but a guy of Gypsy nationality who got a lucky smile: the prince fell in love with him. Eventually, the gay couple ended up living happily ever after.

Likewise, the Snow Queen in the Hungarian writers’ version must now show real interest not in Kai, but in Gerda: by the will of the authors, the evil enchantress has become a lesbian. Besides, it is no longer just a hero who engages in battle with Poseidon, but a transgender hero. And the fairy tale a reindeer uses his ability to speak as a human being to convey the message that he does not recognize the division of people into men and women.

There followed a huge scandal in Hungary. The country’s Prime Minister Viktor Orban said: «Hungary is a tolerant country when it comes to homosexuality. But there is a limit to everything, and this is what I think: leave our children alone».

Nevertheless, the publishers are about to release a second run of homosexual fairy tales for children, whereas the opponents are responding with a clear campaign. For instance, one of the shops which was selling «Tales for Everybody» carried a poster saying «This bookshop sells homosexual propaganda which is dangerous for children».

As we can see in this example, sometimes tolerance manifests itself as an abnormality that can be dangerous for society, and even more so for children. At an early age, children form a vision of the world and it is essential that their environment, the music they listen to, the books they read, have a positive influence on them, rather than become an imposition of adult freedoms, which sometimes border on perversions.

In conclusion, it is obvious that tolerance is partly to blame for the creation of a divided society. Every community should know that the majority not only tolerates them, but also that their uniqueness gives society an irreplaceable quality. Due to the fact that tolerance is becoming increasingly common in modern society, and only a hypocritical form of tolerance can be instilled quickly, it is becoming propagandistic in nature. However, a lot of work needs to be done so that society accepts and assimilates the norms of good neighborliness and mutual acceptance.


1. L. Dreves. The problem of tolerance [Электронный ресурс] // The Michigan Daily.: URL: https://www.michigandaily.com/opinion/columns/lena-dreves-problem-tolerance/ (дата обращения: 12.03.2022)

2. M. Bunting. The problem with tolerance [Электронный ресурс] // The Guardian. URL: https://www.theguardian.com/tolerance-frank-furedi (дата обращения: 12.03.2022)

3. M. Verkuyten, R. Kollar. Tolerance and intolerance: Cultural meanings and discursive [Электронный ресурс] // Sage Journals. URL: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full (дата обращения: 14.03.2022)

Гришин В. В.
 SIEM as the essential tool for monitoring enterprise activities

Grishin V. V., 1st year master student {Information security}

Scientific Advisor: Atrohin A. M., PhD {Philology}, associate professor

Leonov Moscow region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

In this paper, will be presented to your an examine of the most widely used security information and event management systems to identify their key features, benefits, limitations and the ways to improve those for enterprise purposes. Analysis of current SIEMs and focus on their limitations to suggest potential improvements that can be incorporated into current SIEM platforms to benefit the enterprise company that uses SIEM.

Keywords: SIEM solutions, SIEM improvement, SIEM limitations, enterprise infrastructures.

1. Introduction

The cybersecurity risks to enterprise infrastructure have increased tremendously in recent days, largely due to increased activity by nation-states and cybercriminals. Attackers have become increasingly persistent and dangerous, and their appropriate and timely detection has become a real challenge. Examples of current cybersecurity incidents affecting enterprise infrastructures include [2]:

— ransomware attacks;

— malware affecting the utility’s ability to conduct business and operations;

— phishing campaigns targeting executives, executive assistants, SCADA engineers, IT administrators, or other privileged users;

— compromise of business emails, including account takeover or executive impersonation;

— data leaks and thefts;

— social engineering to obtain sensitive information from employees.

Structure of the paper: Section 2 presents the main commercial and open source SIEM solutions available in the market. Section 3 describe the current state of SIEMs their main features. Section 4 analyzes the limitations of current SIEMs and presents potential opportunities for improvement. Section 5 suggests potential improvements for the next generation of SIEMs.

2. SIEM solutions

Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) systems are designed to help administrators develop security policies and manage events from various sources. In general, a simple SIEM consists of separate blocks (e.g., source device, log collection, parsing normalization, rules engine, log storage, event monitoring) that can operate independently, but without their interaction, the SIEM will not function properly. Figure 1 shows the most famous SIEM solutions.

Figure 1. Different solutions of SIEM

SIEM platforms provide real-time analysis of security events generated by network devices and applications. Even though the new generation of SIEMs provides response capabilities to automate the process of selecting and deploying countermeasures, current response systems select and deploy security measures without performing a comprehensive analysis of the impact of attacks and response scenarios [1].

3. SIEM Characteristics and Capabilities

Basically, all SIEMs have the ability to collect, store and correlate events generated by a managed infrastructure. This section provides a list of characteristics to consider when analyzing SIEM solutions.

Which capabilities makes a superior SIEM:

Real-time processing: this feature considers the ability of a SIEM to process real-time data that is constantly changing. It evaluates the real-time controls, monitoring and pipelining capabilities the tool employs in preventing or responding to cybersecurity incidents, as well as the power computing capabilities SIEMs have to analyze millions of events in real time. All of the SIEMs examined have advanced real-time processing capabilities.

Correlation rules: The success of a SIEM’s detection of an event depends on the performance of its correlation rules. While most SIEMs have basic correlation rules, few of them have robust search capabilities and support search processing languages to write complex searches that can be used on the SIEM’s data.

Data sources: One of the most important features of a SIEM system is its ability to collect events from multiple and disparate data sources in the managed infrastructure. Most SIEMs inherently support multiple types of data sources, including both the sensors supported and the types of data supported (e.g., threat data).

Data analytics: Newer versions of leading SIEMs support extensive integration with application- and user-based anomaly detectors. These capabilities include analyzing the behavior of employees, third-party vendors and others in the organization. To do this, the SIEM must include user/application profile management and the use of machine learning to detect misbehavior.

Data volume: analyzing large volumes of data from multiple sources is important to gain more insights from collected events and provide better monitoring. However, storing large volumes of collected data in a SIEM system is often costly and impractical. This feature evaluates the ability of current systems to support large amounts of data for correlation, indexing, and storage operations.

Visualization: one of the key factors hindering security event analysis is the lack of support for appropriate data visualization methods and low support for interactive exploration of collected data. It is therefore important to understand the capabilities of the systems being analyzed in terms of creating new data visualization methods and custom dashboards.

Performance: this characteristic evaluates the performance of a SIEM solution in terms of computing capacity, data storage capabilities (e.g., read/write), rule correlation processing (e.g., a powerful correlation engine), and data search, index, and monitoring.

Scalability: This characteristic considers the ability of a SIEM deployment to grow not only in terms of hardware, but also in terms of the number of security events collected at the edge of the SIEM infrastructure. The new digital transformation is leading to more sensors and more devices (e.g., servers, agents, nodes) connected to the same network.

Complexity: SIEMs are notorious for being difficult to implement and manage. However, it is important to understand if the system analyzed can be installed for testing with little or moderate effort. Of the eight SIEMs studied, ArcSight is the tool with the highest complexity in terms of deployment and management, while LogRhythm and Splunk are considered easy and user-friendly in terms of installation, deployment and use.

Retention: considering that SIEMs typically do not store information for more than 90 days, this characteristic assesses how long current SIEM technologies store data in their systems for further processing and forensic operations.

Security: this characteristic assesses the ability to implement security automation as well as native encryption capabilities present in the SIEM during monitoring, detection, correlation, analysis, and presentation of results.

Response and reporting capabilities: This characteristic examines the actions natively supported by the SIEM to respond to security incidents (including sharing and reporting capabilities) and how such actions are communicated to the correlation engine.

4. Limitations of Current SIEMs

Although the new generation of SIEMs provides powerful capabilities in terms of correlation, storage, visualization, and performance, as well as the ability to automate the response process through the selection and deployment of countermeasures, current response systems are very limited and countermeasures are selected and deployed without performing a comprehensive analysis of the impact of attacks and response scenarios. In addition, most SIEMs support the integration of new connectors or parsers to collect events or data, and provide APIs or RESTful interfaces to collect the events at a later time. These mechanisms enable the creation of add-ons and extensions to existing systems [6]. Future SIEMs will need to leverage this capability to improve the quality of events fed into the system (e.g., by using new monitoring systems or collecting external data from open source intelligence) by using custom connectors and providing new visualization tools by collecting data from the SIEM data store.

The main limitations are:

— Basic correlation rules. SIEM platforms provide real-time analysis of security events generated by network devices and applications. These systems collect large amounts of information from heterogeneous sources and process it on the fly.

— Basic Storage Capabilities. In most existing SIEM solutions, once data is archived and removed from the live system, it is no longer used by the SIEM. Furthermore, it is up to the user how to handle archived data or where to store or transfer it, which is usually done manually.

— Dependence on humans. Research in SIEM technologies has traditionally focused on providing a comprehensive interpretation of threats, particularly to assess their significance and prioritize responses accordingly.

5. Ways to improve SIEMs functionality

Best way to decrease the influence of pointed SIEM limitations is not only the mitigation of these, but aт implementation of a new features:

— Environmental factors. The challenges for SIEM will continue to evolve as security managers have to deal with cloud services, mobile devices, the Internet of Things, and other new technologies that IT does not always control.

— Diverse Security Enhancing. SIEMS with technologies that address diversity is a significant improvement to current solutions. Special attention must be paid to measuring diversity, i.e., how similar or how different security protection systems, vulnerabilities, attacks, etc. are from each other [5]. These types of diversity metrics are less studied in the literature than metrics for individual components.

— AI/ML Capabilities. To improve detection, correlation, and response capabilities, the next generation of SIEMs should integrate AI/ML technologies into their core engines. AI technologies in SIEMs provide predictive capabilities that are particularly useful for analyzing anomalous behavior of network traffic, tools and users.

— Other Potential Improvements The review of existing SIEMs found that these systems do not provide high-level security risk metrics. The next generation of SIEMs needs to pursue the development of risk-based metrics that consider multiple layers of dependencies such as hosts, applications, middleware, and services. These will allow risk to be assessed across different operational and functional areas. Attack propagation and impact metrics could be extended to consider different hierarchical levels of operations. Although cost metrics can be difficult to calculate due to the difficulty of enterprises to estimate security costs, a possible improvement is to address this category of metrics using a highly granular estimation of costs to define acceptable thresholds. Considering that 5G and/or IoT technologies will impact current SIEM architectures due to the increased volume of data that needs to be processed, there is also a need to create a hierarchy of SIEMs and develop collaborative mechanisms to help report and manage relevant security incidents. For example, in the 5G domain, a SIEM solution can currently cover the analysis of one network slice; however, in the near future, we will need mechanisms for collaboration between multiple slices. Such a mechanism may be particularly useful in architectures where detection needs to be done closer to the edge. For example, in the IoT domain, multiple SIEM systems operating in different layers (e.g., SIEMs deployed in gateways) could be of great interest. These SIEMs need to be lighter and more domain-specific than current solutions [4]. In addition, the integration of SIEMs with extended detection and response (XDR) platforms is expected to provide value in two distinct but complementary ways:

— SIEMs that focus on compliance and evolve into a broader threat and operational risk platform;

— XDR that focuses on threats and provides a platform for deeper and narrower threat detection and response.

Future SIEMs will need to define security metrics that consider quantitative and probabilistic methods to support decisions about how best to combine multiple defenses in a threat environment. This includes understanding how the strengths and weaknesses of the various defenses add up to the overall strength of the system. The security community recognizes that diversity is potentially valuable [7]. The literature mentions the use of ensemble methods to evaluate the results of security classification systems; however, SIEMs should focus on diverse inputs rather than aggregating different machine learning techniques.

As a result, enterprises need solutions that provide detailed information about network and/or user activity in the cloud or on-premises to more accurately detect threats. Given that SIEM deployment typically requires SOC operators and that current infrastructures are more diverse and dynamic, the next generation of SIEMs must focus on providing more autonomy and less overhead in deployment and management, which in turn will reduce costs by simplifying use and operations.


This paper provides a commercial and technical analysis of general type of the leading SIEM solutions on the market, namely SearchInform, MaxPotrol, LogRhythm, Splunk. In terms of behavioral analysis, risk analysis, and deployment, there is a need to develop techniques and tools for analyzing, evaluating, and controlling the optimal use of various security mechanisms in the enterprise infrastructure. Although most of the analyzed solutions provide user-friendly graphical interfaces, visualization and response capabilities are limited to deal with a large number of collected events [3]. Therefore, it is important to develop visualization and analysis extensions that provide users with better insight into the situation and more efficient decision making and response capabilities. In terms of data storage and price, while most of the solutions reviewed have good data storage capabilities, they are limited by hardware availability and typically require additional products (and licenses based on data volume), which increases price.

Finally, the role of SIEMs in the near and long-term future for enterprise infrastructure has been measured, taking into account various aspects. From this analysis, companies can conclude that conditions are good to encourage investment in improving and expanding this technology as a key component not only for industrial control systems with security centers, but also to provide cybersecurity management for SMEs with low security knowledge and capacity.


1. Elshoush H.T., Osman I.M. Alert correlation in collaborative intelligent intrusion detection systems — A survey // Applied Soft Computing. 2011.

2. Dadkhah S., Shoja M.R.K., Taheri H. Alert Correlation through a Multi Components Architecture // International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE). 2013.

3. Filkins B. An Evaluator’s Guide to NextGen SIEM. [(accessed on 23 February 2022)];2018 SANS White Paper. Available online: https://gallery.logrhythm.com/independent-white-papers/sans-an-evaluators-guide-to-next-gen-siem-independent-white-paper-2018.pdf

4. Scarfone K. Comparing the Best SIEM Systems on the Market. [(accessed on 22 February 2022)]; Online Research. Available online: http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/feature/Comparing-the-best-SIEM-systems-on-the-market.

5. Kotenko I.V., Chechulin A.A. Fast Network Attack Modeling and Security Evaluation based on Attack Graphs // Journal of Cyber Security and Mobility. 2014.

6. Splunk 7 SIEM Trends to Watch in 2019. [(accessed on 8 March 2022)]; Report. Available online: http://www.locuz.com/in/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/7-siem-trends-to-watch-in-2019.pdf.

7. Splunk Top 5 SIEM Trends to Watch in 2021. [(accessed on 12 March 2022)];2018 Technical Report. Available online: https://f.hubspotusercontent30.net/hubfs/8156085/Splunk.%20Top%205

Демченкова М. А. 
Modern approaches and the evolution of the quality of information products and services in the Moscow region

Demchenkova M.A., 2nd year student {Economic Security}

Scientifc adviser: Krasikova T.I., PhD {Philology}, professor

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The information products market has been actively forming for the last 20 years. The Internet made it possible to buy, sell, store and search for information like any other product in the material world. In connection with the development of this industry, the problem of regulation and protection of consumer interests has appeared. The absence of a regulatory framework increases the risk of fraud in the information business and becomes a threat to absolutely everyone. The article analyzes the state of the information products market for a given period of time, identifies the most popular niches and identifies sales leaders. Based on the research, measures are proposed to help create a system for evaluating and monitoring information products. Special attention is paid to a versatile approach to solving the problem with the help of state, departmental, public and independent types of control.

Keywords: Information product, inflated consumer expectations, infobusiness, evaluation and monitoring system

The XXI century has completely changed a person’s idea of information. Previously, it was a resource, access to knowledge, which was difficult to get. The main difficulty was to find the source and record the information. In just 30 years, our world has turned upside down — information has become publicly available, and its reliability and objectivity have become criteria that need constant verification.

As you know, a person’s perception of the world and attitude to various aspects of life most often does not have time to adapt to the frenzied pace of technology development, which significantly affect our physical and spiritual life. We must take it for granted that information is becoming the main product that absolutely everyone consumes in the modern world. The reality is that information noise is a phenomenon that will forever remain with humanity.

Over time, a special branch, the media industry, was formed, the purpose of which was exclusively the production and distribution of an information product to meet public needs in it. Together with the emergence of the market, the problem of regulating information entrepreneurship, preventing fraud and providing low-quality goods arose.

At the moment, the concept of «infobusiness» is still being formed. In a broad sense, information business is understood as entrepreneurial activity for the provision of any educational or consulting services, that is, everything that does not have a material basis. Therefore, the definition of infobusiness fits both the online education market and the market of motivational trainings, business schools and various offline events — conferences, coaching sessions, etc. Information products also include webinars, consultations, master classes, online courses, checklists. (fig. 1)

Figure 1. Types of information products provided on the territory of Moscow and the Moscow region

Experts note that recently the online education market has gradually begun to separate from the infobusiness as a whole, because the word «infobusiness» has acquired a negative meaning over the years.

We believe that running an infobusiness is inextricably linked to the «formation of inflated expectations» of a potential client. There are different opinions as to whether this is a direct deception. And this controversial issue is only gaining popularity. I would like to draw attention to the fact that the problem of embellishments is inherent in any business related to the sale of information.

Thus, our article is aimed at considering the part of information entrepreneurship, the definition of which is as follows: «Infobusiness is making a profit from the sale of information using marketing techniques that form significantly inflated expectations of the client [].»

At the same time, it should be understood that there are many examples of business selling information that are quite eco-friendly and do not use dishonest marketing techniques. They have been trying to get rid of the word «infobusiness» for the last 3 years and call themselves «online schools».

For example, more and more often on the territory of Moscow, the Moscow region, there are various schools that position themselves as hobby schools and that do not promise any future earnings — schools for drawing, fitness, confectionery, as well as schools for teaching various professions — programming, design, marketing, photography, etc. We will call all these examples online schools and not refer to them as infobusiness.

The market of information products is growing and developing every year. The COVID-19 pandemic played a major role in this process. If before it the share of the population who has practical experience of distance learning and receiving online services was less than 20% (according to the research company PR News), then in 2021 this share increased significantly and amounted to 66%.

I would like to note that, unlike other markets, the information business is less affected by crises, other political and economic events. This makes it more attractive and guarantees the inflow of capital into the industry.

We conducted a study using the WordStat Internet service, designed to assess website traffic and analyze user behavior, which showed that 26.9% of the total volume of Internet requests for online courses and information products per month comes from residents of Moscow and the Moscow region.

Figure 2. Data from the WordStat service

The topic of business, finance, taxes and sales is in the first place in popularity. IT is following with a small margin. In third place in popularity is management and management. In total, these three directions take a third of the students. 58% study online to improve their professional level. Training related to personal development is aggressively advertised, but it turns out to be less in demand. []

In IT, the main consumer of online courses is people aged 31—35 years. More than a third of students are learning a new profession for themselves. Interestingly, against the background of other segments, long-term training is less in demand here (more than a year).

Figure 3. The most popular topics of online courses in the Moscow region

According to various estimates, the infobusiness market in the Moscow region in the online environment alone in 2018 amounted to about 20 billion rubles, a significant share is occupied by major players — Netology, SkyEng, Geekbrains, Skillbox. A similar assessment of the market is given in GetCourse. At the same time, the infobusiness segment continues to grow actively.

Figure 4. The largest representatives of the online education market

According to the Smart Ranking company, which quarterly creates a rating of the largest companies in the online education market ED techs, the revenue of online schools for the third quarter of 2021. The leader of the rating was Marie Afonina, who earned almost half a billion rubles. In total, for the third quarter, the revenue of the top 100 schools on GetCourse (Russia’s largest platform for hosting educational courses, interactivity and webinars) amounted to 7.1 billion rubles. [].

Table 1. Rating of the largest companies in the field of infobusiness

As we have already said, information is a specific resource that has unique properties. This creates many difficulties in assessing the quality of the information products provided.

When drawing up quality standards, it is necessary to take into account: the expertise of the author of the information, its uniqueness, confidentiality, usefulness and structuring. But these criteria are difficult to assess qualitatively and quantitatively, which creates additional opportunities for the free interpretation of a few regulations.

The lack of a clear border and regulatory framework is often used by entrepreneurs, bloggers, infobusinesses, using all kinds of marketing techniques that form an «inflated expectation» among potential consumers. Using manipulation, scammers successfully sell motivational courses, femininity courses, desire marathons, mental health courses.

Elena Blinovskaya’s online marathons can be considered the most popular and caused a public outcry, the profit for her courses in 2020 exceeded 200 million. It is worth noting that 41.1% of her audience in social media (6 million subscribers) is the population of Moscow and the Moscow region, according to the ADinBLOG search and analysis service. In her courses, she tells how to make wishes correctly so that they are fulfilled, how to get rich in a few months and visualize your success.

Figure 5. Screenshots from the website «Online Personal Growth Marathon from Elena Blinovskaya»

The main regulatory legal act legally describing the technologies of legal regulation in the field of information, information technology, as well as regulating relations in the exercise of the right to search, receive, transmit, produce and distribute information when using information technology is the Federal Law «On information, information technologies and information protection» dated 27.07.2006 N 149-FZ.

Along with the federal law, there are several interstate standards that guarantee the provision of a quality management system and allow monitoring at all stages of production or provision of services.

Figure 6. Regulatory legal acts and standards regulating information entrepreneurship

All of the above standards are general in nature and are not adapted to the regulation of the information business.

It is worth noting that in order to effectively control the quality of information products and services, as well as to prevent fraud in the information market, it is necessary to create an assessment and monitoring system, which will include state, departmental, public and independent types of control.

We offer a list of measures that can help create mechanisms to protect the interests of consumers purchasing information products.

1. Creation of a separate state standard regulating entrepreneurial activity in the provision of information services and information products.

2. The inclusion in the State Inspectorate for Trade, Quality of Goods and Consumer Protection of a new unit, separately dealing with the information environment.

3. Verification of the expertise of the author of the information product by professional associations and other associations specializing in the topic of the product.

4. Creation of a hotline for prompt detection of violations and rapid response to fraudulent actions.

5. Sponsorship of research on information hygiene, popularization of information literacy among the population

6. Conducting Internet surveys (collecting statistics in Rosstat), based on the results of which it will be possible to assess the effectiveness of the above measures and track general trends in the information market.

