Science, Culture and Youth

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Секция 1. Актуальные проблемы современности
Section 1. Contemporary issues of modernity

Andreeva E.A. 
Female and men’s ideal in the representation of Russians

Andreeva E.A., 2nd year student {Sociology}
Scientific adviser:
Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer

State Educational Institution of Higher Education Moscow Region «University of Technology»,
Korolev, Russia

This article analyzes the views of Russians about women’s and men’s ideals. The results of the author’s research are presented. The majority of respondents are convinced of the existence of the ideal of women and men in our country. At the same time, almost half of the survey participants believe that there is no ideal age for either a man or a woman. This article will be of interest to representatives of any generation, since everyone in his life is faced with the following question: «What is an ideal?».

Keywords: Ideal of man and woman, Ideal age, Representation of Russians, Inage of the Ideal person.

Every person, who is born, eventually begins to be interested in different spheres of life in search of himself. In the process of socialization, the individual turns into a full-fledged personality, which is formed in the process of interaction with other people and accumulation of experience.

S. L. Rubenstein wrote about the meaning of ideal in the process of personality formation: «Ideal is a thought model of perfection of anything, in any kind, primaries, prototype, and beginning; representative». And further, as a separate value added «sample-dream» [3]. And of course, each of us tries to achieve the ideal in our aspirations, goals or tries to get to the ideal.

Broadly speaking, the ideal is «a pattern, a prototype, the supreme purpose of aspirations, the perfect embodiment of anything, the notion of supreme perfection in any respect.»

Ideals are closely related to the problem of the meaning of human existence. This is their important, largely undervalued role — «the lack of meaning, goals, values and ideals in life causes considerable suffering»; … «We need some absolute values — sustainable ideals to which we can aspire, and guiding guidelines on which life can be built» [4].

Gender ideals are idealized notions of the purpose, behavior and feelings of men and women that are characteristic of a given culture. In our work we consider them as reference images of men and women, having a certain structure represented by a set of qualities connected between themselves in a non-accidental way. The gender ideal is a general benchmark, a guiding star that, although not achievable in real life, gives it meaning and indicates the path, direction of aspirations.

When we consider the ideal as a social phenomenon, we can trace the existence of the ideal in any era, at any stage of human development. In the course of history, not only people ’s lives changed, but also ideas about the perfect woman and the perfect man. In what way is the ideal forming?

The main reason for the formation of the ideal is the need to overcome contradictions between society and nature, as well as within social contradictions [1].

Understanding the ideal has an important place in the life of every modern person. The ideal of each person is individual, but for Russian society there are universal qualities that are laid down by education in each individual. The topic is truly full-fledged. However, it is important to understand that every person already has a perfect image of «himself,» and the very «universal ideal» can be considered as imposed by society.

In order to study the perceptions of young people about the ideal of women and men, we conducted a sociological study in the form of a questionnaire with the participation of students of the Technological University of the Moscow region in May 2019.

More than half of the survey participants are convinced that in our society there is an ideal of women (58.4%) and an ideal of men (58.4%). At the same time, according to almost half of respondents, there is no ideal age, neither for men (40%) nor for women (46.7%).

According to the study, more than a quarter of respondents (28.3%) believe that the ideal of men and women can be changed. Respondents, feeling some pressure from beauty standards, still do not fully meet it, maintaining their personal image and individuality. More than three quarters of respondents (80%) admitted that in the male ideal the main quality is reliability, and in the female — kindness, responsiveness and understanding.

We also tried to find out from respondents the general satisfaction with the choice of our partner. It turned out that two fifths of respondents (40%) were generally satisfied with their choice and only 5% were not satisfied.

In achievement of young people of their own ideal, not imposed by society, is very important at the moment. This contributes to the formation of a confident and independent personality. The desire to understand the unattainable ideal leads to stress, health problems. And it is also worth remembering that value is result of «activity» of an ideal at all, the ideal personifies «the standard of value». [2]

The problem of gender study involves, first of all, the identification of the subject matter of the study. The subjects involves such as images of men and women, benchmarks of masculinity and femininity. Knowledge of the content and structure of «sexual» samples not only helps to identify those spheres of life in which Russians believe the most pronounced features of the personality of men and women are, but also to judge the degree of formation (in this regard). Our research has shown that almost the only sphere of life in which adolescents ’perceptions of male and female images are formed is the sphere of relations with the opposite sex. These perceptions at each age reflect individual aspects of communication.