This article, in which we examined general issues, problems and ways to solve them, can be considered the initial stage of market research of information products. It was dedicated to the interests of the consumer and the mechanisms for their protection.

In the future, we plan to expand our research: to study in detail how to create an infobusiness that provides quality products, to highlight the key features of this type of entrepreneurial activity.


1. Federal Law «On Information, Information Technologies and Information Protection» dated 27.07.2006 N 149-FZ

2. Gavrilov, L. P. E-commerce: textbook and workshop for universities / L. P. Gavrilov. — 3rd ed., add. — Moscow: Yurayt Publishing House, 2019. — 477 p. — (Higher education). — Text: direct.

3. Quarterly rating of the largest companies in the field of online education. [electronic resource]. Access mode: https://edtechs.ru / (accessed 06.03.2022)

4. Money for motivation. Why the infobusiness continues to grow and brings high profits. [electronic resource]. Access mode: https://www.dp.ru/a/2019/07/22/Dengi_na_motivacii__Poche (accessed 05.03.2022)

5. The life of the information market. [electronic resource]. Access mode: https://edtechs.ru/blog/post/ne-putat-s-edtech (accessed 09.03.2022)

6. Research ONLINE TRAINING RUSSIA 500K+. [electronic resource]. Access mode: https://getcourse.ru/habr/blog/getcourse_prnews_online_education_mark
et_research_2021.pdf (accessed 09.03.2022)

7. Who earns and how much in the infobusiness — the results of the third quarter of 2021. [electronic resource]. Access mode: https://trends.rbc.ru/trends/education/61e14f7b9a79478be89380ff (accessed 05.03.2022)

8. What knowledge about online education can give us and what can be done with this knowledge. Research and insights from GetCourse [Electronic resource]. Access mode: https://habr.com/ru/article/557170 / (accessed 09.03.2022)

9. Yu. V. Krutin Electronic commerce. [electronic resource]. Access mode: https://elar.rsvpu.ru/bitstream/123456789/25986/1/Krutin_e-commerce_book.pdf (accessed 09.03.2022)

Денискина В. Э.
 The Global Problem of Economic Backwardness

Deniskina V.E., 1st year student {Economics}

Scientific adviser: Arutyunyan D.D., PhD {Pedagogy}, associate professor

Leonov Moscow region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The article is devoted to the analysis of the global problem of civilization — the economic remnant of many countries, which haunts them throughout their economic history. The causes and consequences of this widespread problem and ways of its overcoming are figured out.

Keywords: economic backwardness; economic system; developed countries; developing countries; export-oriented economy; lagging countries.

The global problem of economic backwardness.

This is probably the main global problem, since it, in turn, gives rise to some other global problems, especially in less developed countries of mass poverty, low social protection, and international competitiveness. In developed countries, the problem of economic backwardness is less relevant, but here, too, most states are striving to change their lag behind the leading countries in terms of economic development.

The essence of economic backwardness.

Economic backwardness means that a country is at a lower stage or a step within the stage of economic development compared to other, more developed countries. The problem of economic backwardness has existed for a very long time. Five thousand years ago, when on the territory of modern Russia its inhabitants were mainly engaged in hunting and fishing, irrigated agriculture and developed animal husbandry already existed in Sumer and Egypt, a wide variety of tools were produced, and there was writing. Babylon, Greece and Rome, the ancient Iran, India and China, which inherited these civilizations, also displayed a higher level of economic development compared to the rest of the world. In the Middle Ages, the level of development of China and other Eastern civilizations exceeded the level of development of Europe and Russia. Finally, in our time, the group of developed countries, numbering more than three dozen, significantly exceeds the other 160 countries in the world in terms of development.

The gap in the levels of economic development between countries and regions of the world will continue to exist in the future. If there is still a strong gap in development levels between regions, states, lands in medium and large countries, then it will all the more exist between the countries of the world. Nevertheless, most countries in the world are striving to reduce or eliminate their backlog by implementing modernization.

Reasons for economic backwardness.

What are the reasons for the economic backwardness of most countries in the world? Economic history shows that in countries that are now classified as less developed, the transition to a market economy began later or was slower than in the now developed countries. Institutional theory will explain that this was due to the backwardness of their institutions. They that give rise to backward economic relations, and those give rise to a backward economy.

Economic systems — traditional, socialist, market — differ from each other primarily by such institutions as forms of ownership and independence of economic agents. Under capitalism, in contrast to the traditional and socialist system, private property dominates and the independence of economic agents is high. In turn, the latter is high because under capitalism there is consumer sovereignty and freedom of entrepreneurship.

In less developed countries, the transition to a predominance of private property was and continues to be hindered by communal, landlord and state property, consumer sovereignty is hindered by a weak level of competition, and freedom of entrepreneurship is constrained by law, traditions and customs.

The economic sphere is adjacent to the political, social, cultural and psychological spheres. They are all interconnected and affect each other. As a result, the reform of economic institutions, if it is not accompanied by the progress of its other institutions, does not lead to the expected results. In addition, the strong interconnectedness of all public institutions gives rise to their inertia — even in countries that quickly overcame their economic backwardness, it took many decades. Therefore, a frequent reason for the persistence of economic backwardness against the background of attempts to overcome it is the inability to accompany economic reforms with political, social, cultural and psychological ones.

The consequences of economic backwardness

Indicators of the level of economic development demonstrate the development or backwardness of the country. Institutional theory explains their root causes. But what are the consequences of backwardness faced by economic agents in carrying out their activities in backward countries?

First of all, this is the lack of capital and knowledge. In addition to the fuel exporting countries and export-oriented economies, the rest of the less developed countries usually have a low gross saving rate, which lowers their gross saving rate, while for industrialization, as economic history shows, the latter rate must be high. The lack of knowledge is evidenced by the low level of education of the population of most of the less developed countries, which prevents the establishment of modern production in them.

Why does the backwardness of economic institutions lead to low capital accumulation and educational attainment? As for capital, its growth is best done where private property predominates, its owners use and accumulate their capital better than the state, landlords or community. With regard to education, we can say that the independence of economic agents requires high knowledge from producers. How else can manufacturers, in conditions of consumer sovereignty, actively compete with other competitors for a buyer, how can they successfully establish new production in conditions of free enterprise?

Other consequences of economic backwardness are low international competitiveness of the bulk of products produced in backward countries, massive poverty of their population, high birth rate combined with high mortality, low social protection, lack of pensions and affordable education and medicine. In short, these are the problems that economic institutions have created for humanity over the millennia of its stay within the framework of a traditional society, in modernization.

Ways to overcome economic backwardness.

Most economists agree that the development in developing countries of effective national development strategies based on economic resources based on a comprehensive approach is of decisive importance in solving the problem of poverty and underdevelopment. With this approach, not only industrialization, liberalization of economic life and the transformation of agricultural relations, but also education reform, improving the health care system, alleviating inequality, pursuing a rational demographic policy, and stimulating the solution of employment problems are considered as the basis for creating a modern economy and achieving sustainable economic growth.

However, many developing countries cannot completely change their position without international assistance in solving the problem of underdevelopment. For the poorest countries, official development assistance is more than 3% in relation to their GDP, including for the countries of Tropical Africa — even more than 5%, although for each inhabitant of this region it is only $ 26 per year.

Even greater opportunities for overcoming the backwardness are provided by the attracted foreign private investment — direct and portfolio, as well as bank loans. The inflow of financial resources to developing countries is growing especially rapidly and is currently the basis for external financing of third world countries. According to the IMF, in the 90s. the net inflow of all financial resources to developing countries was from 114 to 229 billion dollars annually. However, the effectiveness of all these financial flows is often reduced to naught, since improper use of funds leads to simple theft, which is quite widespread in developing countries, as well as ineffective use of the funds received.


1. AMERICAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION https://www.aeaweb.org/journals/

2. ECONOMY-BBC NEWS https://www.bbc.com/news/business/economy

3. THE CONVERSATION https://theconversation.com/us/topics/economics-488

Долгова М. С.
 Features of the Mechanism for Ensuring Economic Security of higher education

Dolgova. M.S., 2nd year student {Economic Security}

Scientific adviser: Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The economic security of higher education is one of the most important components of the national security of the state. To ensure the economic security of higher education, it is necessary to develop mechanisms and indicators. The article presents the structure of economic security of higher education. The mechanisms of ensuring economic security, their interrelation and problems they allow to solve are considered.

Keywords: economic, economic security, higher education, Mechanism for Ensuring Economic Security

These days, higher education occupies an important place in the system of state interests, which makes it relevant to do research in the field of its economic security, including issues related to the mechanism for ensuring the economic security of higher education.

The economic security of higher education is understood as a dynamically stable functional state of higher education and a socio-economic system that has all the necessary resources that guarantee the high-quality performance of its functions in the interests of all interested parties, both in the medium and long term.

The economic security mechanism in higher education is «a set of methods and tools for ensuring national security and national interests in the field of training specialists of appropriate qualifications» [2]. Still, we should not forget that the high dynamism of the ongoing changes in the world and in the country in the field of higher education and are not limited only to the tasks of training highly qualified specialists.

The system of higher education is hierarchical, it consists of several levels: federal, regional and organizational. It makes the mechanism for ensuring economic security a multi-level structure, and therefore its economic security becomes even more important and more difficult to implement. The mechanism for implementing the economic security of higher institutions is state measures and rules. It should be understood that the higher education is an activity dominated by state educational organizations, so the state plays the main role in ensuring economic security.

To ensure the economic security of higher education, public authorities have a diverse set of tools, for example:

• Instruments of a regulatory nature that determine the conditions of existence, their independence and degree of freedom, as well as restrictions and obligations within the framework of their activities.

• Financial and economic instruments, including state funding of educational activities.

• Investment instruments. These include programs and projects that implement new opportunities for higher education, and areas of activity that the state needs now. Educational organizations receive a special status, which not only provides them with additional financial resources, but also gives them status advantages.

• Standardization tools that allow you to avoid the bulkiness and complexity of checking higher education institutions

Undoubtedly, for higher education, government measures that contribute to ensuring economic security are of a great importance. However, it should not be limited only to state measures — all its elements, such as the interests of the individual, society, competitors and others, should also be taken into account.Therefore, in a market economy, higher educational institutions become competitive, the independence of universities expands, and the educational organization becomes an active subject, whose actions have an increasing influence in ensuring economic security.

Achieving stable market positions, the educational organization actually provides the necessary conditions for functioning, which are a guarantee of its economic security [1]. An educational organization will be able to achieve it by focusing on competitive advantages, such as having wide international contacts or social benefits and future employment.

Thus, in the system of the mechanism for ensuring economic security, a two-component structure, which combines both state and organizational mechanisms, can be distinguished [3].

Their relationship allows:

— to ensure a balance of interests of higher education as a socially significant system and educational institutions of higher education as economic entities in the conditions of the market of educational services;

— to ensure the economic security of higher education not only at the expense of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation, but also at the expense of various marketing ideas;

— to monitor the occurrence of negative changes in the system and intra-system economic relations;

— to support the distribution of responsibility for ensuring economic security.

The combination of state and educational organizations’ efforts in ensuring the economic security of higher education increases the likelihood of developing effective measures and their effective implementation in the management of economic security.


1. Rogova, V. A. Structural features of the mechanism for ensuring economic security of higher education / V. A. Rogova. — Text: direct // Young scientist. — 2022. — №2 (397). — PP. 124—128.

URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/397/87905/ (accessed: 03/18/2022).

2. Shatalova T. N., Kosolapova O. S. Mechanisms of ensuring economic security. The modern paradigm and mechanisms of economic growth of the national economy and its regions. Collection of materials of the All-Russian scientific and practical conference. Edited by N. M. Tyukavkin. 2019. Publishing house of ANO «Publishing House of SNC». PP. 242—246.

3. Article Algerian Encyclopedia of Political and Strategic Studies «Economic Security» 2021 URL: https://www.politics-dz.com/en/economic-security/ (accessed: 03/18/2022).

Евтушенко В. К., Нечитаев В. А., Прилюбченко В. А. 
Геополитические изменения и их влияние на финансовый рынок России

Евтушенко В. К., Нечитаев В. А., Прилюбченко В. А., студенты 1 курса {Финансовая безопасность и финансовые рынки в цифровой экономике}

Научный руководитель: Сагайдачная Е. Н., к.ф.н., доцент кафедры иностранных языков для экономических специальностей

Ростовский государственный экономический университет (РИНХ), Ростов-на-Дону, Россия

В статье рассматривается геополитические изменения и их влияние на финансовый рынок России, как составляющая развития экономики. Автор анализирует факторы, влияющие на эффективность фондового рынка и ключевые особенности современного финансового рынка Российской Федерации.

Ключевые слова: экономика, финансовый рынок, рынок ценных бумаг, геополитические новости, государственная политика, санкции.

Благодаря богатству минерально-сырьевых ресурсов и обладанию выгодным географическим положением Россия является крупнейшим поставщиком природных ресурсов на международный рынок, но, несмотря на это, не раз сталкивалась с различными запретами и ограничениями в мировой торговле, что создавало ряд рисков, которые приводили к повышению волатильности на финансовых рынках. Несмотря на то, что мир вступил в новую эру реальной глобализации, появление негативных геополитических изменений приводят к оттоку инвестиций в рынок Российской Федерации, связаны эти явления у инвесторов с психологической составляющей из-за возможного риска потерь. Высокий политический риск — это прежде всего главный недостаток экономической системы России, который определяет скептическое отношение иностранных инвесторов к российскому финансовому рынку. Для более детального анализа геополитических новостей и их влияния на финансовый рынок рассмотрим этот вопрос с точки зрения новейшей истории.

Война в Ираке, с политико-экономической точки зрения обладает универсальной константой — стоимостью. Более того, дело не только в фактической стоимости военных действий, но и упущенной прибыли, которая могла быть получена при взаимном сотрудничестве. Россия, с ее сырьевой экономикой, ориентированной на экспорт нефти, несомненно, является участником этого процесса. Война в Ираке была серьезной проблемой для России, поскольку появилась проблема потери активов и возможностей в Ираке.

Рисунок 1. Мировые цены на нефть 2000—2015 гг.

Динамики цен на нефть в мире имеет огромное влияние на значимые экономические процессы в России. Рост цен находится в прямой зависимости с повышением доходов нефтяных компаний, у которых увеличиваются возможности по развитию и расширению производства. Также происходит рост доходов работников нефтяных компаний, что обуславливает рост их платежеспособности и способствует распределению дохода преимущественно в потребительский сектор экономики. Благодаря этому пополняется государственный бюджет, прибыль от которого идет на развитие наиболее важных сфер общества, которые влияют на уровень и качество жизни населения. Однако в условиях военного времени этот закон может иметь иные последствия. Так, например, последствия роста цен на нефть во время войны в Ираке в 2003, или, как назвали США и их союзники «военной операции», имели негативные влияния на мировой нефтяной рынок. Чем дороже было черное золото, тем больше его котировки влияли на повышение общего уровня цен. В соответствии с данными, представленными на рис.1 видно, что в период с 2003—2008 гг. продолжается активный подъем котировок на нефть, которые несли неблагоприятные последствия для России, ведь в Ираке было сосредоточено действие 20 российских компаний, на которых приходилось 40% добываемой нефти, шедшей на экспорт в другие страны.

Новостной фон о начале военной операции США и ее союзников весной 2003 г. негативно повлиял на сотрудничество между Россией и Ираком. Российские рабочие были выведены из страны, а все работы были прекращены. Большинство российских компаний понесли потери от разрушенного и блокированного оборудования. Помимо этого, все контракты, которые были заключены при Саддаме Хусейне были объявлены новым правительством, как не имевшие юридической силы. Примером является договоренность «Лукойл Оверсиз» по западной Курне-2, имеющей ранее стратегическое значение, ныне аннулированной. Компании впоследствии пришлось приложить немало усилий, чтобы снова получить патент на разработку месторождения. От разрыва программы долгосрочного сотрудничества между Россией и Ираком на несколько лет вперед, упущенная выгода составила от 40 до 42 миллиардов долларов США [ссылка]. Однако это еще не все потери Росси от Иракской войны. Еще не менее 12 миллиардов долларов составила выгода, упущенная в результате действующих с 1991 года в Ираке санкционных мер ООН.

Другой пример сильного влияния геополитических новостей на российский финансовый рынок — события вокруг Украины в январе 2022 года и их освещение в ведущих мировых СМИ.

Январь 2022 года после угроз о начале военных действий и неудачных переговоров стал для российского фондового рынка чуть ли не худшим с 2009 года. Провал переговоров России и США о гарантиях безопасности на Украине сильно ударил по финансовому рынку: c 13 января на Московской бирже шли сплошные распродажи акций крупнейших российских компаний. Так, Сбербанк с начала года потерял 1,134 трлн руб. капитализации, «Газпром» — 903 млрд руб., «Роснефть» -737 млрд руб., «Норникель» — 174 млрд, «Лукойл» — 248 млрд руб. Неизбежным последствием конфликта стал уход иностранных капиталов из России. Иностранные инвесторы вывели из российских фондов акций $81млн, что стало максимальным оттоком средств за весь 2022 год. Согласно данным Emerging Portfolio Fund Research (EPFR), на отток повлиял BNP Paribas Russia Equity Fund, из которого инвесторы забрали $146 млн. Вывод средств из фондов, инвестирующих в Россию, связан с нестабильной геополитической ситуацией и ужесточением денежно-кредитной политики ФРС США и ЕЦБ, а также общим снижением интереса к развивающимся рынкам. Также, 18 января российский рынок акций пережил сильнейший обвал. Индекс Мосбиржи рухнул сразу на 6,5% до 3328,94 пункта, а индекс PTC, отражающий долларовую капитализацию бумаг, упал на 7,29% до 1367,45 пункта. За последнее десятилетия более сильные обвалы случались лишь трижды, причем в явно кризисные моменты: в начале пандемии в 2020-м, в апреле 2018-го после введения санкций и крымских событий в марте 2014 года. Но в этот раз эти процессы были связаны с геополитическим обострением отношений России и Запада. Главным фактором, который будет продолжать давить на российский финансовый рынок, являются геополитические риски, связанные с санкционной риторикой и отсутствием какого-либо прогресса в отношениях между Россией и Западом [7, с 191].

Существование ряда рисков на финансовом рынке — одна из причин неравномерного развития экономики России. Многие эксперты считают, что несовершенство российского законодательства заключается в том, что оно не позволяет гарантировать безопасность инвестиций в различные отрасли экономики. Прозрачный финансовый рынок — это необходимый фактор эффективности. Покупатели на прозрачном рынке знают, какие активы имеются в наличии, и где их можно приобрести. Иными словами, рынок прозрачен, если вся информация доступна всем участникам рынка. На открытом и развитом рынке ценных бумаг должна быть доступна информация о компании и ее бизнесе [6, 61]. Поэтому прозрачность рынков является одним из основных факторов эффективности. Прозрачность создает доверие между участниками рынка, и без доверия не может быть никакой сделки. Вместе с прозрачностью на одном уровне стоит ликвидность. Ликвидность — это необходимый фактор эффективности рынка, так как она определяет справедливое ценообразование на рынке ценных бумаг. Рыночная ликвидность должна учитываться как инвесторами, так и эмитентами, поскольку во всех сегментах фондового рынка, не являющихся высоколиквидными, преобладающие цены могут отклоняться от справедливой рыночной цены, что затрудняет справедливую оценку рыночной стоимости эмитента и тем самым приводит к принятию ошибочных решений относительно инвестиционных стратегий [4, c 118].

Огромным минусом финансового рынка России является то, что многие инвесторы отказываются от значительных вложений в экономику нашей страны из-за неуверенности в возможности возврата инвестиций, а также из-за обилия различных бюрократических преград и высокого уровня коррупции.

Таким образом, современный российский фондовый рынок обладает высокой чувствительностью к политическим событиям и ценам на нефть, поскольку значительная часть всего рынка — нефтегазовые компании и компании связанные с ними. Поэтому события, которые связанны с изменением на международном рынке энергоносителей, оказывают сильное влияние на весь наш финансовый рынок [7, c 403]. Россия не производит многие виды важной продукции (в первую очередь высокотехнологическую продукцию), а закупает эти виды товаров на деньги от нефтяных доходов, что делает многие российские высокотехнологические компании уязвимыми, что ведет к уязвимости и рынка в целом. Это, прежде всего, может ослабить перспективы роста и повысить его волатильность. Кроме того, поведение инвесторов в период кризиса влияет на волатильность цен на акции, что может привести к недостаточной или чрезмерной реакции на определенные события [6, c 91].

Подводя итог вышеизложенному, необходимо отметить, что ценовые колебания на биржевых площадках ресурсов напрямую зависят от развития мировой геополитики. Воздействие геополитических изменений на финансовый рынок России чаще всего имеет негативные последствия, что, прежде всего, связанно с угрозой введения санкций, которые способны ограничить экспорт сырья на международный рынок, а также недоверием инвесторов к российскому финансовому рынку из-за неуверенности возврата средств.

Список литературы:

1. Сирота Н. М.. Основы геополитики. — М.: ИВЭСЭП, 2001. — 136 с.

2. Дораев М. Г.. Допуск иностранных инвесторов в стратегические отрасли экономики (правовые основы). — М.: Инфотропик Медиа, 2012. — 224 с.

3. URL: https://www.vedomosti.ru/finance/articles/2022/01/13/904647-rossiiskii-rinok-aktsii (дата обращения 21.02.22)

4. Евстигнеев В. Р.. Финансовый рынок в переходной экономике. — М.: Едиториал УРСС, 2004. — 240 с.

5. Шимко, П. Д. Мировая экономика и международные экономические отношения. учебник и практикум для бакалавриата и магистратуры / П. Д. Шимко. — Люберцы: Юрайт, 2016. — 392 c.