In young people, the immediate life experience is related only to the position of the child, and therefore their perceptions of masculinity and femininity are apparently simply learned relevant views of adults. Meanwhile, it is known that at this age a system of inter-sex relations is intensively formed. However, as many studies have shown, adolescents ’perceptions of the ideal qualities of men and women for this relationship are predominantly related to the notion of camaraderie without taking gender into account. Therefore, ideal perceptions of men and women and the real behavior of adolescents as boys and girls are sort of in different plans. Accordingly, the ideal does not perform its regulatory function as a model of behavior.

In adult respondents to our study, the basis for the formation of ideal perceptions of masculinity and femininity is a significant sphere for them to deal with peers of the opposite sex. It includes topical needs related to sexual development, awareness of yourself as a person of a certain sex (in the sphere of inter-sex relations), ideal images of men and women as subjects and objects of communication. These perceptions of themselves and others are tested in practice, in the direct activity of communication. However, a system of certain needs, motives, value orientation, is formed at this age only in the named sphere. Therefore, relative to the older generation, it can be said that this is only one of the stages of male and female formation, but not the end of this process.

Thanks to the research carried out, it is safe to say that every person is beautiful in his own way. There is no certain perfect female and male ideal.

The peculiarities of Russian perceptions of masculinity and femininity should be taken into account when studying the course «Ethics and Psychology of Family Life.» This course will be able to achieve its objectives only if it summarizes all the previous work of the school in sexual education of students.


1. Blanutsa D. A. Peculiarities of formation of social ideal//News of the Russian State Pedagogical University named after AI Hercen. — 2008. — №. 51.

2. Bransky V.P. Art and Philosophy. Kaliningrad: Amber narration. 2000. Page 207.

3. Rubenstein S.L. The basics of general psychology in 2 Т.2. M.: «Pedagogy,» 1989, p. 119—120.

4. Yalom I. Existential Psychotherapy/Per. With England T. S. Drabkin. M.: Class, 2014.

Aseeva M.E. 
Current global problems

Aseeva M.E., 1st year student {Customs}
Scientific adviser:
Kazanskaya E. V., PhD {Philological sciences}, associate professor

Rostov State University of Economics (RINH),
Rostov-on-Don, Russia

Thе article is aimed at the modern problems — many existing global problems are covered in it, as well as their meaning and influence on the world, people and environment. The main focus is set by the author at how much humanity is influenced by the outside factors: ecological, social and economic. This problem is already well-known, but needs deep analysis and effective measures.
Keywords: global problems, human, development, economics, environment.

Nowadays a lot of global problems exist on the salvation of which the whole progress of mankind as well as its existence depend. These problems could be characterized by dynamism, as they appear as an objective factor of society’s development and require the combined involvement of all humanity in order to be solved. It should be noticed that global problems are connected, cover all sides of human life and influence all the countries in the world one way or another. All in all, there is a list of main global issues such as: terrorism, ecological problems and international economic problems.

Obviously, human existence is connected to specific conditions of environment (temperature, humidity, air contents, quality of water and others). These conditions have been developing as a standard for thousands of years and their deviations influence human health negatively, which is the main description of the ecologic problems. People are an element of the biosphere — an outside area of Earth, in which all the vital resources are concentrated — water, air, food and most of the energetic and construction elements. It is also the biosphere which collects all the human waste — domestic and industrial. People affect it locally, but in many places all around the world — dump polluting waste, destroy soil, cut forests, destroy the natural habitats of animal and plants. A large amount of local influences leads to an overall degeneration of the environment: drainage of resources, extinction of animals and plants, destruction of local ecosystems.