6. Фридфертиг М., Уэст Дж. Электронная внутридневная торговля ценными бумагами. — М.: Олимп-Бизнес, 2001. — 272 с.

7. Маринченко А. В. Геополитика. — М.: Инфра-М, 2013. — 496 с.

8. Могзоев А. М. Мировая экономика и международные экономические отношения. Учебник. — М.: РИОР, Инфра-М, 2016. — 228 с.

9. URL:https://marketprices.com/Crude_Oil/Ceny_na_neft_po_godam_tablica.htm (дата обращения 19.02.22)

10. URL: https://russiancouncil.ru/blogs/innarodina/interesy-rossiyskikh-neftyanykh-kompaniy-v-irake/ (дата обращения 19.02.22)

Жогло А. П., Ломатова Е. А.
 Aspects of law in Russia and the USA

Zhoglo A. P., Lomatova E. A., 1st year students {Business Informatics}

Scientific adviser: Kyuregyan M. P., Senior Lecturer

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

In the article the main features of constitutional system on the example of Russia and the USA are considered, the main features of similarity and difference between two constitutions are revealed. Attention is also paid to gaps in the constitutional law of the above states. On the example of comparing such source of law as judicial precedent in the USA and Russian Federation essential differences of this source of law are considered and its pros and cons are revealed.

Keywords: state, constitution, constitutional order, legal status of person, judicial precedent, source of law.

Constitution is a fundamental legal act in the Russian Federation and the USA, which characterizes the state system, protects rights and freedom of man and citizen, provides a democratic regime in the state and regulates political and legal relations, as well as regulates a wide range of social relations.

A comparison of the US and Russian constitutions shows that in the US, the majority of rights relating to personal status are closely tied to political rights. In Russia, a large percentage of rights are of a personal nature and relate to the position and status of a citizen. In Russian law, more rights are stipulated by means of protection, while in the US, more rights relating to the actions of citizens are stipulated by means of protection. The emphasis in Russian law is on the position of the individual in the country. There is no provision in the US Constitution about equal rights for women and men. None of the principal pieces of legislation in the US (the Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights) textually establishes equal rights for men and women. Only 17 states have this right in their basic laws. The Constitution of the Russian Federation establishes equal rights and freedoms for men and women and equal opportunities for their realisation. The foundations of the legal status of the individual in the Russian Federation are enshrined in the Constitution (Chapter 2). In Russia, human rights and freedoms are recognized and guaranteed in accordance with the generally recognized norms, provisions and principles of international law. The United States Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, and the Bill of Rights do not contain such provisions as the right to freedom of movement, domicile and residence, or the right to hold referendums. In Russia, these provisions are set out in the relevant federal constitutional and federal laws.

One of the sources of personal legal status in the United States is the case law. By interpreting certain provisions of the constitution, the Supreme Court has, in fact, created new rights. Thus a provision on the right of association, freedom of association, and so on was adopted. In Russia there is no such source of law.

First of all, there is a rule that the court, when hearing a case, asks whether a similar case has been heard before and, if so, follows the decision which has already been made. In other words, a decision once made is the binding rule for all subsequent similar cases. If one of the parties disagrees with the decision made by the judge, the representative of the higher instance is obliged to examine the case in accordance with the provisions of previous judicial precedent in a similar case. Let us look at one famous example of US judicial precedent. It is well known that the US has a Supreme Court ruling that any person lawfully present in the US may display the national flag of any country on their private property. Many people know about this right, but few know that the precedent arose from the flag of the USSR. An American communist hung a Soviet flag on the roof of his house. Outraged neighbours called the sheriff, who removed the red cloth. A lawsuit followed, which reached the level of the Supreme Court. The court ruled: the display of a foreign flag on private property cannot violate anyone’s rights, so it is legal.

75,000 citizens of the USA against the Daimler-Chrysler automobile concern. According to A. Tsaplin (Profile magazine), this is said to be the biggest lawsuit ever brought against the firm on US territory. The lawsuit was filed after 14 Chrysler crashes in a short period of time, when passengers were hurt because of airbags. The court found that the airbags used in the cars were in fact dangerous in themselves and ordered the company to pay the plaintiffs $730 each to replace them. As a result of the proceedings, the company had to pay $58.5 million. It is doubtful that anything like this is possible in Russia. Such a claim is proof of the rather rapid development of producer’s liability insurance in foreign countries, which in our country has literally sporadic examples.

Judicial precedent as a source of law has some pros and cons. The positive features of judicial precedent include: helping to fill gaps when constitutions or laws do not contain specific provisions or completely circumvent any issues; case law is closer to concrete life situations, so it may more accurately reflect the requirements of justice than general rules of law; speeding up proceedings; increasing the responsibility of lower courts for the correct understanding of the law in its constitutional interpretation; strengthening the role of the court in the system of state power. Significant disadvantages of judicial precedent include: possibility of arbitrariness and abuse of officials in the use of precedent; case law is extremely complex and confusing — decisions of judges in specific cases accumulate over time and are rather difficult to navigate; difficulties in correcting erroneous precedent; decreasing quality and legitimacy of judicial acts.

The constitution of any state can be compared to an employee’s CV because it sets out the fundamentals for the further development of the state. It is important to note that there are both similar and different provisions in the constitutions in question. Some jurists, lawyers and practitioners claim that the US Constitution is the oldest in the world and has been in force for approximately two hundred years. On a deeper analysis, it only remains in force through a vast number of amendments that are simply enshrined separately, keeping the original look and content of the constitutional provisions intact. The Russian Constitution, on the other hand, is a better model of a country’s fundamental law than the US Constitution because it was created later and is more elaborate. And also its content is shorter and clearer, but more relevant and meaningful.


1. Bykonya Artem Vasilyevich Laws: concept, types and their features // Problems of Science. 2017. No.17 (99). URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/zakony-ponyatie-vidy-i-ih-osobennosti (accessed: 03/10/2022).

2. Lukyanova E.G. Concepts of law and modern state-legal development // Proceedings of the Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2016. No. 1 (53). URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/kontseptsii-zakona-i-sovremennoe-gosudarstvenno-pravovoe-razvitie (accessed: 03/10/2022).

3. Maysak V. N., Shadrin V. M. The US Constitution in the hierarchical system of sources of American law // Law and order: history, theory, practice. 2015. No.2 (5). URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/konstitutsiya-ssha-v-ierarhicheskoy-sisteme-istochnikov-amerikanskogo-prava (accessed: 03/10/2022).

4. Molokaeva O.H. 2018. 04. 066. Posner E. Book review: Breyer S. The Court and the World: American Law and new global realities. Posner E. [Recencio] // Yale law Journal. — Yale, 2016. — n 126. — p. 504—524. — Rec. Ad Op.: Breyer S. The Court and the world: American law and the new global realities. — N.Y.: Alfred A. Knopf, 2015. — 400 p // Social and Humanitarian Sciences. Domestic and foreign literature. Ser. 4, State and Law: An abstract journal. 2018. №4. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/2018-04-066-pozner-e-retsenziya-na-knigu-breyer-s-sud-i-mir-amerikanskiy-zakon-i-novye-globalnye-realii-posner-e-recencio-yale-law-journal-yale (accessed: 03/10/2022).

Зубарева Т. Д. 
Основные правила успешных деловых коммуникаций

Зубарева Т. Д., студентка 1 курса {Государственное и муниципальное управление}

Научный руководитель: Зинина Ю. М., кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков и методики их преподавания

Государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования Московской области «Академия социального управления» (АСОУ), Мытищи, Россия

В данной работе представлены основные правила успешных деловых коммуникаций, выделенные на основе опыта участия в процессах переговоров. Автор использует три метода исследования: изучение научной литературы, интервью участника международных переговоров в сфере нефтегазового бизнеса, изучение различных тактик на основе лекций спикеров «Русской школы переговоров». Наряду с теоретической моделью, в статье представлены практические выводы, вытекающие из рассмотренных источников информации.

Ключевые слова: тактика переговоров, процесс переговоров, достижение целей, взаимоотношения деловых партнёров.

Всем нам приходится время от времени говорить неправду и скрывать истинные чувства, поскольку абсолютно свободное самовыражение в обществе, к сожалению, не всегда приемлемо, а иногда даже и невозможно. С самого нежного возраста мы учимся скрывать свои мысли, говоря то, что от нас хотят услышать, стараясь не задеть или же не обидеть собеседника [1]. Основой человеческих взаимоотношений всегда было и будет умение общаться. Предрасположенность к этому заложена в нас с самого рождения, однако даже эта способность нуждается в куда большем внимании, чем можно было бы себе это представить. Все мы общаемся, находим таким образом друзей, понимаем окружающих, но не во всех случаях делаем это правильно.

Две настольные игры лучше всего учат искусству стратегии — шахматы и распространенная в азиатских странах игра «го» [1]. Для того чтобы объяснить эту мысль, представим общение с тем или иным человеком в виде шахматной доски. Тот, кто начинает разговор — делает первый ход. Как и в любой игре необдуманный шаг вперёд может привести к проигрышу, так и в разговоре, если после первого хода, вы не задумываясь сделаете шаг в ответ, можете быть уверены, в этой игре — вы ведомый, заранее обрекающий себя на поражение. Человек, с которым вы вступаете в диалог, необязательно должен быть агрессивно настроен по отношению к вам, ваш проигрыш не всегда означает глобальные потери, однако, это так или иначе будет сказываться на ваших взаимоотношениях. Если вы часто делаете неверный шаг, вами проще манипулировать. Вы податливее, мягче, а значит — уязвимее.

Из примеров для иллюстрации, начнём с первого взаимодействия в социуме, через которое приходилось пройти каждому из нас, а именно, с адаптации в школе. Здесь хотелось бы обратить внимание на детей, посещавших детский сад, и на тех, кто сразу попал в новую среду общения. Конечно же, проще всего адаптация проходит у тех, кто ранее сталкивался с социальным взаимодействием. Таким образом в классе и появляются небольшие группы, где дети делятся не только по интересам, но и по своим способностям в коммуникации: кто оказывается опытнее попадает в лидирующий состав, другие же, остаются на своих местах, позади них.

Разумеется, дети сами по себе не делают шаги на своей шахматной доске, в своё время за них это делают родители, а уже после, с гордостью передают им управление своим игровым полем, в надежде на то, что показали им правильный пример. Стоит заметить, что для каждого человека это индивидуальный процесс и нет определённого возраста, когда мы в полной мере начинаем управлять своей шахматной доской.

Для нас существует примерно один период перехода к осознанности, начинающийся после совершеннолетия, но даже он не даёт гарантии, что вы умеете управлять своими связями в обществе.

Именно из-за этого мы сталкиваемся с необходимостью в обучении коммуницировать с окружающими: так появились социологи, психологи, журналисты и другие специалисты, внимание которых направлено на регулирование социальных связей. У каждой из этих отраслей есть свои особенности, однако кое-что общее всё-таки имеется — это понимание психологии человека и умение заранее спланировать ход событий в зависимости от той или иной ситуации, или же реакции человека.

С точки зрения социума, человек представляет собой ключевое звено передачи информации. Он способен настолько хорошо выстраивать взаимоотношения вокруг себя, что при должном умении вести переговоры с окружающими, получая от них полезную информацию, становится властен над ходом событий, над своим состоянием, способен предвидеть риски, замечает противоречия. Люди таких возможностей представляют собой одновременно как хороших психологов, так и опасных оппонентов. Они добиваются своих целей несмотря на трудности, которые могут встречаться на пути.

Однако, такое умение не всегда помогает достичь желаемых высот. Убедить тех, кто морально слабее вас гораздо проще, чем столкнуться с человеком точно такого же склада ума и возможностей убеждать. Таким образом мы теперь переходим в рабочую среду, где каждый из нас обозначает себя лидером.

Столкнувшись в споре, двое лидеров не могут прыгнуть выше головы другого. Они — стратегически важный элемент в жизни друг друга, так что обе стороны вынуждены искать выход из сложившейся ситуации. Смысл переговоров — убедить другого человека в том, чтобы он сделал то, что выгодно вам, в то время как ваш оппонент будет пытаться сделать то же самое для себя. Ваша общая задача — найти золотую середину. Однако одного желания найти выгоду будет недостаточно. Переговоры возможны только тогда, когда отступают амбиции. Человек должен быть готовым не только говорить, но и слушать. В приоритете — желание договорится.

Но не стоит забывать, что опытный человек в сфере коммуникаций умён и не лишён хитринки. Его задача, на старте переговоров вызвать у вас желание общаться: как бы не был к вам настроен ваш оппонент, если он достаточно продвинут в области взаимосвязей, он будет дружелюбен, открыт с виду.

Его первый шаг — доброжелательность. Игра началась, всё зависит только от вас. Предположим, что вы справились. В переговоры вступает новая техника, а именно — давление. Любая ваша спонтанная реакция, взгляд или же действие, могут стать рычагом давления. Однако, если вы слишком открыты и сами настроены вывести собеседника на эмоции, ваш визави может обойти вас давлением своей безэмоциональности, игнорированием, а может и вовсе, обнулить ваш ход, указать напрямую, что ваши реакции, слова и колкие фразы никак не помогут вам договорится. Попросту — не сработают.

Ваша задача — не стать заложником ситуации. Никогда не начинайте игру первым. Если же другого выбора не было, и именно вы задали тон переговорам, воспользуйтесь первым приёмом: на старте переговоров, вы должны вызывать желание общаться [3].

В противном случае, если вы вынуждены выступать первым, воспользуйтесь вторым приёмом: безэмоциональное спокойствие. Эмоции, лишние амбиции и попытки давления не всегда приносят успех. Как правило, на старте переговоров это может только усугубить ситуацию, создав между собеседниками барьер.

Хочется уделить особое внимание точке зрения людей, напрямую участвующих в переговорах и уже успевших столкнуться с разными тактиками своих визави.

Семён Дмитриевич, ведущий экономист крупного холдинга в сфере нефтегазового бизнеса и активный участник международных переговоров, раскрыл несколько секретов в личной беседе. Переговоры «Узбекистан 2019». Тема — покупка месторождений нефти, а именно обсуждение цены, по которой будут вестись закупки. Процесс переговоров занял три дня, именно эти три дня и были некой стратегией. Первые два дня, переговоры велись с представителем руководства — человеком с позицией полного несогласия и желанием спорить. Тактика давления и изматывания. Только на третий день появился сам руководитель, с позицией полной готовности к договорённостям. Узбекистан, сам по себе, в переговорах склонен к жарким спорам, отстаиванию своих позиций, но это касается исключительно рабочих моментов. За пределами — сохраняется приветливость, неформальное общение. К переговорам сотрудников всегда подготавливают заранее. В данном случае, разумеется, также был проведён курс по культуре и особенностям психологии узбекистанцев. Сделка состоялась. Прийти к общему соглашению удалось, придерживаясь тактики сдержанности и спокойствия, и первые два дня продолжать стойко держаться своих интересов, не поддаваясь давлению.

Однако Узбекистан не самая «тяжелая» страна для ведения переговоров. По опыту сотрудников, как отметил Семён Дмитриевич, «трудной» страной является Вьетнам. На переговорах во Вьетнаме каждый человек из их команды играет исключительно свою роль. Они всегда приходят в большом количестве, устраивая тем самым психологическое давление на присутствующих.

Страна Оман располагается в юго-восточной части Аравийского полуострова, 2020 год. В процессе переговоров оманцы всегда сдержаны и спокойны. Не склонны к конфликтным ситуациям, попыткам какого-либо давления. Однако в отличие от сторон, использующих эти методы, готовы общаться с прибывшими гостями исключительно по работе. Никаких совместных ужинов. Встречи в кабинете переговоров — не более. Сделка не состоялась, так как представители из Омана не смогли подтвердить необходимые технологические показатели.

Южная Корея, 2021 г. Сделка открыта, реализуется по настоящее время. Менталитет корейцев играет очень важную роль. Они приветливы и довольно открыты к гостям из-за границы. Из особенностей делового этикета, хочется отметить наличие расписания, включающее в себя и переговоры, и обеды с ужинами. Приёмы пищи проходили совместно, в дружеской обстановке и всегда в новом месте. Корейцы открыто делились своей культурой, поддерживали неформальное общение, а также были действительно настроены на сотрудничество. Семён Дмитриевич рассказал один забавный случай: на переговорах присутствовала девушка, оказавшаяся вегетарианкой. Рестораны, которые до этого посещали гости, не были нацелены на вегетарианскую кухню, но и сама девушка внимание к этому не привлекала. Однако, когда это всё-таки выяснилось, ранее составленное расписание было полностью изменено. После этого случая, оно включало в себя только те места, где они все могли наслаждаться традиционной корейской кухней. Касательно самих переговоров, корейцы гибкие и конструктивные.

Переговоры с Россией — одна из самых актуальных тем последнего времени — это касается как политики, так и торговли, и всех остальных сфер. Наша страна, по мнению Семена Дмитриевича, ничуть не уступает в своей готовности к переговорам и может быть на таком же высоком уровне, как и Корея. Возможности договориться с представителями РФ не стоит недооценивать, именно наша страна умеет понимать менталитет других сторон, умеет находить к ним подход. И именно эта сильная сторона и становится неким препятствием, как и в примере со столкновением двух лидеров: столкнувшись в споре, двое лидеров не могут прыгнуть выше головы другого. Они — стратегически важный элемент в жизни друг друга, так что обе стороны вынуждены искать выход из сложившейся ситуации. Однако это не означает того, что в конечном итоге переговоры произойдут и закончатся успешно: далеко не все стороны действительно готовы находить выход и договариваться.

Тактика ведения переговоров — это гибкий, динамичный элемент, включающий в себя способы и методы деятельности, применяемые для достижения поставленных задач [2].

Выделяют наступательную тактику, оборонительную тактику и тактику молчания. Наступательной называется тактика, в которой роль базисных приемов играют приемы наступательного поведения, позволяющие успешно атаковать намеченных противников, равных по силам или уступающих конкурентным силам, преодолевая их встречные действия. Напротив, в оборонительной тактике главенствующую роль играют приемы оборонительного поведения, заключающиеся в оказании сопротивления давлению и влиянию наступающих соперников. Под тактикой молчания будем понимать совокупность приёмов в реальном процессе речевого общения, которые выражаются в молчании одного из субъектов данного общения [2].

На фоне всего вышесказанного, стоит определить тактику ведения переговоров, актуальную в любых условиях. Даже если против Вас используют самые сложные техники давления и провокаций, самым правильным решением, будет оставаться непреклонным. Ваш выигрыш в вашем спокойствии и умении держать себя в руках. Вспоминая игру в шахматы: вы никогда не сможете сделать верный ход, если ваша пешка ступит в клетку с горяча.

Список литературы:

1. Грин Р. 48 законов власти/ Пер. с англ. Е. Я. Мигуновой. — М.: РИПОЛ классик, 2019. — 765 c. [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://mir-knig.com/read_340151-1 (дата обращения: 08.03.2022).

2. Козлов В. В. Переговоры: с чего начинать. [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://yandex.ru/video/preview/16615145315269024005 (дата обращения: 08.03.2022).

3. Худойкина Т. В, Миронова Е. А. Техника ведения переговоров // European science. 2015. №3 (4). URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/tehnika-vedeniya-peregovorov (дата обращения: 08.03.2022).

Иванова А. С., Сахарук С. С.
 The «Cancel culture» must be cancelled

Ivanova A. S., Sarharuk S. S., 5th year students {Modern foreign languages}

Scientific adviser: Yumagulova M. R., Senior lecturer

Belarusian State University, Institute of Entrepreneurial Activity, Minsk, The Republic of Belarus

Language as a weapon of political correctness. The phenomenon of political correctness has existed for decades. Special words and terms have emerged in the language to replace ethnonyms that originally did not have, but over time have acquired negative connotations. Euphemisms have emerged that directly reflect the ideas of political correctness, mitigating various types of discrimination. And the freedom of speech and creativity is replaced by a total rejection of dissenting viewpoints, and one discrimination is replaced by another.

Keywords: Language, political correctness, euphemisms, «Cancel culture»

Language as a weapon of political correctness

When discussing the problems of language and culture, we cannot ignore such social phenomenon as political correctness, which may well be attributed to the cultural-behavioural and linguistic category. We live in a global world where people of different cultures and beliefs inevitably «encounter» and communicate with each other. And everyone has their own ideas and norms, defined by upbringing and education, but people often make grave mistakes when expressing their own thoughts. Progress is changing society at an accelerated pace, but internal culture has not always kept pace. As part of accepted behaviour, we strictly adhere to the moral norms inherent in our own culture, while we may know nothing about others. Political correctness emerged as a way of imposing uniform rules of communication that do not apply to raw people with views different from our own. It is society’s attempt to reach a consensus in an ethical sense.

Special words and terms have emerged in the language to replace ethnonyms that originally did not have, but over time have acquired negative connotations. These include, for example, names of national, racial and social groups such as Negro, Oriental, Indian, old, disabled or inferior, poor, feeble-minded and many others. In the relatively recent past, these words were part of the linguistic norm, but as a result of social and cultural changes they have moved into the category of negatively evaluative words and have been duly replaced by their politically correct counterparts, respectively: African American, Asian, Native American, elderly, physically challenged, low-income, special, etc.

Similarly, euphemisms have emerged that directly reflect the ideas of political correctness, mitigating various types of discrimination. Thus, today there are euphemisms that exclude racial and ethnic discrimination, mitigate gender discrimination and exclude sexism in language (domestic partner/companion instead of husband/wife), flight attendant (instead of steward/stewardess), excluding discrimination based on social status (economically disadvantaged, high/low-income), excluding discrimination based on health (aurally inconvenienced instead of mute, visually challenged instead of blind, immuno-compromised instead of HIV-infected people).

The phenomenon of political correctness has existed for decades, and many researchers, political scientists and linguists, have devoted considerable effort to studying it. Political correctness causes confusion in the hearts and minds of all who are somehow confronted with it. The whole world seems to be divided into two sides: zealous supporters and equally zealous opponents, because it is hard not to take sides. Political correctness is turning into a dictatorship of an aggressive and shouting minority. And then freedom of speech and creativity is replaced by a total rejection of dissenting viewpoints, and one discrimination is replaced by another.

When a society is made up of different religions, sexual minorities, ethnic groups, it is quite difficult to accommodate the interests of all. But the Western world has set itself such a goal and is moving steadily towards it. A person offended by a politically incorrect statement has the right, according to the law, to take legal action. The lawsuit threatens the careless commentator with a gruelling legal battle and a fine.

There are many oddities and twists and turns in this confrontation. Here are some relatively recent examples. British screenwriter Carla Mary Sweet was outraged by the cast of the popular TV series Chernobyl. She tweeted, «There are so many black actors in this country who would have looked great in this series. I am extremely annoyed by yet another ratings show that is filmed as if black people don’t exist.» The comments advised her to study history and explained that there were very few, if any, black people in Ukraine at the time. The discussion ended predictably: the dark-skinned «author» called everyone who disagreed with her «racists». Similarly, users of the network were outraged by the launch of the series on the British TV channel Channel 5 «Anne Boleyn». The main role in which was played by black actress Jodie Turner-Smith. «Anne Boleyn» opens with the provocative title «Based on truth… and lies», which sets up a vigorous revisionist tone, but no radicalism on screen, in general. Anne Boleyn herself was white, so the audience is outraged by this historical discrepancy.

Classical literary language also suffers from politically correct followers, although the phenomenon sometimes takes anecdotal forms. In English, the word «rape» also means «sexual assault» in addition to the meaning of the crop «rape». It has therefore emerged that the word «rape» should not be used universally, as it is a crude word for inhuman things. The Canadian town of Teasdale is known as the centre of this crop and bee-growing, which is reflected in the town’s motto: «land of rapeseed and honey». It caught the attention of members of the ’progressive public’ and shocked them with its political incorrectness. They read the motto as ’land of rapeseed and honey’. The city had to urgently change its motto and it now reads «a place for growing opportunities». And rapeseed has since been called ’canola’.

Since some time it has become unacceptable to use unambiguous, clear and concise definitions. With the apogee of absurdity and the triumph of political correctness, soon everyone will have to solve charades, i.e. when a word is not spoken but described, e.g. chronologically gifted (old people), spatially impoverished (drunks), horizontally oriented (fat people), alternatively gifted (people with Down syndrome).

«Cancel culture" as a logical extension of Political Correctness

And like the icing on the cake, as if political correctness alone wasn’t enough for us, "cancel culture" has appeared and has been parading victoriously across newspaper pages and social media feeds around the world for several years now. The word «boycott» has acquired a tarnished reputation in English-speaking culture of late, as it is a frequent tool of bullying, so reviled in schools. Nevertheless, «cancel culture» is precisely a boycott, a call for like-minded people to refuse to communicate and refuse any contact with a person who has «broken» certain rules. According to all canons of school boycott, the punishment for communicating with a boycotted person is a boycott of the one who supported the renegade. That is why companies prefer to quickly dismiss employees who are the object of the ’undoing’, even if the employee did not intend to outrage the public at all, but got into an unpleasant situation quite by accident.

An example of «undoing» is the story of American actor Johnny Depp. Depp and actress Amber Heard got married in 2015, but a year later Heard filed for divorce, incidentally accusing her spouse of domestic violence. Consequently, without waiting for the court proceedings to end, the Warner Bros. film studio terminated the actor’s contract. In 2020, unconfirmed recordings of conversations between ex-spouses were tweeted, with Depp asking not to be hurt and Heard admitting to being abusive towards her husband herself. Depp has accused his ex-wife of defamation and falsifying the beating. The actor called the «culture of cancellation» an unfair phenomenon, out of control, and himself — its victim. According to Depp, «no one is immune» from censure, mistakes or misunderstanding, so one must stand up for people who are in trouble.

For the most part, it is celebrities who run the risk of being «undone» and becoming outcasts, and today it is hard to find a famous person who has not been forced to apologise for thinking, writing or saying the wrong thing.

But ordinary people can also get a dose of ’righteous indignation’ if a careless comment or a photograph of them is caught by a popular blogger who decides to start harassing them. Quite remarkable and absurd is another story that happened to a Tumbler user called higitsunes: she was attacked for taking a picture of herself in a kimono. Many people wrote to her that it was «disgusting cultural appropriation to wear national outfits and thereby appropriate the culture of aboriginal peoples…". The girl replied that, first of all, it’s not a kimono, but a yukata, and that the Japanese don’t mind at all if someone wears their national attire. At the same time she posted a picture of her Japanese passport and asked the public if they were satisfied enough with the distinctly Japanese shape of her eyes.

The sad thing is that abolition culture transcends the boundaries of the present, the more insistent it is to look to the past. In the autumn of 2020, for example, the British Library compiled a ’list of contempt’ with the names of cultural figures whose ancestors had been involved in the colonisation of new lands and the slave trade. George Gordon Byron, Oscar Wilde, George Orwell and many others, who personally never had anything to do with slaves and new lands, are still blacklisted because their great-grandparents or great-grandmothers were involved in it all. Although their books have not yet been burnt, they are specifically marked so that people know who they are dealing with. According to the library officials, these people were able to become famous writers because their families enjoyed undeservedly acquired wealth.

Similarly, among writers, British author Joanne Rowling has fallen under the «culture of cancellation». Twitter users began posting en masse about Joan Rowling’s death, accompanied by the hashtag #RIPJKRowling. «In memory of Joan Rowling. She didn’t die, but she killed her own career proudly hating trans people and no one will truly miss her.» It all ties in with the release of Rowling’s new book called Bad Blood. Social media was left unhappy that the detective’s antagonist was a man who dresses up as a woman and kills women. Users immediately recalled Rowling’s remarks about transgender people and concluded that such a plot was another attempt to express the writer’s transphobic views. On Twitter, she was once again accused of being intolerant of transgender people and claimed that she had buried her career with this book.

Fortunately, not all progressive minds in the world support the «culture of abolition». One of the biggest political scientists in the US, a professor at the University of Michigan, believes that the «culture of abolition» will eventually lead to an extreme polarisation of any society and, as a result, to serious social conflicts in most modern developed countries. If some control, dominate, impose and dominate while others are used to remaining silent, tensions will inevitably rise and eventually lead to an explosion.

Crowds do not tolerate other people’s opinions. And perhaps many activists of the «abolition» process would be terribly outraged if they realised that their actions are a lot like those of vulgar hooligans. They are imposing politically correct norms that already verge on insanity and obscurantism rather than trying to help those who need help. What motivates people to promote a culture of abolition while destroying someone’s fortunes, career and at the same time doing little or nothing to alleviate the lives of those «oppressed» whose rights are supposedly infringed? If people have any common sense left, they should realise that this is a road to nowhere.

Language is a reflection of your inner culture, you don’t need to be politically correct to be polite, tactful and considerate of the needs of others. People need to learn to talk to each other, to use language for its intended purpose, i.e. to think and make good relationships and contacts, not for hostility, hate speech or verbal bullying.


1. Yumagulova, M. R. Language: a precious endowment, a tool, a weapon / M. R. Yumagulova / / Scientific journal «Vesti IPD», — Minsk: Kovcheg, 2021- pp 95—105

Ивочкина П. С.
 Probleme von Nord Stream 2

Ivochkina P.S., studentin des 2. Kurses {Zollwesen}

Die wissenschaftliche Betreuerin: Bondarenko T.N., PhD {Philologie}, Dozent

Die Moskauer regionale Technologische Universität namens A.A. Leonow, Korolev, Russland

Im Artikel geht es um die Gaspipeline Nord Stream 2. Hier werden Probleme von Bau, Inbetriebnahme und Sanktionen behandelt. Der Artikel weist auch auf die ökologischen Aspekte des Einsatzes der Gaspipeline hin.

Schlüsselwörter: Die Pipeline, die Inbetriebnahme, Gasprom, die Preise, die Sanktionen.

Die Inbetriebnahme der Ostsee-Gaspipeline Nord Stream 2 ist wieder verschoben. Der Start könnte sich damit um unbestimmte Zeit hinauszögern. Die Gasreserven befinden sich auf einem historisch niedrigen Stand.

Was ist eigentlich Nord Stream 2?

Das ist 1200 Kilometer lang und 55 Milliarden Kubikmeter Gas jährlich Kapazität der beiden Stränge. Nord Stream 2 ist eine neue Exportpipeline für Gaslieferungen aus Russland nach Europa durch die Ostsee.

Der Ostseeabschnitt von Nord Stream 2 beginnt im Raum Ust-Luga, Leningrader Gebiet und verläuft über den Boden der Ostsee bis zur deutschen Küste nahe der Stadt Greifswald.

Wie begann die Geschichte des Projekts? Im Oktober 2012 wurde mit den technischen und wirtschaftlichen Studien begonnen. Später kam man zu dem Schluss, dass der Bau wirtschaftlich sinnvoll und technisch machbar sei.

Im April 2017 wurden von Nord Stream 2 AG die Finanzierungsvereinbarungen zum Projekt unterzeichnet.

Im September 2018 wurde mit der Verlegung der Gaspipeline durch die Ostsee begonnen.

Im September 2021 wurde der Bau der Nord Stream 2 abgeschlossen und am 29. Dezember 2021 die Pipeline vollständig mit Erdgas gefüllt wie geplant war der zweite Strang mit etwa 177mio m3 Erdgas befüllt, was einen Druck von etwa 103 bar in der Pipeline gewährleistet. Dieser Druck reicht aus, um den Gastransport zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt zu Starten.

Aber die Pipeline Nord Stream 2 war von Anfang an politisch umstritten. Das Projekt ist eng verknüpft mit dem damaligen Kanzler Schröder.

Der Bau einer Ostsee-Gaspipeline war zunächst von der EU unterstützt worden. Diese positive Haltung schwand mit dem Gasstreit zwischen Russland und der Ukraine ab dem Jahr 2005. Er führte zu Lieferausfällen in die EU. In Polen, des Ukraine stieß das Projekt auf politischen Widerstand. Die Länder befürchteten, von Gaslieferungen abgeschnitten zu werden und noch starker in Abhängigkeit von Russland zu geraten.

Die ehemalige Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel verteidigte den Bau der Pipeline. Es sei ein wirtschaftliches, kein politisches Projekt und es liege im deutschen Interesse. Auch amerikanische Drohungen änderten nichts am Pro-Pipeline-Kurs der Bundesregierung. Der neue Bundeskanzler Scholz sprach beim EU-Gipfel von einem privatwirtschaftlichen Vorhaben.

Nur hat sich der Ton geändert. Nach den Worten von Scholz sei derzeit unklar, ob Nord Stream 2 jemals in Betrieb genommen wird.

Viele Verbündete zollten der deutschen Entscheidung Respekt. Aber Russland demonstriert nach dem vorläufigen Stopp der Ostseepipeline Nord Stream 2 Gelassenheit, obwohl Russland die meisten Währungsflüsse von Export der Erdöl- und Gaslieferungen hat. Es deutet aber auch steigende Gaspreise an.

Die Bundesregierung hat das Genehmigungsverfahren für die Gaspipeline Nord Stream 2 bis auf Weiteres aufs Eis gelegt. Aber was bedeutet das für die Gasversorgung in Deutschland?

Die Pipeline ist noch nicht zertifiziert, es fehlt die Freigabe durch die zuständigen Behörden. Die kurzfristigen Folgen sind schwer einschätzbar. Aufgrund der vertraglichen Vereinbarungen sind keine großen Veränderungen in den Gaslieferungen zu erwarten. Es gibt keine Anzeichen für Lieferungspässe aus Russland. Es gibt keine Meldungen, dass Russland seine Verpflichtungen gegenüber den Vertragspartnern nicht erfüllt. Russland war immer — auch im Kalten Krieg — ein zuverlässiger Energielieferant. Aber mit einem weiteren Anstieg der Gaspipeline muss man rechnen.

Das politische Problem ist jedoch nicht das einzige. Umweltorganisationen behaupten, dass Nord Stream 2 für die Ökosysteme der Ostsee gefährlich ist. Darüber hinaus ist die Verwendung von Erdgas mit dem globalen Klimawandel verbunden. Unter diesen Umständen ist die Unterstützung des Projekts zur Verwendung veralteter Brennstoffe eine Bedrohung für die Umwelt. Diese Meinung äußert die Umweltschutzorganisation Deutsche Umwelthilfe. Die Autoren eines Artikels in der Zeitschrift Spiegel, der diese Ansicht beleuchtet, äußerten die Meinung, dass die EU bis zum Jahr 2050 auf flossile Brennstoffe verzichten sollte.

Schließlich ist durch Nord Stream 2 noch kein Gas durchgeflossen. Was passiert, wenn der Gashahn zugedreht wird? Im Moment bezieht Deutschland rund 55 Prozent seines Erdgases aus Russland. Im Fall eines Stopps von russischen Gaslieferungen soll sich Deutschland an andere Exporteure USA, Katar, Ägypten wenden. Die Frage: zu welchem Preis? Das Ziel der Pipeline war vor allem günstiges Gas aus Russland und jetzt muss Deutschland nach Alternativen zum russischen Gas suchen. Die Benzin- und Gaspreise haben in Deutschland stark gestiegen. Das führte zur Unzufriedenheit der Bürger der BRD. Die Versuche der Regierung, neue alternative Lieferungen zu finden, haben Pech gehabt viele Ländern weigerten Gas und Erdöl zu liefern. Der Staat ist in eine schwere Situation geraten.

Die Auswirkungen dieses Prozesses werden in den nächsten Jahren deutlich. Eines ist klar, es gibt keinen deutlichen Gewinner und Verlierer in der ganzen Geschichte.


1. Nord Stream 2. Wie abhängig ist Deutschland von russischem Erdgas? [Elektronische Ressource] https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/nord-stream-2-gas-kritik-abhaengig-100.html (Datum der Behandlung: 18.03.2022)

2. Nord Stream 2: Wer gewinnt, wer verliert? [Elektronische Ressource] https://www.dw.com/de/nord-stream-2-wer-gewinnt-wer-verliert/a-60250546 (Datum der Behandlung: 18.03.2022)

Иночкина В. В.
 The impact of sanctions on Russian customs in 2022

Inochkina V.V., 4th year student {Customs}

Scientific adviser: Krasikova T.I., PhD {Philology}, professor

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The article considers the issue of sanctions on Russia and how it will cause Russian’s customs. The article is based on many foreign and Russian researches and economists. The main idea of the article is sanctions on Russia customs in 2022.

Keywords: Sanctions, Russia, customs, transportations, export.

At the end of February, international organizations and Western countries began to impose economic sanctions against Russia.

Because of this, large international companies have suspended the entry of their ships into Russian ports. Therefore, it is not clear now how Russia will carry out sea container and aviation logistics with EU countries. It is not clear which international carriers we should work with in maritime logistics with China and the countries of Southeast Asia.

There are also questions about the further work of international courier services — DHL, FedEx, TNT, UPS — which have also suspended work. They provided a large share of e-commerce supplies. And of course, the important question for Russia remains how long such a dollar exchange rate will last against the ruble.

And now, I’m going to briefly analyze the main import and export items in Russia. I will tell you what restrictions apply when transporting goods.

How is foreign economic activity organized in Russia

On the RosStat website, you can find an analysis of the foreign economic activity of our country.

This slide shows our main partners in foreign economic activity:

— import in Russia: China, Germany, France, South Korea, Turkey;

— export from Russia: China, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Brazil, Finland.

The main import items for us are equipment and consumer goods, such as, electronics and clothes. Among the articles of import critical for us, we find machinery, equipment and transport. Unfortunately, we must expect severe consequences for our economy in this part of procurement.

The vast majority of consumer goods are imported to Russia from China. Technologies and equipment are being brought to us from EU countries — Germany, France.

In addition to energy resources, we export food, raw materials for the woodworking and chemical industries, building materials, fertilizers and consumer goods.

Now there are risks of a trade embargo on Russian oil and gas, supplies to Europe are already falling. Therefore, we will soon find out how the structure of Russian exports will change rapidly: the raw material component will decrease, and food and building materials will increase the share of our exports.

What restrictions will apply to the import of goods to Russia?

The United States has so far limited itself to sanctions on equipment and electronics that can be used in the military, aerospace and instrument-making industries.

I did not find any mention of restricting the supply of consumer goods to Russia, for example, iPhones. The fact that companies are suspending their activities in Russia is their commercial decisions. There is no ban on the sale of such goods now.

The European Union joined the United States in an embargo on the supply of equipment for the aviation and space industry of Russia, and also restricted supplies in the technological and energy sectors.

In addition, the EU has issued two directives restricting European business in the sale of so-called dual-use equipment to Russia.

The regulation covers goods that can be moved from the territory of the EU to the territory of the Russian Federation only under special permits and licenses issued by the competent authorities of the EU. That is, if a European manufacturer wants to supply goods from the sanctions list to Russia now, it can issue a license to export goods to the Russian Federation and continue trading as before the sanctions were imposed.

In order to relieve the consequences of the actions of foreign companies in our market, domestic regulators have begun measures to liberalize the import of critical goods. For example, Russia lifted bans on the import of agricultural products to the Russian Federation — tomatoes from Armenia, Azerbaijan, potatoes from Egypt, pepper, zucchini and eggplant from Turkey and other products. Previously, these bans were introduced to support domestic producers.

This measure is designed to stimulate imports and increase the supply of products on the Russian market. Most likely, over time, there will be more such actions to stabilize the domestic market.

What restrictions apply to the export of goods from Russia?

At the moment, the Russian Federation has not imposed any restrictions on the export of our products to other countries. There are only recommendations. For example, the Ministry of Industry and Trade recommended that large fertilizer producers limit supplies in order to saturate the domestic market. Some companies in Russia are also restricting their work in response to the sanctions.

Russia is a major food exporter. Large businesses export grains and beans, sunflower oil, meat. Small and medium-sized businesses send abroad sweets, cookies, snack products — protein bars and more.


In conclusion, the isssue of wheter sanctions affect Russia and Russian’s customs remains debatable. On the one hand, it will lead to collaps in Russian’s economics and Russians life a lot, because we already have problems with purchasing some sort of poducts in our local shops because of artificial scarcity and we cannot control it currently. And on the other hand, Such sunctions is a great oppotunity to make domestic products great again as it has been recently and show it to the other world. Thus, sunctions will badly affect on Russian’s customs logistic for sure but it is not as big problem as many people around the world think.


1. «How sanctions affect exports and imports in Russia» https://journal.tinkoff.ru/ved-challenges/

2. «Sanctions on Russia: What Businesses Should Know to Stay» Compliant https://sumsub.com/blog/sanctions-on-russia-updates/

3. «EU Set to Add Luxury Goods, Steel, Iron to Russia Sanctions» https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2022-03-14/eu-set-to-add-luxury-goods-steel-iron-to-russia-sanctions

4. «Sanctions against Russia. Trade restrictions» https://www.ey.com/en_ru/tax/tax-alert/2022/03/ey-sanctions-against-russia-1-march-2022-tax-eng

5. «In Europe, they called a possible deadline for approving the embargo on the supply of Russian coal» https://lenta.ru/news/2022/04/07/sanctionsimports/

Кабанова Я. Г.
 Inflation in Russia: State, Causes and Ways of Solving the Problem

Kabanova Y.G., 1st year student {Economics}

Scientific adviser: Arutyunyan D.D., PhD {Pedagogy}, associate professor

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The article deals with the causes of inflation in Russia, inflation rates in recent years, inflation forecast for 2022, ways to solve this economic problem, which affects the life of society, the country’s economy and can become an obstacle for Russia to come to economic recovery.

Keywords: monetary factor, monetary character, non-monetary character, open economy.

The level of inflation and the dynamics of price development have long been an object of increased control by the Russian government, but also a cause of concern for every citizen of the country. The relevance of this problem requires a deep analysis of the level of inflation and its causes. This is necessary to develop a set of measures that will contribute to stabilization.

Since ancient times, mankind has been interested in the issue of rising prices and the depreciation of money. Many domestic authors tried to thoroughly understand this problem: L.N. Krasavina, V.V. Novozhilov, S.G. Strumilin and others. However, in the scientific literature, insufficient attention is paid to the analysis of statistical indicators of inflation.

The state uses various methods to combat and stabilize inflation. To find ways to solve this problem, it is necessary to identify the causes of this process.

Factors that generate inflation in Russia are very diverse. It is necessary to take into account the influence of each factor and evaluate its consequences. General causes of inflation in Russia should be considered.

One knows that inflation is a monetary phenomenon. Since it is generated by an excess of money supply in circulation. This is reflected in the depreciation of money. The monetary factor is of great importance in this matter, but there may be other reasons.

One of the main causes of inflation in Russia is emission, which has a monetary character. The rate of inflation is affected by the amount of money in circulation. The increase in the money supply in the modern economy has three sources: the credit channel, the fiscal channel (operations with sovereign funds and public debt), the foreign exchange channel (buying and selling foreign currency to the real sector). This leads to an increase in the solvency of the population, resulting in an increase in the level of prices for goods and services.

Next, it is necessary to identify the reasons of a non-monetary nature that increase the level of inflation in Russia.

With state regulation of prices, for example, natural monopolies, gas prices, utilities rise periodically. This leads to an increase in the cost of manufacturing products of manufacturing industries, that is, it is the cause of cost inflation in the Russian economy.

There is also the factor of inflation expectation. The manufacturer predicts what ratio the price of goods and services will change in the near future. Thus, enterprises support the rise in prices with their own pricing policy.