Therefore, the change of climate is one of the main modern risks. For instance, the inconsistence of the weather condition, which threatens the food supply, the rise of ocean water, which leads to many disasters, are a results of climate change and have a global nature. An intergovernmental group of experts in climate change (IPCC) has released a new report «Ocean and cryosphere». The document states that the governments should immediately make more serious steps to diminish the climate crisis and defend the world ocean. A representative of the ocean program in «Greenpeace» in Britain Criss Thorn thinks: «World leaders at this week’s Summit made it look like thy care. But if their words will not turn into real obligations to solve the serious climatic situation and to make a strong global Deal about the ocean, they will fail to follow the expectations of millions of climatic activists all over the world, who came out to the streets to call for radical changes. The IPCC report is just another signal for those who still was not awakened from their sleep in the shadow of a new climatic crisis. The decisions that the world leaders will make in the next years will have consequences for humanity in the closest hundred years» [2].

The IPCC report contains other conclusions as well:

— The rise of the ocean level to the year 2100 could come to approximately one meter, of the global temperature rises by 3° C — and the current policy will surely lead to this. As a result, there would be a migration of millions of people from the coastal areas.

— With rise in the sea temperature and in the acidization of oceans fauna and the oceanic ecosystems will face serious problems. Even if the global heating could be held at about 1.5° C, about 90% of the coral reefs will go to extinction.

— In this century there is a forecast of a massive melting of deepfrozen soil. Arctic and subarctic deepfrozen soil contain 1460—1600 gigatons of organic carbon, which is two times of that in the atmosphere.

The number of conducted researches indicates the seriousness of this global problem that needs to be solved globally [2].

At all times humanity has faced the problem of self-defending against numerous viruses, known as «Bubonic plague» (527 b.c.e.), «The Spaniard» (1918), «The smallpox» and others. The relevance of this problem has risen even in the 21st century. In the December 2019 in China there was an outbreak of pneumonia, caused by a newfound virus 2019-nCoV. Soon it spread into other countries. The status for March 12th 2020 in Europe there were registered more than 20000 cases of this virus and almost 1000 deaths. A cause for the infection can either be a sick person of an animal carrying the virus. Possible ways of transferring: through air, through dust, through feces and through physical contact.

— From the information of The National Committee of China’s healthcare, there have been 80894 registered cases of illness. The amount of diseased all over the world, according to WHO’s latest data, has passed 200 thousands of people. According to the World Health Organization to the evening of March 18th there are 11525 new cases registered during the day. The overall amount of deaths is 8147 (SCMP data). Coronavirus has reached the last country in Europe, which was earlier clear of the illness — Montenegro. Countries of EU have closed their borders for foreigners for 30 days. The organizers of «Eurovision», which was to take place in Rotterdam in May, announced its cancellation due to the restrictions introduced by the Netherlands’ authorities and the other European countries due to the coronavirus.

As to the economic problems, they have been almost constant for many years. Among them is a serious gap between the developing regions and the world leaders in technological and economic aspects. And the world has existed in this state for centuries. It is important to notice, that the most trailing countries are in the regions of Africa, partially Asia and South America. Apart from this problem there is another: an overdependence of economies on each other. Although in perfect conditions this would only be a harmless result of international labor division; in reality it may lead to unlikely consequences. For example, the abovementioned epidemic of coronavirus destabilized most of the Asian countries’ production. Consequently, the world market may soon experience a large deficit of the goods manufactured in those regions. This is basically a negative side of the import dependency of many modern regions. World economy is not ready for a continuous exit of such countries as China from the market, because they contain a large cut of the world’s production. We can only guess how bad will be the consequences if China does not recover from the epidemic in the nearest month.

It goes without saying, that there are lots of actual problems, that we need to solve.


1. Cybernetika.ru

2. Greenpeace.ru

3. Wikipedia.ru

4. Euro.who.inf.ru

5. Un.org.ru

Afanaseva S. A. 
Virtual social networks as a source of social capital formation

Afanaseva S. A., 3rd year student {Sociology}
Scientific adviser:
Fedotova T.V., senior lecturer

State Educational Institution of Higher Education Moscow Region «University of Technology»,
Korolev, Russia

The article is devoted to the study of social capital in virtual social networks. Some reasons for replacing simple social capital with virtual (network) were considered in it. The article gives definitions of the concepts of «social capital» and «social network». It also examines the impact of the Internet and virtual social networks on the formation of social capital and highlights the positive and negative aspects of this phenomenon.

Keywords: social capital, virtual social networks, virtual social capital

The sociological study of social capital and ways of its formation in virtual social networks is a very relevant problem in modern society. This is primarily due to the increasing penetration of Internet technologies into our lives. There are 109.6 million Internet users in Russia alone, which means that the Internet penetration rate is at 76%. The frequency of using the Internet, however, also increases from year to year. This is evidenced by the data of a survey conducted on November 21—27, 2019 by the research organization «Levada Center». The study involved 1616 people aged 18 years and older. According to this survey, almost two-thirds of respondents (65%) go online every day or almost every day in 2019. Drawing a parallel with November 2015, when less than half of the respondents (43%) used the Internet every day or almost every day, we can conclude that the role of the Internet is growing every year (Fig.1). [5].

Figure 1. Frequency of visits by respondents to the Internet (in % of the total number of respondents)

Modern globalizing society has led to the creation and emergence of a completely new, different model of social communication. The rapid growth of the virtual segment of this model has marked an important pattern — the gradual replacement of real social networks with virtual ones, and, consequently, the gradual replacement of real social capital with virtual ones.

The term «social network» was first coined by the English sociologist James Barnes in 1954 in his work «Classes and meetings in a Norwegian island parish» [7]. However, long before this event, many sociologists emphasized the importance and necessity of considering society not only from the point of view of registering already established «rigid» social structures, but also from the point of view of complex intertwined social connections and their configurations.

For the first time, the American scientist and founder of Cybernetics, Norbert Wiener, announced the possible appearance of virtual communication communities. However, the full development of virtual social networks occurred only at the end of the nineties of the last century, and they have reached their apogee at the present time [1].

It is also worth noting that in the last decade, there has been a clear trend to study the concept of «social capital» through the prism of virtual social networks, namely, the study of its virtual forms. It is quite logical that the question arises: is it possible for virtual social capital to exist and develop in the Internet space? Researchers such as E. G. Rykov, T. A. Butnyakov, Zh. V. Chernova, V. O. Sayapin, K. M. Martirosyan analyze the process of emergence in the virtual space of certain relations that are similar to traditional social capital, but have a certain specificity [4]. This set of specific relationships in the Internet space is called virtual (network) social capital.

According to the classical definition given by the French sociologist P. Bourdieu, social capital is «a set of real or potential resources associated with the possession of a stable network of more or less institutionalized relationships of mutual acquaintance and recognition — in other words, with group membership» [2].

The American sociologist J. Coleman considered the concept of social capital as a kind of relationship between individuals that is based on trust and partnership. Such relations, according to the American sociologist, cement society [3].

So, as already noted above, in a modern society there is a tendency to gradually replace simple social capital with virtual one. This process has both positive and negative aspects. Among the positive aspects, we highlight the ability to communicate «with everyone» and «without any restrictions»; the ability to establish various relationships within professional communities and groups «by interests»; free access to scientific and educational information; the ability to find a job using social networks and establish business contacts, etc. Thus, we can see that virtual social networks are a good platform for social capital formation and growth.

However, the trend of replacing real social capital with virtual one has some negative aspects. First, it is particularly worth noting such a concept as digital inequality. Despite the fact that we live in the era of information technologies, not everyone has equal access to them, and, as a result, the possibilities of accumulating virtual social capital are different. Secondly, the accumulation of social capital is largely related to the concept of trust to other individuals, various organizations and structures in society. Virtual social communications are mainly anonymous (for example, using a nickname when communicating), which, in turn, makes it difficult to establish interpersonal trust.

To sum up, the development of the Internet and virtual social networks contributes to a fast, clear and simple establishment of relationships between individuals and the accumulation of social capital. However, whether this new type of social capital is really valuable and able to replace the real one is a matter of further studying and consideration.


1. Безбогова М. С. Социальные сети как фактор формирования социальных установок современной молодежи: автореферат дис. … канд. псих. наук: 19.00.05: М., 2017. 25 с.