In countries with open economies, there is a convergence of domestic and world prices. As a result, there is a gradual increase in domestic prices in Russia, that is inflation.

Consider inflation in Russia for 2021. Rosstat estimated inflation at the end of 2021 at 8.39%. This is the maximum value after 2015, when it was much higher — 12.91%. In the fight against rising prices, the Russian central bank raised the key rate seven times this year, raising it to the level of 2017.

Inflation for the whole year was at the level of the November maximum — and the highest in the last five years, follows from the calculations of Rosstat. According to preliminary data, it amounted to 8.39% after 4.9% last year. Products for this year have risen in price by 10.62%, and services — by 4.98%.

The highest inflation is food inflation, at the end of the year it amounted to 10.62%. The fact that food has risen most of all, the Russians can say even without statistics: this can be seen from the checks.

Why is everything getting more expensive, especially food? The main reason is the issue of money. The amount of paper money has grown amid the coronavirus pandemic. The second reason is an open economy.

What to expect in 2022? The inflation peak remained in November 2021 at 8.39%. The Bank of Russia believes that inflation will return to 4—4.5% in 2022. According to Fitch, inflation will return to the target level of 4% only in 2023.

One popular method of controlling inflation is through a contractionary monetary policy. The goal of a contractionary policy is to reduce the money supply within an economy by decreasing bond prices and increasing interest rates.

This helps reduce spending because when there is less money to go around: those who have money want to keep it and save it, instead of spending it. It also means there is less available credit, which can reduce spending. Reducing spending is important during inflation because it helps halt economic growth and, in turn, the rate of inflation.

The second tool is to increase reserve requirements on the amount of money banks are legally required to keep on hand to cover withdrawals. The more money banks are required to hold back, the less they have to lend to consumers. If they have less to lend, consumers will borrow less, which will decrease spending.

The third method is to directly or indirectly reduce the money supply by enacting policies that encourage the reduction of the money supply.

Two examples of this include calling in debts that are owed to the government and increasing the interest paid on bonds so that more investors will buy them.

The latter policy raises the exchange rate of the currency due to higher demand (through capital inflows if your rates are increasing relative to foreign rates) and, in turn, increases imports and decreases exports. Both of these policies will reduce the amount of money in circulation because the money will be going from banks, companies and investors’ pockets into the government’s pocket where it can control what happens to it.


1.Overview of Inflation in Russia in 2021 [https://www.bbc.com/russian/news-59821678]

2. Inflation Forecast for 2022 [https://www.vedomosti.ru/economics/articles/2021/12/28/902903-zhdat-inflyatsii]

3. Economic theory E.F.Borisov. 2004, Moscow, publishing house «Avenue».

4. Reducing the rate of inflation in the strategy of innovative development of Russia L. N. Krasavina. 2006, Moscow, publishing house «Avenue».

Канцер Е. И., Лучина А. А., Поспелов М. П. 
Family relationship problems

Kantser E.I., Luchina A.A., Pospelov M.P., 3rd year students {Applied Informatics}

Scientific adviser: Atrokhin A.M., PhD {Philology}, associate professor

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

A family is a full-fledged unit of society, within which there are established relationships between its members, each of whom is an individual. Sometimes the unwillingness to interact with each other leads to quarrels, conflicts, the solution of which, at times, remains undiscovered for years. Despite the obvious way out of such a situation, many people prefer to keep silent and ignore it, which only leads to an aggravation of the already aggravated situation.

Keywords: types of families, established stereotype, physical violence, human psychology.

There are two main types of families available: nuclear families and single-parent families: absence of one of the parents due to divorce, death of one of them, imprisonment or two people are in an unregistered marriage or not spelled out at all. According to the established stereotype, «unhappy «families are the second one. The absence of mother or father means lack of «man upbringing» or «family hearth». Children can’t moral support they need, not even talking about material issue of question. These poor children will build the same model of creating their own unit of society in future. However, for such serious conclusions it is important to study both types. We should start with studying one person.

Not many people think about any psychological aspects at the moment of creating their family, and this is an integral part of each of us. Some people don’t fit each other in terms of characteristics traits, but they realize this already in marriage. It seemed the best move is a divorce, but at this point some unpleasant factors come into play:

— How will people around look at it, because everyone saw the perfect picture of a family, successful and happy people;

— What would one spouse’s family say, because marriage for the older generation is something indestructible;

— How does one spouse let go of the other, because after that comes loneliness.

To the above, it remains to add moral pressure in the form of words about not being needed by anyone else except your spouse, having at least one child and the absence of any other accommodation for separation.

The result is several psychologically broken fates. Parents who are increasingly unhappy with each other turn into aggressors toward each other and their own children. Anger comes out in the form of hurtful and caustic words. A particular case of domestic violence may involve more than one type of violence or one of them. The most common and dangerous type is physical violence. It is characterized by actions such as pushing, grabbing, throwing, hitting with the palm and/or fist and/or foreign objects, holding, choking, kicking; use of weapons, burns. It is not uncommon to involve children against their will. Manipulate by using the child as a human shield. Failure to comply with one adult’s request by another will lead to the use of physical force against the child.

Children who accept this as the norm, but suffer undoubtedly, turn into battered and embittered people. Later on, some find dysfunctional companies, have problems with the law, use harmful and illegal substances, and some even kill themselves because they can no longer tolerate such violence.

But the worst thing about this portrait of a «happy» family is that it all happens only at home. The problems are not brought out in public, it is not accepted. Which means none of them need help. It is not always possible to see the man as a tyrant who kills his family. It may not always be a man, and society rarely believes in a woman’s ability to inflict physical and moral damage on her husband or child. In addition, the example of Russia shows that, at the legislative level, domestic violence and serious beatings can only be punished with a fine. Only in this case, a complaint against the aggressor will provoke him even more. In addition, the victim must prove that the beating really happened. And to do this, the beating must be taken down in a trauma clinic. Collecting papers, drawing them up correctly is often beyond the power of victims, and the victim of violence does not have money for a lawyer. That is why such cases rarely make it to court. However, the picture is not the same everywhere. For example, in the United States of America, where the system of combating and preventing domestic violence is very well developed, approximately three thousand women die each year.

Would a divorce change anything in that case? Definitely yes. Perhaps things would not have worked out so smoothly in personal relationships or financially, but people would certainly not have been subjected to such terrible events. Certainly, it is necessary to work through the psychological consequences of a family breakup with a psychologist, to help yourself and your children morally, and to try to remain «family,» even on a slightly different spectrum.

This only applies to complete families. But what about those with only one parent? It would seem that everything should be much better, the adults have made an adult decision not to torment each other. However, problems of a different kind can arise here.

A child gets in the way of moving on with life. It is quite common for one parent to give their children to live with and raise them together, while the other parent only occasionally shows up on the doorstep without providing the necessary physical support. For example, when one of the adults has a new personal life that the child does not yet fit into for some reason. The second adult is also not particularly happy to take him or her in, at least for an agreed-upon time interval. This is where the new stage of tyranny begins. Only this time, only the little person suffers physically, due to his inability to respond to the parent. The guardian takes all his anger and resentment at this «injustice» and takes it out on the person he or she is protecting. The result is domestic violence again. Again, at least one broken person. Again, a return to the portrait of the «ideal» family described above.

And there are countless such pictures: alcoholism of someone’s parents — all hell for both children and adults; forced religious marriage — a direct path to mutual hatred, slavery, terrible consequences; marriage because of unwanted pregnancy — scandals, arguments, cheating, beatings; the presence in the family of «a third extra» in the person of the mother of the husband or wife — the eternal dissatisfaction in the household, moral pressure on the young family, the eternally tense relations of the very family. This is only a small part of the possible events.

Does this mean that there are no truly happy families? No. There are plenty of loving families all over the world, no matter how «full» they are. Yes, they quarrel, they disagree, but they don’t rape each other. They know how to listen, hear, ask for forgiveness and forgive. They love each other, accepting each other’s virtues and flaws. Respect for other people’s personal boundaries is the norm in such families. And this is sometimes enough.

Human psychology is quite a multifaceted science, you can’t just divide everything into black and white. There are nuances and pitfalls everywhere. Certainly, all people are different, all have their own emotional and character spectrum. Humanity is not a game of jigsaw puzzles to clearly fit together.

There is no clear-cut recipe for how one should and should not live, love, and build relationships with others. The main thing in all this is to remain a sensible person. Remember that quarrels, when they do not turn into scandals and fights, are normal. Being offended is normal. Getting a divorce, getting rid of uncomfortable relationships, is normal.

Not all people need a family in the standard sense of the word. For them, family means people close to them, some have pets. And there should be no concept of anything «strange» about it.

Some marriages do not have children for reasons ranging from unwillingness to medical issues. But they, too, are a full-fledged family, whereas society strongly disagrees with this and considers it necessary to meddle in their relationship. And this often leads to complexes, depression, forced divorce or, in a bad case, suicide of one of the spouses. This, too, is a kind of violence — moral violence.

It is hardly possible to completely eradicate violence in the global sense; unfortunately, all of humanity’s life is not a fairy tale with a happy ending. But each of us should have a choice, none of us should be forced to build a family the way it is «accepted» by someone else.


1. «Domashnee nasilie v Rossii» [Domestic violence in Russia]. Available at: http://ugolovnyi-expert.com/domashnee-nasilie. (Accessed 8 march 2022) (in Russian)

2. E.N.Ershova, S.G.Aivazova. «Domashnee nasilie: sotsial’no-pravovoi aspekt» [Domestic violence: socio-legal aspect]. Educational and methodical manual, 3rd edition, supplemented and revised. Moscow, 2013. (in Russian).

3. Iablochkina E. A., Vasil’eva N. V., Oginskaia E. D. «Nasilie v sem’e — eto prestuplenie» [Domestic violence is a crime]. Methodical manual for police officers and judges under the general editorship of Pskov, 2013. (in Russian).

4. N.A. Bokhan, A.V. Semke, E.V. Gutkevich. «Psikhicheskoe zdorov’e sem’i v sovremennom mire» [Mental health of the family in the modern world]. Collection of abstracts Tomsk, 2019. (in Russian)

Кононова А. А.
 Economics of enterprise placement

Kononova A.A., 3rd year student {Business Informatics}

Scientific adviser: Fedotova T.V., senior lecturer

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

In this paper the author considers the main criteria and factors taken into account when choosing the enterprise location. The economic role of the enterprise location is determined. Descriptions of the most common methods of choosing the enterprise location are given. The article considers modern tools for determining placement. The recommendations were developed based on the analysis of the experience of domestic and foreign enterprises.

Keywords: enterprise placement, costs, resources, GIS.

The problem of choosing the enterprise location is relevant for entrepreneurs who are just starting their own business or continuing to expand an existing network of enterprises. The choice of placement depends on many different factors, depending on the specifics of the company’s activities, but often the main criterion is the amount of profit. In case of an unsuccessful decision, the process of eliminating the consequences can stretch over time and take away a lot of resources. This is the reason why this issue needs to be approached with great responsibility.

The choice of the location of the enterprise can be considered as an investment, which in future guarantees a stable income for a long period.

The placement of objects has a significant impact on the number of costs of firms of different profiles. In some cases, the transportation costs for the delivery of goods to retail outlets where further sales take place can reach 25% of the original sale price [3, p. 163]. Also, the location of the enterprise affects the cost of materials, the amount of wages and the amount of taxes.

The costs of the enterprise for the production and sale of products may vary up to 10% depending on the placement. In this case, it will be easier to reduce production costs due to the optimal location by the same amount than by reforming part of the enterprise management system.

The choice of placement is quite problematic to change. In this regard, the search for the most favorable placement of the enterprise is an important part of the strategy, which requires a detailed economic justification. This justification strongly depends on the specifics of a particular enterprise. For example: enterprises for the extraction of ores, non-ferrous metals, coal, oil, timber, fish, as well as for the production of paper, sugar, canned food tend to sources of raw materials. The cement, glass, brick, furniture, shoe, sewing, milling, dairy, meat, brewing, confectionery industries tend to the places of consumption of products. The production of aluminum, zinc, copper, and artificial fiber is located closer to the energy sources.

Thus, the analysis of the location of the enterprise should focus on minimizing the costs of sales and production to ensure maximum profit.

The influence of the following factors on the choice of placement should be considered (see Fig.1). When analyzing these factors, it is better to pay more attention to the differentiation of costs.

Of course, it is necessary to take into account the influence of factors that are not included in the list, these may be: local taxes, the attitude of citizens to the company, the level of employment. The reason for this is that in practice, sometimes there are situations when local authorities do not give permission for construction or local residents express their position through protests against the formation of a manufacturing enterprise.

Figure 1. Factors of choosing the location of the enterprise

The classical approach to choosing a location, based on a consistent analysis of factors, involves the following steps:

— Determination of home region;

— Selection of suitable localities;

— Allocation of districts within the marked settlements;

— Formation of methodology for assessing the acceptability of a combination of factors;

— Comparative analysis of selected locations and selection of the optimal location [1, p. 44].

There are a number of other approaches to choosing a location.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are specialized programs that contain information on certain geographical zones. With the help of color zoning, the program allows you to select the zones that are most attractive to consumers (or the location of production) on the map. The use of these systems is common among resource-producing enterprises. However, recently systems of this type have begun to appear, working with data relevant to retail trade. For example, the Geointellect platform is the first Russian Location Intelligence platform. This platform allows you to work with a wide variety of geo-analytics for business [4].

The formation of unified service areas is used to select the location of an enterprise that produces more than one product. The location can be determined using the center of gravity method. It is applied provided that the number of products sent to each center is the same. Then production or a central warehouse can be located in the «center of gravity» [2, p. 247].

The rating system for choosing the location of the organization allows you to more rationally compare the options for the final placement of the enterprise. Weight value is set for each individual factor, then all values characterizing a specific location are summed up. It is worth noting that subjective assessment of factors by specialists plays an important role in this approach.

The traveling salesman method (linear programming) is used to determine the location of an enterprise with supplies from a single source. The costs of circulation in it are considered as a linear function of the distance and the quantity of products transported.

Computer modeling is used in a situation where it is important to take into account all possible flows. In addition, some firms distribute hundreds of items of goods, and accordingly, the analysis of such a system is characterized by high labor intensity. Modern possibilities of information technologies make it possible to solve such voluminous tasks in a short time. Computer simulations can also identify data that were not included in the initial calculations. Modern technologies make it possible to select the optimal location for organizations of different profiles using almost all of the above approaches at the same time.

The experience of domestic and foreign enterprises allows to formulate the following recommendations. [3, p. 165].

1. It is worth analyzing the options for choosing the location of production at the stage of the feasibility study of the project.

2. When choosing the location, you need to take into account the location of the main suppliers of materials and raw materials.

3. It is necessary to consider the prospect of replacing the materials used in a situation where the cost of delivery of these materials becomes a significant factor in determining the location.

4. It is recommended to pay attention to the infrastructure near the production location. Important elements are: labor force, availability of financial organizations and suppliers.

5. It is necessary to take into account socio-economic aspects and environmental factors.

6. Several different options should be analyzed in detail. In addition to the financial risks themselves, it is necessary to assess: production costs (including environmental protection costs), marketing and investment costs, taxes, subsidies, net cash flow.

7. It is recommended to evaluate the listed aspects in qualitative and quantitative terms and come to a conclusion regarding the possibility of implementing production in this territory.

8. At the final stage, it is worth paying attention to the role of the following two parameters: «flexibility» (if in the future the original concept of the company is revised, then you should choose a location that allows you to change the type of activity) and «experience» (you should strive for a territory where there are personal and business connections).


1. Fejzullaev, F. S. Teoriya i praktika proizvodstvennogo menedzhmenta [Theory and practice of production management]. Mahachkala, Dagestan state agrarian university named after M. M. Dzhambulatov, 2020, 87 p. available at: https://e.lanbook.com/book/138120 (accessed 18 February 2022).

2. Pivovarov S. E., Maksimcev I. A., Rogova I. N., Hutieva E. Operacionnyj menedzhment: Uchebnik dlya vuzov. [Operational management: Textbook for universities]. Saint Petersburg, 2011, 544 p. (in Russian)

3. Popov V. L., Markov D. A., Gureeva E. G., Krutova A. V. Upravlenie proizvodstvom i operaciyami [Production and Operations Management]. Perm’, Perm National Research Polytechnic University, 2012, 342 p. available at: https://e.lanbook.com/book/161126 (accessed 22 February 2022).

4. Geointellect. Geoanaliticheskoe oblako. Magazin geodannyh [Geoanalytic cloud. Geodata store], available at: https://geointellect.com/#portfolio-4 (accessed 20 February 2022).

Коротков Е. А.
 Family relations in modern society

Korotkov E.A., 4th year student {Sociology}

Scientific adviser: Kyuregyan M.P. Senior Lecturer

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

This article is dedicated to the study family relations as a social phenomenon. The author provides the results of the analysis of Russian statistics illustrating the features of family relations. The author gives three definitions of family relations. The author demonstrates the results of a sociological study conducted in the form of a questionnaire. These results may be relevant for registry offices.

Keywords: family, family relations, responsibilities, divorce.


As a result of the analysis of Russian statistics, it turned out that the number of divorces decreased by 17% in January-August 2020 compared to the same period last year — from 405.9 thousand to 336.8 thousand [1]. In 2020, 564033 couples divorced, and in 2019 — 620730. This means that the number of divorces decreased by about 9% in 2020 compared to 2019. However, 644,207 couples divorced in 2021. Consequently, the number of divorces increased by 14% in 2021 compared to 2020 [2].

In addition, family relations are characterized by the relationship between children and their parents. For example, every second Russian (53%) believes that his father and mother influenced his upbringing equally. One in three (34%) notes the leading role of the mother, and only one in ten (9%) — the father [3]. «Both parents are obliged to raise children equally,» the majority of respondents (72%) believes. Another 13% believe that grandparents should share this burden with their parents [3].

In addition, family relations are characterized by the distribution of responsibilities in the family. In modern Russian society, husband and wife are assigned equal responsibilities for the care of children and their upbringing (according to a 2017 survey, 84% of Russians believe so) [4]. The majority of Russians have ideas about the distribution of household responsibilities (74%) they are also similar: both spouses should make efforts to maintain comfort and cleanliness in the house [4].

What is a family relations?

Family relations need to be given three definitions that characterize their features.

Firstly, family relations are the relationships that arise in the family between children and their parents (between grandchildren and their grandparents), characterized by socialization and upbringing of children, on the one hand, and sometimes parents’ fears for their children, on the other hand.

Secondly, family relations are relations that arise in the family between spouses, that is, between a man and a woman, characterized by the peculiarities of the distribution of responsibilities between them in the framework of the upbringing and socialization of children, housekeeping and housemaking.

Thirdly, family relations are relations between spouses characterized by features related to the conclusion and dissolution of marriage.

These three definitions of family relations are best suited to characterize the three sides of family relations as a social phenomenon. These three definitions of family relations characterize the three aspects of family relations existing as a whole as a social phenomenon.

Research method: mass survey in the form of a questionnaire. The sociological study involved 120 respondents — citizens of the Russian Federation under the age of forty.

In a sociological study, it was necessary to find out which factors most often cause divorce. The overwhelming majority of respondents (83,3%) believe that the cheating of one of the spouses is a factor causing the dissolution of marriage.

Two-thirds of respondents (67,5%) call the actual breakdown of the family as a factor causing divorce, when the couple became strangers to each other.

According to the results, the factors causing divorce are domestic violence in 65,8% of respondents, the quarrelsome and complex nature of spouses in 64,2% of respondents, bad habits of one spouses (alcoholism and drug addiction) in 54.2% of respondents, constant material and financial difficulties in 52,5% of respondents, interference in family affairs of relatives and acquaintances in every second respondent (50%), the inability to have children in 41,7% of respondents.

Almost every fourth respondent (24,2%) believes that the factors causing divorce are, firstly, the husband’s job loss, and secondly, the illness of one of the spouses.

Almost every sixth respondent (15%) believes that the difference in the age of the spouses is a factor causing the dissolution of marriage.

Leveling of family values in the media is a factor causing divorce in 14,2% of respondents.

A less significant factor causing divorce is the loss of work by the wife (8,3% of respondents).

It should be noted that the loss of a job by a wife is less likely to cause a divorce than the loss of a job by a husband.

Among other factors causing divorce, one respondent calls unwillingness to work on relationships and unwillingness to talk, first of all, about what worries. (See Figure 1.)

Figure 1. Distribution of respondents’ answers to the question: «What factors, in your opinion, most often cause the dissolution of marriage (divorce)?» (in % of the total number of respondents)

As part of the study, it was important to find out what respondents consider to be the responsibilities of spouses in the family.

Almost two thirds of respondents (64,2%) believe that taking care of family and children is the responsibility of both men and women. More than one fifth of respondents (21,7%) believe that taking care of family and children is a woman’s responsibility. Every seventh respondent (14,2%) believes that taking care of family and children is a man’s responsibility. (See Figure 2.)

Figure 2. Distribution of respondents’ answers to the question: «Whose duty is it to take care of family and children?» (in % of the total number of respondents)

Every second respondent (50%) considers dusting the responsibility of both men and women. Every third respondent (33,3%) considers dusting a woman’s responsibility. Every seventh respondent (14,2%) considers dusting to be a man’s responsibility. (See Figure 3.)

Figure 3. Distribution of respondents’ answers to the question: «Whose duty is dusting?» (in % of the total number of respondents)

More than half of respondents (56,7%) consider garbage removal to be the responsibility of both men and women. Almost every third respondent (31,7%) calls garbage removal a man’s duty. Only 8,3% of respondents call garbage removal a woman’s responsibility. (See Figure 4.)

Figure 4. Distribution of respondents’ answers to the question: «Whose duty is garbage removal?» (in % of the total number of respondents)

About one second of respondents (48,3%) believe that washing clothes and clothes is a woman’s responsibility. It turned out that 40% of respondents consider washing clothes and clothes to be the responsibility of both men and women. Approximately one in eight respondents (11,7%) considers washing clothes and clothes to be a man’s responsibility. (See Figure 5.)

Figure 5. Distribution of respondents’ answers to the question: « Whose duty is the washing of underwear, clothes?» (in % of the total number of respondents)

More than one second of respondents (53,3%) believe that sewing holes on clothes is a woman’s responsibility. More than one third of respondents (35%) consider sewing holes on clothes to be the responsibility of both men and women. (See Figure 6.)

Figure 6. Distribution of respondents’ answers to the question: « Whose duty is it to sew up the holes on the clothes?» (in % of the total number of respondents)


The results of the study clearly demonstrated that the overwhelming majority of respondents (83,3%) consider the infidelity of one of the spouses to be a factor causing the dissolution of marriage. Almost two thirds of respondents (64,2%) consider taking care of family and children to be the responsibility of both husband and wife. More than half of respondents consider dusting (50%) and garbage removal (56,7%) to be the duties of both husband and wife. More than half of respondents (53,3%) consider sewing holes on clothes to be a woman’s responsibility. Almost half of the respondents (48,3%) consider washing clothes and clothes to be a woman’s responsibility.


1. Operational demographic indicators for January — August 2020. — Moscow: Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat). — URL.: https://rosstat.gov.ru/folder/70843/document/101202 (accessed 19.03.2022)

2. Statistics of divorces and marriages in Russia 2021—2022: tables by year and region/ — URL.: https://top-rf.ru/places/149-braki-razvody.html (accessed 19.03.2022)

3. VCIOM. News: Fathers, mothers, grandmothers: who should raise children? — URL.: https://wciom.ru/analytical-reviews/analiticheskii-obzor/otczy-materi-babushki-komu-vospityvat-detej (accessed 19.03.2022)

4. VCIOM. News: The Union of Equals, or how the modern family works/ — URL.: https://wciom.ru/analytical-reviews/analiticheskii-obzor/soyuz-ravnykh-ili-kak-ustroena-sovremennaya-semya (accessed 19.03.2022)

Куземина П. О.
 Problems of application of the customs procedure of customs transit and ways to solve them

Kuzemina P.O., 4th year student {Customs}

Scientific adviser: Kyuregyan M.P., Senior Lecturer

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

This article analyzes the problems arising from the application of the customs procedure of customs transit, and also presents proposals for their possible solution.

Keywords: customs transit, illegal movement of goods, electronic declaration, AS KTT-2.

The practical application of the customs procedure of customs transit in the basis of cases is associated with the import of goods into one of the member states of the EAEU. Thus, customs transit is the so-called intermediate link between the actual arrival of goods in the customs territory of the Union and their release in accordance with the customs procedure for release for domestic consumption [4].

Considering that when goods are placed under the customs procedure of customs transit, they are transported without payment of customs duties, taxes, special, anti-dumping, countervailing duties, subject to the conditions for placing goods under this customs procedure, it can be concluded that such a customs procedure has a preferential character. However, the customs authorities take a number of measures to ensure compliance with the conditions for placing goods under such a customs procedure, namely:

1) ensuring the payment of customs payments;

2) customs escort;

3) establishment of the route for the transportation of goods.

The measures listed above are not mandatory and are applied in cases determined by the customs legislation of the EAEU and the legislation of the Member States on customs regulation. In this regard, there are a large number of registered cases of violations of the conditions of the customs procedure for customs transit [4].

The most frequent are cases of violation of the terms of the customs procedure of customs transit by carriers of goods placed under such a customs procedure. There are 2 most well-known schemes for the illegal movement of goods:

1. At one of the Russian customs posts, a customs transit procedure is opened for goods moving from European countries to the EAEU countries (for example, to Kazakhstan or Kyrgyzstan) through the territory of Russia. Vehicles do not arrive at the customs office of destination within the specified period. After some time, the vehicles are found in the interior of Russia with empty cargo compartments. That is, the transit is not completed in the prescribed manner, since after being imported into the territory of Russia, the goods were unloaded on the domestic Russian market. Under each such scheme, the amount of unpaid customs payments amounts to several million rubles, which causes serious economic damage to the Russian Federation.

2. According to the scheme called «false transit», expensive goods of well-known brands are imported into the customs territory of the EAEU. In this case, customs transit through the territory of the EAEU is also applied, while the goods follow from China to European countries. On the way through the territory of the EAEU, an expensive product is replaced by a cheaper «cover product» of low quality, which arrives to complete the transit at the border customs authorities [4].

If violations of the conditions of customs transit are revealed, criminal cases are initiated against carriers under Part 2 of Art. 194 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation (evasion of customs payments) [3], as well as cases of an administrative offense:

— according to part 1 of Art. 16.9 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation — non-delivery of a part of goods under customs control;

— according to part 3 of Art. 16.1 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation — reporting to the customs authority of false information about the number of packages, about the name and weight of goods;

— according to part 3 of Art. 16.1 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation — reporting to the customs authority of false information about the number of packages and the name of the goods upon departure from the customs territory of the EAEU by providing the customs authority with invalid documents [2].

To solve this problem, it is necessary to direct efforts to improve the level and quality of information exchange between the customs authorities of the EAEU member states, which helps to prevent the illegal movement of goods across the territory of the EAEU and the evasion of customs payments by a participant in foreign economic activity.

One of the tools to improve the quality of work of customs authorities is the introduction of electronic declaration of customs transit. The Federal Customs Service of the Russian Federation gives priority to the widespread introduction of such technology, which helps to speed up customs operations at border checkpoints [4].

In this case, the question arises of measures aimed at expanding the practice of using this technology, because its use at the moment is voluntary.

It is important to note that the transition of carriers to the declaration of transit in electronic form imposes on them a certain list of additional obligations related to the need to obtain an electronic signature. During working meetings, carriers note that there are problems with filing a transit declaration in electronic form using the official website of the Federal Customs Service of Russia, related to the existing technology flaws, the inability to generate an electronic transit declaration (ETD) based on the information specified in the preliminary declaration for goods, significant time costs associated with the formation of ETD. The use of alternative software products for the formation of ETD is associated with significant financial investments due to the need to purchase and maintain these products [4].

In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to create favorable conditions for participants in foreign economic activity, which can influence the expansion of the use of electronic declaration of the customs transit procedure. Such benefits may be directed to:

1) release of the carrier from the need to provide security for the payment of customs payments during transit, if the declarant has submitted an electronic transit declaration to the customs authority of departure and a preliminary declaration for goods to the customs authority of destination;

2) non-application to carriers of such measures to ensure transit, such as customs escort and establishment of a route for the transportation of goods;

3) assignment of participants in foreign economic activity to the category of medium or low risk level, if they make out all transit deliveries in electronic form.

The introduction of the above benefits may, to some extent, have a negative impact on the effectiveness of customs control, but will lead to a noticeable increase in the number of registered electronic transit declarations [4].

Another problem is the use of customs transit for multimodal (mixed) transportation. If, due to logistical features, traders have to use different modes of transport for the transportation of goods, goods are repeatedly placed under the transit procedure.

This problem is due to the underdevelopment of the software product of the customs authorities «AS KTT-2» — an automated customs transit control system. AS KTT-2 interacts with automated systems used in customs operations and customs control at the checkpoint across the state border of the Russian Federation.

If customs transit is carried out by one mode of transport, and then, after reloading the goods in the customs territory of the EAEU, by another mode of transport, the AS KTT-2 software tool does not allow the carrier to continue the transit procedure. In this case, it is necessary to complete the transit procedure before reloading the goods, and after it open a new transit procedure for the same consignment [4].

At the same time, it should be noted that the provisions of the Customs Code of the EAEU do not oblige in such a situation to repeatedly apply the transit procedure. According to the provisions of Art. 148 of the Customs Code of the EAEU, unloading, reloading and other cargo operations with goods transported in accordance with the customs transit procedure are allowed with the permission of the customs authority in the region of activity of which such operations are performed, and do not require re-placement of goods under the transit procedure [1].

In this regard, in order to simplify transit multimodal transportation, it is necessary to urgently refine the AS KTT-2 software tool by endowing it with the functions of processing multimodal transportation within the framework of one customs transit procedure. In this case, it will be enough for the carrier to obtain a permit for reloading goods, and this permit can be issued electronically without the actual presence of the carrier [4].

Thus, summing up all of the above, we can conclude that the key problems in the application of the customs procedure of customs transit are the use of schemes for the illegal movement of goods by carriers, the lack of widespread use of electronic declaration of customs transit and the repeated placement of the same consignment of goods under the customs procedure of customs transit in multimodal transportation. Each of the above problems requires careful study.


1. Customs Code of the Eurasian Economic Union (as amended on May 29, 2019) (Appendix No. 1 to the Treaty on the Customs Code of the Eurasian Economic Union).

2. Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses of December 30, 2001 N 195-FZ (as amended on April 5, 2021).

3. Criminal Code of the Russian Federation of 06/13/1996 N 63-FZ (as amended on 04/05/2021, as amended on 04/08/2021).

4. Problems of application of the customs procedure of customs transit: [electronic resource]. URL: https://marklog.ru/procedura-tamoj-tranzita/ (date of access: 03/14/2022).

Курбатская А. Ю.
 Digital technologies and sustainable development

Kurbatskaia A. Yu., 2nd year student {Business Informatics}

Scientific adviser: Fedotova T.V., Senior Lecturer

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The purpose of the article is to study the ways to achieve sustainable development through digital technologies. The article discusses the positive and negative aspects of digitalization. The main directions are identified in which it is more effective to introduce digital technologies for achieving sustainable development. It also reveals the problem of distrust of new technologies and the ways to overcome it.

Keywords: digital technologies, sustainable development, sustainable development goals.

Digitalization is the foundation of the fourth industrial Revolution.

Almost every business uses remote working services, CRM systems and databases. New technologies help to diagnose patients more accurately, to perform operations using robots; AI algorithms help with the learning process; neural networks are involved in the creation of paintings, books and music. In politics and catering, in manufacturing, even in the average grocery shop and at home — digital technology is everywhere.

It should be understood why all developed countries strive for sustainable development. It promotes economic growth, social integration, and environmental protection.

By 2030, the UN has set 17 goals that are related to environmental, social and economic sustainable development, as well as the preservation of social, cultural, biological and physical systems [3].

Digital advancement can help support and accelerate the achievement of each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals, from ending extreme poverty, reducing maternal and infant mortality rates, to promoting sustainable farming and decent work, and achieving universal literacy [1].

The most promising goals for digitalization are:

— good health and well-being;

— quality education;

— industrialization, innovation and infrastructure;

— sustainable cities and communities;

— combating climate change;

— peace, justice and effective institutions.

Let’s figure out exactly how these goals are achieved with the help of digital technologies.

1. Good health and well-being.

Digitalization has become one of the global vectors for the development of healthcare throughout the world. Technologies help diagnose, prescribe treatment and maintain health, from online consultations with a doctor to the use of artificial intelligence for medical purposes.

Digital technologies are becoming a catalyst for value-based healthcare.

2. Quality education.

For the last few years new technologies have greatly changed the approach to education. COVID-19 has helped education with digital transformation. Russian schoolchildren, students and teachers got acquainted with the opportunity to study using new means of communication and information. Also, with the development of digital technologies in education, we can talk about the use of virtual and augmented reality. These technologies are used to simulate physical, medical and engineering processes. They help interest students, grab their attention thereby making the process of obtaining and acquiring new knowledge more effective and interesting.

It is worth noting that education using digital technologies greatly differs from traditional education, it opens up more opportunities for deepening and gaining knowledge, but it also requires the development of soft skills by all participants in the learning process.

3. Industrialization, innovation and infrastructure. Sustainable cities and communities.

Achieving sustainable development requires investments in infrastructure that can empower citizens, their access to modern technologies and their connection to the world. The use of digital technologies contributes to the rapid exchange of information with investors, and also increases the level of infrastructure through the use of technology in public spaces, roads, etc. Improved infrastructure means higher living standards.

4. Combat climate change.

Climate change is a global environmental problem. Our planet cannot cope with greenhouse gas emissions that cause the greenhouse effect and abrupt climate change. Internet-enabled smart systems improve CO2 emissions and waste management. The elimination of paper workflow, the protection of natural ecosystems, electric locomotives without exhaust gases — all this is a consequence of the positive effect of digital technologies.

5. Peace, justice and effective institutions.

People around the world need to feel safe, regardless of their ethnicity, religion or sexual orientation. Digital technologies are also excellent for achieving this goal. With their help, most criminal actions can be tracked on a digital trail. Cameras broadcasting live streets and institutions also contribute to the reduction of crime.

But of course, behind all the advantages of digitalization, there are some disadvantages. Digital technologies can jeopardize privacy. They also undermine security due to the possibility of hacking systems. Digital technologies can exacerbate inequalities in access to information and its correct use.

Some entrepreneurs are afraid to digitalize their business because believe that they will not be able to cover the costs, but the starting point for the sustainable development of enterprises is precisely the introduction of digital technologies. Don’t be afraid to replace human labour with robots and software. Innovation creates new jobs and professions, it creates productivity growth, and businesses grow at an accelerated pace.

The use of technology affects both the enjoyment of human rights and freedom of action. But, in my opinion, all the listed disadvantages cannot resist the benefits of digital technologies.

In our time, society trusts technology, but still fears its global implementation. In order for Russian citizens of all ages to be able to use technology without fear, digital companies must openly provide data on the security, safety, reliability of information, as well as the protection of personal data and compliance with information ethics [2].

Digitalization has acquired an important role in the implementation of global sustainable development goals. It creates, first of all, the conditions for raising the standard of living of people, by improving the social and economic spheres. Digitization opens up new opportunities for entrepreneurs.

The future is a digital society that cannot live without gadgets, electronic systems, virtual reality and robotics. The refusal to digitize the majority, or maybe all spheres of society, will put any country on the world stage at a disadvantage.


1. Digital transformation and sustainable development: the importance of an integrated approach // brother. [Electronic resource] URL: https://www.brother.ru/blog/business/2021/b23-digital-transformation-sustainability (accessed 21 March 2022)

2. On the way to digital trust // pwc. [Electronic resource] URL: https://www.pwc.ru/ru/assets/pdf/digital_trust_insights_russian.pdf (accessed 21 March 2022)

3. Sustainable Development Goals // UN. [Electronic resource] URL: https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/ru/sustainable-development-goals/ (accessed 20 March 2022)

4. The UN Sustainable Development Goals and Russia // Analytical Center for the Government of the Russian Federation. [Electronic resource] URL: https://ac.gov.ru/files/publication/a/11068.pdf (accessed 19 March 2022)

Куцан Е. П., Османова Н. Ш.
 E-commerce en France

Kutsan E.P., Osmanova N.Sh., étudiantes de 2 ème année {Douanes}

Directeur scientifique: Kogteva E.V, PhD en sociologie, professeur associé

Université de Technologie de la Région de Moscou Leonov, Korolev, Russie

Dans cet article, il s’agit du contexte actuel du commerce électronique en France. On fait l’analyse du marché du trading en ligne, de sa structure, des points clés et des tendances de développement, en prenant en compte l’impact de la pandémie sur la croissance du e-commerce. L’article est basé sur des recherches sociologiques effectués en France et également sur le travail scientifique des auteurs. On examine de principales catégories d’acheteurs en ligne, leurs préférences d’achat et également les produits les plus vendus. On constate la rapidité de la croissance de nouveuax types de e-commerce tels que Q-commerce et m-commerce.

Mot clé: e-commerce, m-commerce, vente, achat.

Introduction. Actuellement, l’achat de divers produits via Internet devient de plus en plus populaire et commun pour tout le monde. De plus en plus, les gens préfèrent acheter des produits en ligne plutôt que de visiter de vrais magasins. Raisons ce choix est l’acquisition par les consommateurs de l’accès à de nouveaux une variété de produits de partout dans le monde. De plus, les achats en ligne vous permettent d’économiser coûts de temps et d’argent. Chaque année, le volume des ventes en ligne dans le chiffre d’affaires du monde et, en en particulier, en France, la croissance est constante. Le développement de l’e-commerce en France et dans le monde a révolutionné nos comportements d’achats et la vente au détail. Le secteur du e-commerce (Produits et Services) a dépassé les 129 milliards d’euros en 2021, en hausse de 15,1%, contre 8,5% en 2020, soit une croissance fulgurante de 96,5% en 7 ans.

Méthodes. L’article utilise des méthodes de recherche théorique et empirique: l’analyse des articles scientifiques, des statistiques, des ressources Internet et l’enquete réalisée par les auteurs de l’article.

Résultats. E-commerce est un commerce des plus rentables et perspectives pour le moment. Les chiffres de e-commerce France explosent en 2022, avec les restrictions liées à la crise du Covid-19. Confinements, restrictions de déplacement, fermeture des petits commerces et des commerces non essentiels ont boosté le e-commerce à un niveau inédit.

Le e-commerce représente en 2021 13,4% du commerce de détail selon la Fevad (Fédération e-commerce et vente à distance). En 2019, cette part était de 9,8%.

Ce passage du seuil symbolique des 10% est l’occasion de revenir, avec plus ou moins de nostalgie, sur l’évolution de l’e-commerce en France depuis ses débuts.

En 2021, l’e-commerce France a franchi le cap historique des 100 milliards d’euros de chiffre d’affaires, faisant de la France le 2ème marché e-commerce en Europe, et le 5ème dans le monde.

Les clients ont des préférences différentes en ce qui concerne les fournisseurs de services de livraison de colis. Ils ont également un impact direct sur les taux de conversion et la satisfaction de la clientèle.

Selon e-commerce, les magasins en ligne offrent le plus souvent des services de La Poste (61%), Chronopost (33%) и Mondial Relay (25%) (Figure 1).

Au total, la Poste est responsable de 45% des livraisons.

Figure 1. Fournisseurs des colis préférés des e-commerçants

Amazon est le leader incontesté du e-commerce en France, sa croissance ne semble toujours pas faiblir. Il est le plus grand acteur du marché français du commerce électronique, dont le chiffre d’affaires s’élevait à 5,3 milliards de dollars. Il est suivi de Cdiscount.com avec un chiffre d’affaires de 2,4 milliards de dollars et Veepee.fr avec 2,3 milliards de dollars (Figure 2). Au total, les trois premiers marketplaces représentent 15% des revenus en ligne en France [2].

Figure 2. Top des magasins en ligne du marché ecommerce en france par ventes nettes ecommerce 2021 en millions US$.

Le plus grand acteur sur le marché russe du commerce électronique est Wildberries.ru. dont le chiffre d’affairesle chiffre s’élevait en 2021 à 6,7 milliards de dollars. Le secondaire est Mvideo.ru avec un chiffre d’affaires de 4,5 milliards de dollars suivi par Dns-shop.ru avec 2 milliards de dollars (Figure 3). Au total, les trois premiers magasins représentent 45% des revenus en ligne en Russie.

Figure 3. Meilleurs marketplaces en ligne sur le marché du e-commerce en Russie d’après les chiffres de 2021 en millions US$.

De nos jours, on témoigne une tendance à la hausse: les achats via un mobile. Le m-commerce ne cesse en effet de progresser et devrait être majoritaire.

Le bilan e-commerce France montre que les achats mobile représentent aujourd’hui 22% du chiffre d’affaires des sites e-commerce. Cette part monte même à 35% pour les sites leaders [2].

Près d’un Français sur 2 (48%) fait aujourd’hui des achats via son mobile. Un Français sur 3 (34%) achète via son mobile au moins une fois par mois.

Les achats les plus fréquents sur mobile sont les achats alimentaires (grandes surfaces), vestimentaires (mode/habillement) et sur des sites e-commerce généralistes.

42% utilisent leur mobile pour rechercher des informations avant de faire un achat.

Enfin, ce sont surtout les Français les plus jeunes qui achètent en ligne via leurs smartphones. Chez les 25 à 34 ans, 63% utilisent leur mobile pour effectuer des achats [3].

La profonde transformation du secteur de la logistique en Europe est dûe non seulement aux changements générés par la pandémie, mais aussi au lien étroit que ce secteur entretient avec le commerce en ligne.

La satisfaction du client est au cœur du e-commerce: le prix, la variété des produits et la rapidité de la livraison sont désormais des facteurs déterminants lors d’un achat en ligne.

Et la rapidité semble être le maître mot de ce secteur avec l’apparition d’un nouveau phénomène: le Q-commerce (Quick commerce) ou commerce rapide.

Le commerce rapide révolutionne le commerce traditionnel en garantissant au client des livraisons très rapides: de 15 minutes à 2 heures.

Le secteur alimentaire a été le premier à utiliser cette nouvelle forme de commerce afin de couvrir les besoins primaires durant la pandémie. Il a progressivement touché d’autres secteurs.

La livraison des produits s’effectue rapidement en raison de la proximité des entrepôts logistiques, des moyens de transport utilisés pour les livraisons (principalement des e-bikes, des scooters électriques ou des vélos) qui ne sont pas affectés par le trafic des grandes villes et d’une technologie de plus en plus orientée vers les consommateurs qui, grâce au big data, permet une analyse approfondie de leurs préférences.

Les avantages du commerce rapide sont nombreux, tant pour les consommateurs que pour les entreprises et les PME.

Après deux années marquées par une croissance exceptionnelle du e-commerce dans le contexte de la pandémie, les e-commerçants semblent plus mitigés sur les évolutions du marché en 2022. Ils sont 65% à se déclarer plus ou autant optimistes que l’année passée [1].

Parmi les autres tendances attendues en 2022 par les dirigeants figurent :

— le développement croissant de la seconde main (pour 90% d’entre eux),

— la signature d’accords stratégiques entre e-commerçants / retailers (71%)

— la poursuite des mouvements de concentrations (64%).

Pour 2022, les enjeux informatiques (IT, sécurité) se placent en tête des priorités d’investissement des e-commerçants, devant la RSE (la responsabilité sociale des entreprises) qui est au coude-à-coude avec la logistique avec un accent mis sur la livraison écoresponsable et les emballages [1].

Concernant les investissements dans les stratégies de marketing et de communication, la continuité est de mise puisque les réseaux sociaux devraient rester le canal prioritaire d’investissement pour les e-commerçants et 65% prévoient des dépenses à la hausse dans ce domaine.

Le pessimisme n’est donc pas à l’ordre du jour et témoigne d’un secteur résilient et en plein dynamisme.

En 2022, il est à penser que la proximité entre le ecommerçant et le consommateur, le lien entre l’image et la réalité seront prioritaires, vers une nouvelle définition du commerce et du commerce en ligne. Des plus petites structures aux plus grandes entreprises, le message ne doit plus se penser «global» mais «plus proche» comme un retour à l’essentiel généralisé [1].


1. Les e-commerçants restent (malgré tout) confiants pour 2022 https://comarketing-news.fr/les-e-commercants-restent-malgre-tout-confiants-pour-2022/

2. Le e-commerce en France: Bilan et perspectives omarketing-news.fr/le-e-commerce-en-france-bilan-et-perspectives/

3. E-commerce en France: les 12 chiffres à connaître en 2022 https://junto.fr/blog/e-commerce-france/

Лебедева К. А.
 Problems of using the internet as a source of information for scientific activities

Lebedeva K.A., 1st year student {Applied Informatics}

Scientific adviser: Arutyunyan D.D., PhD {Pedagogical Sciences}, associate professor

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The given article considers the problem of using the World Wide Web as a source of information for any scientific activity, the pros and cons of such a solution. The article also discusses the reasons why it is worth using the Internet as a source of information for scientific activities.

Keywords: Internet resources, information educational environment, information search, reliability of information.

The development of modern science is impossible without the interaction of scientists and the exchange of scientific information. To this end, various conferences, forums and thematic round tables, various debates and meetings are organized. Many speeches, theses, study, analytical articles are published, but not all are published in scientific journals, even if the article is well-made, reliable and can give food for thought to other researchers or indicate some references and materials of other scientists, which in turn may also be of interest. Most scientific articles are published in local publications, which are often not available to the general scientific community or simply remain in the archives of researchers.

Another problem that arises in the researcher’s way is that unfortunately, with all modern businesses, no way has yet been invented to prevent paper aging. It turns yellow, crumbles, sometimes it is even impossible to read what is written on it. Some particularly rare and ancient editions are rather difficult to know, and sometimes publication is simply refused, citing decay and decay (this situation is very typical of scholars of national history, especially of its earlier period).

At the same time, there are a number of issues where the sources for the study can only be found in foreign publications and libraries (many researchers of world history, international relations, cultural studies and other humanities have likely encountered this).

According to some estimates, source selection takes up to 30% of the time spent working with this source [1].

I think that every person at least once faced the problem of finding information on the Internet, working with some search engines, isolating as much as possible the necessary and reliable information from the whole huge list.

From a technical point of view, the Internet is an association of computer networks operating on a wide range of protocols that connect all types of computers, physically transmitting data over telephone lines, fiber optics, satellites and radio modems. The word «Internet» appeared in the mid-70s of the twentieth century, when data transmission standards were developed that made it possible to combine local networks of arbitrary architecture with each other. These standards were later called the TCP / IP protocol and laid the foundation for the growth of the global computer network by connecting existing networks.

Modern Internet technologies offer people the widest opportunities to find information. There are now entire libraries on the Internet — textbooks, monographs, encyclopedias and other basic works — pretty much anything you can find in a bookstore or regular library. The Internet is almost all magazines: magazines, newspapers, newsletters, which are not always found in the library. This is access to the regional press, which is very difficult to get in Moscow libraries. For work on abstracts, semester assignments, diplomas and dissertations, all of these sources are often invaluable. There are both periodic publications on the Internet, characterized by considerable efficiency, and electronic book libraries, which for various reasons are not published in print (or published in small editions), but are nevertheless very relevant in their fields. Distance learning systems are built on such libraries. In addition, the Internet provides access to foreign literature. Conceived only here you can find a book or an article that is not found in any municipal library. At least because not all modern scientific works are published in print, but only in electronic format.

The Internet therefore performs not only the functions of an electronic library, but also an electronic publisher.

At the same time, it should be noted the difficulties associated with a huge amount of information on the Internet. According to some estimates, the number of documents on the World Wide Web has currently exceeded 65 million and continues to grow rapidly [2]. Therefore, such an amount of information requires the correct organization of the research process.

Today many libraries, especially those with state-relevant status, have official websites where you can access the electronic catalogs of publications, their codes in the library archives, which in the future can greatly facilitate research and reduce working time with the catalog to a minimum. For example, many graduate students, when preparing for the PhD. Many people are familiar with the search system of dissertations in the catalogs of the Russian State Library.

At the same time, with the whole number of electronic documents available on the Internet, it should be borne in mind that the Internet as a mass media has been used by numerous people who do not have the necessary experience and culture to correctly classify and present information. That they offer to Internet users. All this is exacerbated by the fact that anyone can publish information of any type, content, reliability, ownership on the web. This is due to the fact that currently the terms «censorship», «peer review», «bibliographic control» are practically unusable on the Internet, except for individual websites. Therefore, according to some experts, a user who has sought the help of any search engine should be prepared that up to 90% of the suggested links have nothing to do with the topic of the search [3], otherwise they will be opened pages that contains the name of the document and provides a link to another address. It is also possible that there is no document on this link.

At the same time, do not forget that the Internet contains a large amount of information and scientific documents necessary for research, which for some reasons (e.g. geographical) cannot be obtained except through the World Wide Web.

When using the Internet as a resource and repository of information of academic interest, remember to check the authority and reliability of the sources, as well as the need to «scroll» through a huge amount of «junk» before finding truly reliable information. Therefore, for a comprehensive search on the Internet and monitoring the reliability of electronic sources, knowledge and skills that are qualitatively different from those we use when working with printed materials are required.

But even if you are convinced of the reliability of the information used, you are faced with another important question of how to refer to an electronic resource: the requirements for scientific work imply access to the information cited even after a while. When using electronic sources, a significant problem arises here: a change in the address of a website or a specific document, because in this case the electronic link provided by us leads nowhere, which in turn can lead to questions about the reliability of the sources used and the scientific nature of the work as a whole. In Russia there is a regulation for providing links to electronic resources, recognized by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (GOST R 7.0.100—2018) and to help deal with such situations if they arise.

In conclusion, it should be noted that, despite the widespread belief that for a person with the right level of computer skills, the search for scientific and educational information is easy and simple, this is not true. Working on the Internet requires the researcher to master a complex system of reading, analysis and communication that he has never encountered before. Searching the Internet takes a long time. Furthermore, the disadvantage of using electronic documents is the difficulty of verifying the reliability and credibility of the sources used. It is also when citing Internet documents that a number of copyright issues arise. And here in the future there are still many problems that are not at all of a technical nature to solve.

It is worth pointing out that Internet technologies are rapidly evolving in the use of information resources and this still greatly facilitates the search and gathering of information on the necessary topic. At the same time, there are some disadvantages that have been mentioned earlier. It should always be remembered that an important advantage of Internet sources is sometimes the uniqueness of the information and knowledge obtained with their help, which in turn gives a particular person the opportunity to create an overall competitive advantage in educational, scientific and professional. Therefore, we can say that the search and analysis of high-quality information on the Internet is gradually becoming a separate professional competence, the development of which is an important part of a professional research and career.


1. Yurkin N.G. Historians of the Russian provinces and Internet resources: issues of historiography // Intelligentsia and the world — 2016. — No. 4. — Page 81—96.

2. Demin I.S. Search for scientific and educational information on the Internet // Bulletin of the Tambov University. Series: Humanities — 2008. — No. 9. — Page 446—450.

3. Zubets V.V. Legal digital libraries — sources of quality information on the Internet // Bulletin of the Tambov University. Series: Humanities — 2018. — No. 6. — Page 75—81.

Лебедь Е. Д. 
Social problems of modern Russia

Lebed E.D., 1st year student {Economic security}

Scientific adviser: Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

This article reveals the main problems of modern society in Russia and pays attention to their comparison with the pressing problems of past centuries, from which it is concluded that the state of Russian social issues is partially unchanged. There is also an appeal to news statistics and questionnaires to show the current percentages. A general conclusion is made that without a public discussion by the authorities of these problems, there will be no progress in their solution.

Keywords: social problems, solve, society, position, reason, population, solution

As Mark Twain wrote: «Everyone talks about bad weather, but no one tries to change it.» The same can be said about social problems in the Russian Federation: everyone, without exception, reports that they are in our world in large numbers, but a significant part remains unresolved, and some is only getting worse. This is especially true for the last decade. Unfortunately, there is no consensus on the most pressing problems today, requiring immediate solutions and financial investment by the state. As well as a general judgment about being not the most dangerous problems. Representatives of the authorities regularly talk about the stability of the state’s social programs, even in conditions of an economic crisis: the fight against unemployment, raising pensions, raising the living standards of the population. However, official speeches and announced programs bypass a number of the most critical social phenomena, being rather a declaration of intent than a productive plan for social regulation, expressed in quantitative terms, i.e. in specific volumes and terms.

It is worth noting that most social problems remain relevant for centuries. This process can be traced in Russian literature, for example, of the first half of the 19th century. This is due to the huge response of the writers of that time to all the events taking place in society. Therefore, literature at that time was more realistic and with notes of civic position. A good example is Gogol’s St. Petersburg stories, where such social problems as poverty and poverty are raised, which contrast sharply with wealth and luxury. Looking through a huge number of articles, ratings, questionnaires, one can notice that at the present time the problems of poverty of the population occupy the first positions. It follows that the efforts of the state and society towards solving social problems are in vain. But the decided positions should not be overlooked either. Back in the middle of the 20th century, workers and employees were detached from enterprises, giving them the right to choose to change jobs. And the main achievement of Khrushchev’s social policy was the expansion of housing construction, solving the issue of improving the place of residence and life of people of that time.

Over the past 10 years, the list of topical social problems has not changed much. Therefore, we consider 7 main unsolved problems.

— Poverty. As already mentioned, this issue has been relevant for many centuries. According to Rosstat for 2020, the income of 53% of Russians is below 27 thousand rubles. Of these, 34.5% earn less than 19 thousand rubles, and 20.4% — less than 14 thousand rubles [3]. This statistic is proof of the fact that many people’s incomes are too low to provide a normal standard of living. Almost 20 million Russians live below the poverty line, that is, they earn less than the subsistence level. With such a standard of living, a person thinks about how to pay for an apartment and buy groceries. There is no money left for cultural events, treatment, additional education and clothing.

— Drug addiction and alcoholism. In ten years, drug use in Russia has increased tenfold, while in the United States it has halved during this time. The number of drug addicts registered in dispensaries is 550,000, and it is estimated that 5 million people regularly use drugs, or, according to social studies, more than 7% of the population aged 11—40 years [1]. This is eight times more than in the EU countries. In addition, injecting drug users are the main source of HIV infection: among this group, 18% are affected by HIV, 80% by hepatitis C and 27% by hepatitis B [2]. In the structure of registered crime, drug trafficking ranks second not only in terms of volume and intensity, but also in terms of their growth rates.

— HIV/AIDS epidemic. No less acute problem from the category of social and medical, about which society is practically not aware, is the problem of the spread of HIV / AIDS infection in the country. The situation is characterized as an epidemic: in 2019, 1.4 million people were registered with HIV infection, an increase of 9.5% compared to last year. Due to the lack of information about the epidemic, primarily on television, the majority of the population believes that AIDS is the lot of drug addicts and homosexuals, hence the hostility towards HIV-infected people, their discrimination in education, medical care, and employment. Accordingly, infected people hide their illness, do not go for examination. At the same time, although the main source of infection (62%) is intravenous drug use, 34% get the infection during heterosexual intercourse, while the number of children infected by HIV-infected mothers is growing [3].

— Extinction of the population. Here are the Rosstat indicators for natural population growth for 2019. Born — 1862143 people, deaths — 2030629 people with a natural increase — 168487 people. Despite the fact that, according to Rosstat, as of January 01, 2020, 146,745,098 people were registered in the Russian Federation, and according to the most optimistic forecasts, natural population growth will increase by about 60,994 people compared to the previous year, however, there is every reason to doubt in that [3].

— Migrants, resettlement of compatriots. One of the measures to solve the demographic problem, the authorities chose the influx of people from abroad. In principle, most experts agree that we cannot solve the problem of the country’s depopulation without an influx of people from outside. The main way out is to attract Russians who ended up in the CIS countries due to the collapse of the USSR, as well as all others who wish to come to live in the Russian Federation, again, from the former republics of the Union.

As a result, out of 300,000 migrants planned by the program, only about 108,000 actually resettled. People did not believe in this program [3].

— Corruption. Corruption hurts even those who do not directly experience it. When a significant part of the state budget is used for personal purposes, such areas as health care, education, and the economy suffer.

According to a poll by the Public Opinion Foundation, 56% of Russians believe that corruption cannot be defeated. At the same time, about 25% of the participants in a survey organized by the Prosecutor General’s Office of the Russian Federation admitted that they had given bribes to officials [3].

— «Party in power» as a social problem. To complete the picture, one cannot lose sight of another extremely important problem of a socio-political nature, namely, the monopolization of power in the hands of one ruling party, which, in fact, is partly the reason for not solving all other social problems.

Focusing on the last problem, it can be noted that just because of the lack of public discussion, the main social problems of society remained unresolved. Social problems, unlike, for example, military or foreign policy ones, require precisely discussions and disputes, since each of them contains medical, economic, environmental, psychological, pedagogical, moral and ethical problems, and completely different sections of society are interested in their solution, having specific, sometimes conflicting, interests.


1. https://www.rbc.ru/rbcfreenews/5a2a35669a794782b7e94b65

2. https://ria.ru/20180313/1516262711.html

3. https://rosstat.gov.ru/statistic

4. Sociology in the USSR: In 2 volumes. Volume 1 / Pod. ed. G.V. Osipov. — M.: Thought, 1966.

5. Social Issues: A Constructionist Reading / Comp. I.G. Yasaveev. — Kazan: Publishing house Kazansk. un-ta, 2007 — 276 p.

Лоскутов П. О., Эйфус П. Б. 
Обучения химии в США в сравнении с обучением химии в России

Лоскутов П. О. студент 2 курса {Биология и химия}

Эйфус П. Б., студентка 3 курса {Биология и химия}

Научный руководитель: Зинина Ю. М., к. фл. н., доцент

Московский государственный областной университет (МГОУ), Мытищи, Россия

В данной статье определяются понятия предмет и наука как в целом, так и в рамках обучения химии. На основе сравнения обучению химии в Росси и за рубежом осуществляется анализ учебных планов и методов обучения. Подчеркиваются отличительные особенности процесса обучения химии в школах и высших учебных заведениях США и России.

Ключевые слова: методика обучения, химия, система образования, учебный план.

Система химического образования в университетах США довольно хаотична, несмотря на ее значительные успехи: чаще всего студенты сами выбирают учебные курсы из обязательного списка.

В Америке есть бакалаврские программы по общей химии, которые в большинстве случаев существуют одновременно с программами физической химии и биохимии. В некоторых университетах студенты также могут выбрать программу химической биологии (часто акцент делается на молекулярную биологию). Наиболее продвинутые студенты могут сдать часть обязательных предметов экстерном и получить одновременно степень бакалавра и магистра по химии.

Программы по химии предназначены преимущественно для тех студентов, которые хотят продолжить обучение в медицинской школе или магистратуре/аспирантуре, хотя часть бакалавров находит работу в промышленности. Поскольку обязательных предметов, как правило, гораздо меньше, то большинство студентов принимают расширенную или двойную программу (например, по химии/компьютерным наукам или химии/биологии и т.д.). Обычно программа химического факультета рассчитана на 4 года обучения и состоит из теоретических курсов, факультативов (например, химия высокомолекулярных соединений) и лабораторных занятий. Все студенты-химики изучают одинаковые предметы (общая химия, органическая химия, неорганическая химия, физическая химия, аналитическая химия, биохимия) первые 2 года, потом начинается специализация и написание дипломной работы, хотя она не является обязательной. Необходимо отметить, что американские университеты обычно гораздо лучше оборудованы для проведения практических занятий, тогда как теоретическая подготовка находится примерно на том же уровне, что и в России (исключая лучшие программы по биохимии/химической биологии). Обычно студенты присоединяются к исследовательским группам химического факультета для получения практического опыта и написания научных статей. Конечно, рекомендуется ознакомится со спецификой группы заранее, так как у профессора могут закончиться гранты в самый неподходящий момент. На третьем/четвертом курсе обучения студенты сдают стандартизированные тесты на английском языке Graduate Record Examinations (General) и Graduate Record Examination (Chemistry) для поступления в магистратуру или аспирантуру.

Поступить в магистратуру/ аспирантуру легче, чем на бакалавриат, ведь студенты магистратуры и аспирантуры — это актив и гордость университета. Они обучают бакалавров в качестве ассистентов преподавателей и проводят исследовательскую работу. Студенты аспирантуры могут получить докторскую степень по химии, которая является обязательной для академической карьеры и необходимой для важных должностей в химической промышленности [1].

Каково же место химии в американской школе? В США нет школ старшей ступени, в которых химия не была в числе, если не обязательных, то, во всяком случае, предлагаемых учащимся, предметов. Тем не менее, проанализировав статистические данные, было обнаружено, что на самом деле примерно в половине средних школ США химия, как отдельный предмет, отсутствует (рис.1) [5].

Рисунок 1. По состоянию на 2017 год доля школ, где химия не предлагается как отдельный предмет, колеблется в отдельных штатах в пределах от 44 до 73%

Конечно, некоторые элементы химии в учебных планах имеются всегда, поскольку биологию выбирают почти все учащиеся (более 80% всех получивших школьный аттестат), причём изучение этого предмета неизменно начинается с «химии клетки», т.е. необходимые сведения из химии вводятся постепенно. Кроме того, в курсах естествознания на средней и старшей ступенях обучения в школе сведения из химии тоже имеются. Для получения школьного аттестата необходимо набрать определенное число кредитов (т. е. академических часов при положительной итоговой оценке) по предметам естественнонаучного цикла. К ним относятся химия, биология, физика (последнюю выбирают гораздо реже), объединенный курс физики и химии, (нечто вроде геологии, но с элементами космологии), экология. Однако как уже было отмечено, имеется выбор, и набрать необходимые кредиты можно и без химии [5].

Отношение к науке как к предмету — именно это отличает систему образования США от Российской. У нас понятие «наука» имеет более широкий смысл, нежели понятие «предмет» [3].

Предмет — это краткая трактовка основных аспектов науки. Наука, в свою очередь, это система знаний, по таким предметам как: анатомия и физиология, общая химия, общая физика, биология, экология, микробиология, математика, генетика, информатика (например, кодирование и моделирование), биотехнология и др. [4]. Учебные предметы между собой не смешиваются, а наоборот, в их изучении преобладают метапредметные связи: учащимся показывают на практике, в ходе экспериментов, связь физики и математики, или биологии и химии. «Наука», как дисциплина, появляется в жизни американских школьников уже в нулевом классе, когда ребенку около пяти лет. Уже в этом юном возрасте все дети страны, посещающие государственные школы, начинают делать проекты.

Но проекты школьников США сильно отличаются от проектов детей в нашей стране. Проекты российских учеников представляют собой собственное исследование. Тогда как у школьников США всё немного по-другому: их проекты представляют собой сборные или объемные конструкции на разные тематики. Чаще всего выдвигаются на контрольный просмотр работы, посвященные реализации идей по физике, химии, биологии.

Еще одной отличительной чертой изучения химии за рубежом является то, что дети по учебному плану имеют больше возможностей применять свои знания на практике — при экспериментах и на лабораторных занятиях, а в 11 лет их уже выдвигают на олимпиады разных уровней сложности.

Химия в школах США не является каким-то отдельным предметом, но все равно кабинеты для химического эксперимента (лаборатории) оснащены всем необходимым для проведения данного вида работы: химической посудой, реактивами в разных видах (раствор или же твердое вещество), лабораторными столами и минимальным набором оборудования (трубы с ручной подачей газа, духовые шкафы, тяги, штативы и разные другие приборы) [2].

В России только недавно начали обустраивать кабинеты вышеперечисленным оборудованием, что и объясняет отсутствие у учеников возможности работать на лабораторных занятиях. Единственная практика, которая есть у российских школьников — написание контрольных и самостоятельных работ, а также написание индивидуального проекта по окончании средней и старшей школы.

Исходя из проведенного сравнения процессов обучения можно сказать, что членам Министерства образования РФ стоит пересмотреть ряд пунктов в утвержденном учебном плане по химии и обеспечить все школы необходимым финансированием и оборудованием для того, чтоб школьники смогли учиться и совершенствовать свои знания. Окончив школу с высоким уровнем знаний, ребята поступят в вузы имея прочную практическую базу, разовьют свои умения и, в итоге, в школу придут амбициозные молодые специалисты, способные обучать детей на более высоком уровне.

Список литературы:

1. Гольдфельд М. Г. [Электронный ресурс] //Заметки о том, как учат химии в Америки: [Сайт]. URL: http://www.chem.msu.ru/rus/books/2020/science-education-2020/217.pdf (дата обращения: 23.03.2022)

2. Гриценко М. [Электронный ресурс] // Школа в США: как учатся американцы: [Сайт]. URL: https://rubic.us/shkola-v-ssha-kak-uchatsya-amerikantsy/ (дата обращения: 23.03.2022)

3. Соколовская М. Школьное образование в США: американские олимпиады по физике, химии, генетике, биологии… или по науке (science): [Сайт]. URL: https://vinograd.us/shkolnoe-obrazovanie-v-ssha-amerikanskie-olimpiady-po-fizike-himii-genetike-biologii-ili-po-nauke-science/ (дата обращения: 23.03.2022)

4. Степин В. С. [Электронный ресурс] // Специфика научного познания: [Сайт]. URL: https://bigenc.ru/philosophy/text/2251677 (дата обращения: 23.03.2022)

5. Химическое образование в США: [Сайт]. URL: https://educationusakazakhstan.kz/articles/himicheskoe-obrazovanie-v-ssha/?amp=1 (дата обращения: 23.03.2022)

Луцюк Ю. А.
 Sexual education at schools is a problem of global importance

Lutsiuk Y. A., 3rd year student {Customs Affairs}

Scientific adviser: Yumagulova M. R., Senior Lecturer

Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus

Today’s children are surrounded by a flood of information, including frightening, shame-inducing things. It’s impossible to completely control your children, but it is realistic to make sure that they are prepared for adulthood and can rely on their knowledge of the body, its physiological processes, and personal boundaries. This article considers variations in sex education in different countries, and makes the case for introducing sex education lessons into the school curriculum for children of different ages.

Keywords: sexuality, education, relationships.

Nowadays, with the development of social media and information technology, the issue of sexuality education (SexEd) is gaining more and more attention. Every now and then one sees articles and discussions on the topic in news portals or on various forums. But why is it really so important? Let us try to figure it out.

First of all, what is sex education? SexEd is the instruction of issues relating to human sexuality, including emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, age of consent, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control and sexual abstinence.

In general, the main goal of sexuality education is to raise a man from a boy and a woman from a girl. It implies a set of pedagogical measures aimed at the formation in a child:

— understanding their gender identity;

— patterns of sexual behavior;

— personal hygiene skills;

— ideas about the physiological change characteristic of boys and girls;

— an adequate, reasonable attitude to the sexual issue. [3]

Information in sex education lessons for children of different ages should be presented in an age-appropriate manner and in a form that is understandable and accessible to the child. For example, as early as two years of age, children can and should be taught about the ideas of consent and refusal, while school-aged children should be taught about more «adult» issues such as sexual orientation.

In some countries, such as the Netherlands, sex education classes are provided for primary school children. These lessons deal with topics such as falling in love and body boundaries. Children are taught about feelings and the «underwear rule»: it is explained to them that all those parts of the body covered by underwear are intimate and that no one else can see or touch them. At the European level, there are various programmes, such as «One in five», in which children are taught to distinguish between «good» secrets (pleasant and easy) and «bad» secrets (suggestive of fear or anxiety) — the latter must necessarily be shared with parents to reduce the cases when parents may not realize that their child has been abused. The authors of such programmes draw on evidence from numerous studies showing that children who lack basic knowledge are more likely to be abused by pedophiles than their more sophisticated peers.

As children get older, they begin to think and learn about other topics. In the Netherlands, young children are not directly taught about sex, but they are gradually introduced to it: by the age of seven, schoolchildren should know the names of male and female genitals, and by the age of eleven they should be familiar with topics such as sexual harassment and erection.

Specialists believe that learners aged 9 to 11 should be educated about puberty and how their bodies are changing, as well as learning more about peer pressure and how to resist it. At thirteen and above, students need information about body image, pregnancy, abstinence, contraception, as well as HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and they also talk about how to build relationships.

Sexuality education for teenagers includes information about puberty, sexual orientation and the importance of contraception and visits to the doctor. Sexuality education lessons can be divided between several subjects, e.g. biology and social studies.

The proper lessons can help teenagers to cope with complexes about their own appearance and their bodies, and sometimes with bullying by classmates. Besides, some modern experts say that sex education classes should not be separated by gender: not only girls but also boys should know about women’s physiological peculiarities, such as menstruation or menopause. In their view, this approach creates a simpler and healthier attitude towards women’s health.

Sexuality education lessons are taught not only in the Netherlands. In the United Kingdom, for example, there are two directions in sexuality education — secular and religious — although pupils may choose not to attend such classes at all. In Germany, sexuality education in schools is compulsory for all and students take tests and exams on the subject. The programme covers male-female relationships, family culture, information on homosexuality, pregnancy, childbirth, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. In France, children are taught about the difference between genders, love and contraception from the age of 8, and the USA has developed two different sex education programmes within the scope of either total or limited abstinence.

Yet, this kind of education is non-existent in many countries, such as Russia, Belarus or India. The reasons for that are different and vary from religious beliefs to the assumption that such classes may be damaging to very vulnerable children’s psyche. In some cases, the reason is the lack of understanding of what such education encompasses. Some children may be embarrassed and uncomfortable hearing this kind of information even from the people they know, let alone from strangers. Not all teenagers will be able to take the subject seriously, so the odds are very high that they will just laugh it out. The truth is, however, that SexEd has an essential function beyond the practical — to explain to children the necessity of sexual hygiene, contraception and caution. It is in western countries that this has become a way of breaking taboos about sex that were imposed centuries ago by religion and have been maintained artificially much longer than common sense requires. It is important that countries implement some form of sex education. Naturally, this has to be done in accordance with that nation’s morality and their own definition of how to do it. There is no need for nations to do this in a standard way.

Parents and families play a vital role in shaping the way we understand our sexual and social identities. Parents need to be able to address the physical and behavioural aspects of human sexuality with their children, and children need to be informed and equipped with the knowledge and skills to make responsible decisions about sexuality, relationships, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Studies show that effective programmes can:

• reduce misinformation;

• increase correct knowledge;

• clarify and strengthen positive values and attitudes;

• increase skills to make informed decisions and act upon them;

• improve perceptions about peer groups and social norms; and

• increase communication with parents or other trusted adults. [2]

Few parents can talk directly with their children about topics related to puberty. For example, not all mothers tell their daughters about menstruation, which makes it very stressful and frightening for girls when they first encounter it. Some do not talk about it because of shyness, others simply do not know how to explain these processes properly. This is why it is important to have a professional, who will be capable of giving a clear and comprehensible explanation.

Many youngsters do not know (or simply do not think about) what sexual contact can lead to, because as children, to their question «Mom, how did I come to be?» they were told either «we found you in a cabbage», or «the stork brought you in», or «we bought you in a shop», etc. And, although many adults see sex education only as corrupting the young, in fact, it can protect girls from early pregnancies. For example, according to Rosstat, in 2019 more than 10,000 underage girls gave birth to their first child. [1] The statistics show that one in five abortions in Russia is made by a teenager, whereas in the countries with compulsory sex education, the percentage of unwanted teenage pregnancies is much lower.

Without sex education, it is more difficult for children to learn that sexual intercourse can lead not only to a girl’s pregnancy, but also to carrying various venereal diseases.

Summing up all the above, SexEd is something that should be talked about. A school-based sexuality education course can thus help to address many global issues and fill the gaps in sexuality education for children and adolescents. It provides necessary information regarding HIV, relationships, consent, health, safe sex, birth control and much more.


1. Bol’she 10 tisyach nesovershennoletnikh rossiyanok stali materyami v 2019 godu [Electronnyi resurs]. 22.06.2020. // RIA Novosti. URL: https://www. ria.ru/20200622/1573275030.html

2. International technical guidance on sexuality education: an evidence-informed approach for schools, teachers and health educators [Electronic resource]. Paris, 2009, 123 p. // UNESCO Digital Library. URL: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000183281 (Accessed 06.03.2022).

3. What is sex education and why is it important? [Electronic resource]. 2021. // Edcraft. URL: https://edcraft.io/blog/all-articles/what-is-sex-education-and-why-is-it-important

Любимова Е. А.
 Counterfeit goods and falsification of documents as a threat to the national security of the Russian Federation

Lyubimova E.A., 4th year student {Customs}

Scientific adviser: Romanov P.S., Doctor on Pedagogy, professor

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The article considers the problem of the movement of counterfeit goods across the customs border of Russia, as well as the use of fake documents in foreign economic activities. The law enforcement function of the customs authorities of Russia and their actions aimed at countering this threat are considered.

Keywords: сounterfeit goods, falsification of documents, economic and physical damages, customs check, administrative and a criminal case

As the global marketplace evolves, the proliferation of counterfeit goods also grows. We call counterfeit goods those whose production involves a violation of the intellectual property of a person [4, p. 53].

Counterfeit goods, unfortunately, occupy a significant segment of the consumer market. The cash turnover, which makes up the income from the sale of counterfeits, is billions of dollars. Most often, counterfeit goods can be found among such commodity items as clothes and shoes, children’s toys and games, perfumes and cosmetics, car parts and accessories.

It is generally accepted that сounterfeits pose a danger to consumers and the economy of State as a whole. The consumer keeps both the economic and physical costs. Counterfeit products don’t guarantee product quality, and the risk of paying for faulty products is much higher than for legitimate products [5, p. 123].

The main problem for the consumer is counterfeiting of medicines and personal care products, since in this case, if the manufacturing technologies are violated, there is a risk to the health of the buyer.

Consumers must also incur price increases for legitimate goods passed on to them by firms that must spend more resources combating counterfeit goods. In terms of physical risk, counterfeit goods have in some cases caused lethal harm to consumers.

In addition, counterfeit goods also cause significant harm to business. Trading companies producing original products suffer losses due to the collapse of sales, since the cost of counterfeits is usually lower [6, p. 12].

Customs authorities are responsible for detecting and preventing proliferation and, as a result, causing economic and physical damages to consumers and the State [3]. Their activities in this area are:

— verification and correlation of the information declared in the customs declaration and shipping documents;

— сonducting different types of customs checks;

— trademark verification;

— carrying out, if necessary, a special examination involving a third-party specialist [1].

Table 1. Results of customs control of goods

On the fact that a violation of intellectual property rights or the unauthorized use of trademarks is detected as a result of customs inspections, cases of administrative offenses are initiated with subsequent recovery of compensation for damage caused. Counterfeit goods are subject to confiscation [2].

Another equally important problem is the falsification of documents for goods, documents confirming the transaction, documents on foreign exchange transactions.

There are different ways of falsificating documents. Among them:

— registration and reprinting of part of the text;

— аmending the original form by rubbing or etching;

— addition of additional sheets to the original forms;

— forgery of electronic checks and any other electronic documentation.

The identification of falsificated documents in the course of foreign economic activity is also entrusted to the customs authorities [1].

On the fact of identifying violations in this area, both an administrative and a criminal case can be opened with the subsequent determination of the punishment for the offense committed [2].

Thus, counterfeit goods and falsificated documents pose a huge threat to Russia’s national security. The task of customs authorities is to prevent this threat or eliminate the consequences of its implementation. For this purpose, the customs authorities carry out special measures regulated by customs legislation.


1. Таможенный кодекс Евразийского экономического союза (приложение No 1 к Договору о Таможенном кодексе Евразийского экономического союза). — ред. от 29.05.2019

2. Федеральный закон от 03.08.2018 N 289-ФЗ (ред. от 02.07.2021) О таможенном регулировании в Российской Федерации и о внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Российской Федерации (с изм. и доп., вступ. в силу с 01.01.2022)

3. Распоряжение Правительства РФ от 23.05.2020 N 1388-р «Стратегия развития таможенной службы Российской Федерации до 2030 года»

4. Волков, В. Ф. Таможенные институты защиты интеллектуальной собственности: учебное пособие / В. Ф. Волков, Д. Г. Зеркин, Е. Н. Рудакова. — Санкт-Петербург: Интермедия, 2021. — 180 с.

5. Саяпин, А. В. Теневая экономика: учебное пособие / А. В. Саяпин. — Тамбов: ТГУ им. Г.Р.Державина, 2020. — 320 с.

6. Сорокин, А. М. Развитие государственных услуг по таможенной защите прав на объекты интеллектуальной собственности в Евразийском экономическом союзе: монография: монография / А. М. Сорокин. — Владивосток: ВГУЭС, 2018. — 136 с.

7. Сурник, А. П. ПРОБЛЕМА ВВОЗА КОНТРАФАКТНОЙ ПРОДУКЦИИ НА ТЕРРИТОРИЮ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ / А. П. Сурник, С. Ю. Юдина // Менеджмент социальных и экономических систем. — 2018. — №3. — С. 26—31.

8. Справочная Правовая Система Консультантплюс — http://www.www.consultant.ru (дата обращения — 14.03.2022 г.)

9. Сайт Федеральной таможенной службы — http://www.customs.gov.ru (дата обращения — 14.03.2022 г.)

Маринич Я. Н.
 Risks in transporting animals and ways to overcome

Marinich Y. N., 3rd year student {Customs Affairs}

Scientific adviser: Yumagulova M. R., senior lecturer,

Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus

The article analyses the cases of improper movement of animals, as well as the consequences of transporting them in inappropriate conditions. The key problems of deaths and diseases during such transportation are identified. Ways of solving them are proposed, based on the research and opinions of specialists working in this field.

Keywords. Transportation, animals, improper conditions.

Each year, millions of farm animals die in transit or they are subject to euthanasia upon unloading. They die from health problems that they already endured, exacerbated by transportation, or they develop severe health problems in trucks whose conditions often leave much to be desired. Such treatment would never be allowed with companion animals, yet livestock do not share the same level of protection and are considered a disposable commodity.

Most animals’ health problems are caused by extremely morbid conditions. When being loaded to trucks and transported, many animals suffer such unavoidable serious injuries as frostbite, bruises and exhaustion, and as a result they have to be euthanized when they reach their destination. Some of the long-endured diseases should have been handled at the farm or feedlot and it is unfortunate that these animals are transported in trucks to be subjected to hours and hours of grueling travel in a confined space, thereby warranting their deaths.

To prevent these deaths, many parties must be involved, from farms and transport companies to even the companies that buy the meat. While all these organizations are in control, the animal shipping industry must not be left behind when animals are mistreated, and the government must take urgent and serious measures to resolve the problem.

About 200,000 animals on board ships stuck in the Suez Canal because of a container ship were doomed to die without water or food.

According to the Middle East Monitor, in March 2021, sixteen ships were transporting live animals from the EU to the Persian Gulf. They did not have enough food and water to last until the end of the journey. EU law stipulates that ships must carry 25 per cent more food than their cargo needs to travel, but animal advocates say that rarely happens. But even that would not be enough in this case. In addition, due to the accumulation of waste, they cannot lie down and the bodies of the dead cannot be disposed of, which contributes to the development of disease.

Around 130,000 animals from Romania, which were due to reach the Persian Gulf by 26 March 2021, were in a particularly difficult situation, the EU Observer reported. Romanian live animal export control authorities said there was enough food and water on board the ship, but the country’s reputation for transporting livestock left much to be desired. In 2020, more than 14,000 sheep died when the ship capsized off the Black Sea. [1]

In accordance with US Department of Transportation statistics, 26 animals died in the luggage compartment aboard US carriers in 2016, with nine of the deaths attributed to United Airlines. In 2017, 18 of the 24 deaths were attributed to the same company. It also topped the anti-rating for the total number of incidents, including injuries to animals in transit. One in every three cases out of four was attributed to the same airline. The reason for such high rates was that United Airlines transports the biggest number of animals per year compared with all other US airlines. This is blamed on inappropriate transport conditions: temperatures in the luggage compartment are too low or too high, the ventilation is poor and the loading is «rigid».

In Russia there are no open statistics on the companies on board which such incidents have occurred. One of the most publicized and high-profile cases was related to Aeroflot: in 2016, reports appeared on social media that a bulldog died in the baggage compartment on a flight from Dubai to Moscow, the cause of death being frostbite. [2]

Transport by road has a significant impact on the animal’s body. The conditions of accommodation, feeding, loading and unloading (jolting, pushing, different braking, etc.) increase the excitability and tension of the animals, contribute to stressful conditions (refusal of food and water, frequent urge to urinate, fatigue, weakness, loss of live weight, etc.), which leads to loss of live weight.

In order of susceptibility to stress, animals are in the following order: furbearing animals, birds, pigs, cattle, horses, dogs, cats. Stress occurs irrespective of the time of year, but more easily when the weather is hot, dry or cold and when the conditions of housing and feeding are disrupted for a long time. In this case, the animals are restless, behavioural patterns change with a prevalence of increased mobility, frequent eating of small portions of food and aggressiveness. Time spent resting comfortably decreases. Body temperature rises to upper physiological limits and sometimes a ’transport’ fever syndrome occurs. Appetite worsens. Body weight decreases dramatically. Statistically, live weight losses of cattle and pigs of up to 200 km reach 4.2% and 3.8%, respectively.

Any animal transport vehicle must be mechanically cleaned and prophylactically disinfected after each transport. If there are breakdowns, defects or irregularities in semi-trailers and containers, all breakdowns are repaired as soon as possible.

Before moving an animal, it should be prepared in advance, usually this preparation begins at least three weeks in advance. This preparation includes activities to intensify fattening, if it is not finished, to carry out a health check of the animals, to identify sick and reactive animals, to form a herd and to transfer it to the ration that will be on the way.

As Marlene Mortler states, a vice-chair of Parliament’s Inquiry on the Protection of Animals during Transport Committee (ANIT), If we want to achieve better conditions for transported animals, we should not seek to tighten the law, but to improve its enforcement. [6]

The basis for this is education, dissemination of information, introduction of uniform standards, also continuous monitoring. All parties involved must understand and comply with the requirements of animal carriage. Clear guidance should be given to logistics operators, veterinary services and national police forces on how to check the most ’sensitive’ aspects before and during transport.

The basic requirements for transporting animals should be harmonised, i.e. they should not vary between countries, nor should the levels of preparation of people who are directly or indirectly involved in the transport of animals. Compliance with law should be checked at each stage of the transportation. In the instance of non-compliance, a judicious system of sanctions should be implemented to prevent persistent breaches of animal welfare legislation.

By analysing international articles, the opinions of various experts and statistical data, a number of problems in animal transport can be highlighted:

— Inadequate enforcement of legislation

— Lack of detailed instructions for transporting animals

— The spread of diseases caused by loading unfit animals, such as injured or unweaned animals (animals that are still on a milk diet) [5]

— Lack of designated resting places for animals over long distances

— Animals may suffer during carriage over long distances due to factors such as inadequate ventilation, high temperatures in transit and overcrowding

— Animals are not provided with enough food, water or adequate bedding during transportation

— Little media coverage of the poor conditions in which animals suffer during transport

The following suggestions can be made to solve these problems:

— The United Nations should adopt a declaration on the subject of animal welfare during transport around the world. These regulations should be uniform for all countries.

— Having analysed the legislation of the two major integrations, the EU and the EAEU, it can be concluded that updates on animal transport have not taken place for more than 9 years, so the legal framework should be reviewed and new, relevant changes introduced.

— It is necessary to develop plans for rest stops for animals between and within countries and to create these rest areas with all the necessary facilities: watering places, food, places for veterinary checks, etc.

— Special attention should be given to conducting periodic veterinary checks before and during transport in order to avoid the spread of diseases.

— Reporting by logistics companies and veterinary services to the relevant authorities is also needed, in order to better study the problem and take timely decisions.

— The issue is not only a matter for the public authorities, but also for the logistics companies involved in the transport of animals. These companies should draw up a schedule that includes a route plan with stops, vehicle equipment and food and water supplies. Such plans must be approved by the competent authorities and the veterinary service.

Thus, transportation always leads to increased animal excitability, stress, loss of live weight and injuries. Animals are particularly affected by prolonged uncomfortable body positions, cramped and improperly placed in the body, overcooling or overheating. Outdated legislation, which needs to be improved and harmonised in the global community and its non-compliance, lack of resting places, sufficient water, food and veterinary checks, also this issue affects logistics companies, which need to devote more time to create favourable conditions for transport. These issues need to be addressed as a matter of urgency.


1. A couple of hundred thousand animals are likely to die because of a traffic jam in the Suez Canal priority [Electronic resource]. 10.03.2022. // Fontanka.ru Saint Petersburg Online. URL: https://www.fontanka.ru/2021/03/31/69842963/

2. Killer airlines: why animals die on board [Electronic resource]. 07.03.2022. // News.ru. URL: https://news-ru.turbopages.org/news.ru/s/world/aviakompanii-ubijcy-pochemu-zhivotnye-pogibayut-na-bortu/

3. LIVE ANIMAL TRANSPORT IN EUROPE [Electronic resource]. 10.03.2022. // FOUR PAWS International. URL: https://www.four-paws.org/campaigns-topics/topics/farm-animals/live-animal-transport

4. LIVESTOCK TRANSPORTATION SERVICES [Electronic resource]. 10.03.2022. // AsstrA-Associated Traffic AG. URL: https://asstra.com/special-cargo/transportation-of-animals/

5. Long-distance transport of unweaned calves [Electronic resource]. 09.03.2022. // Animal welfare foundation. URL: https: //www.animal-welfare-foundation.org/service/dossiers/long-distance-transport-of-unweaned-calves

6. Making animal welfare a priority [Electronic resource]. 12.03.2022. // The Parliament Politics, Policy and People Magazine. URL: https://www.theparliamentmagazine.eu/news/article/making-animal-welfare-a-priority

Марченко А. А., Павлова А. В.
 Economic consequences of the COVID-19 epidemic

Marchenko A.A., Pavlova A.V., 3rd year students {Economic}

Scientific adviser: Atrohin A.M., PhD {Philology}, associate professor

Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

This article is devoted to the economic consequences of the COVID-19 epidemic. In this article the main problems faced by the world economic systems as the result of the pandemic are discussed. Statistical data and potential solutions for overcoming COVID-19 consequences are presented in this survey.

Keywords: COVID-19, pandemic, global crisis, economic problems.


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