2. Бурдье П. Формы капитала / П. Бурдье // Экономическая социология. 2002. Т.3. №5. С. 62

3. Динамика пользования Интернетом. URL: https://www.levada.ru/2019/12/05/dinamika-polzovaniya-internetom/ (дата обращения: 10.02.2020).

4. Коулман Дж. С. Экономическая социология с точки зрения теории рационального выбора / пер. М. С. Добряковой, науч. ред. В. В. Радаев // Экономическая социология. 2004. Т. 5, №3. С. 35–44.

5. Леушкин Р. В. Структура виртуального социального пространства. Коммуникации, конструкты, капитал: монография. Ульяновск: УлГТУ, 2017. 157 с.

6. Чебунина О. А. Виртуальный социальный капитал в процессе интернет-социализации молодежи // Гуманитарий Юга России. 2019. №. 1 С. 232

7. Барнс Д. Классы и собрания в норвежском островном приходе // Социальные сети/Д. A. Барнс. — 1954.

Баснева И. А. 
Гендерные особенности речи современной молодежи

Баснева И. А., студентка 2 курса {Социология}
Научный руководитель:
Серова Т. О., к. фл. н., доцент

ГБОУ ВО МО «Технологический университет», Королёв, Россия

В данной научной статье поднимается проблема дифференциации языка по социальному полу молодежи в современном обществе. В статье приводятся наблюдения социолингвистов по данной научной проблеме, а также собственные наблюдения автора. Анализ гендерных особенностей речи базируется на изучении лексики, фонетики, а также этикетных формул в речи современных мужчин и женщин.
Ключевые слова: социолингвистика, гендерные различия, молодежная речь.

Проблема гендерных различий в речи интересовала ученых на протяжении всего двадцатого столетия. «Мы говорим на разных языках», — в одном из своих стихотворений преподносит нам эту мысль русский поэт серебряного века Константин Бальмонт. Интересны наблюдения датского лингвиста Отто Есперсена, который в 1922 году посвятил целую главу фундаментального труда о происхождении и развитии языка особенностям женской языковой компетенции. Есперсен полагал, что два языка существуют потому, что женщинам нельзя было произносить определенные слова, которые впоследствии ушли из женского лексикона, но их позволялось произносить мужчинам. Тематика бесед, которыми могли пользоваться женщины, находила отражение в книгах по этикету. Так, девушкам запрещалось выражать злость, использовать в своей речи бранные слова; они должны были говорить мягко, тихо и т. п. [1]. И в наше время на данную проблему проливают свет различными способами: с помощью наблюдений, социолингвистических исследований. Продолжают задумываться о ней и современные поэты, об этом свидетельствует цитата современной писательницы Ольги Май: «Ты говоришь, а я не понимаю, Я говорю, не понимаешь ты…».

Безусловно, не все мужчины и женщины придерживаются конкретных правил в речевой этике, однако можно отметить определенные тенденции в языковых и коммуникативных аспектах обоих полов. Так хотелось бы отразить специфику языковых отличий в среде современной молодежи. Если задаться вопросом, в каком возрасте проявляются лингвокультурные гендерные особенности, то стоит отметить, что прослеживаются они с раннего возраста. Так мы можем слышать, как кто-то из родителей говорит своему ребенку — «Саша, мальчики не жалуются и не хнычут!»; «Таня, девочки так не говорят!».

Языковая система человека преобразуется под влиянием структуры направленности личности, в которую входят потребности, интересы, ценностные ориентации, идеалы, убеждения, мировоззрение и цели. Именно в подростковом возрасте начинают формироваться данные понятия. Язык отражает все мировоззренческие аспекты личности. Мировоззрение женщины и мужчины может быть схожим, а может базироваться на разных взглядах, ценностных ориентациях, представлениях о мире и своем месте в нем. Однако в большинстве случаев, мировоззренческая сфера девушек и молодых парней различна. Так устроено природой, что мужчина по своей натуре — главарь и лидер, для которого наиболее важно, чтобы его уважали и поддерживали. Мужчины в своих действиях руководствуются рациональностью, в то время как девушки больше принимают во внимание свои внутренние ощущения, следуют интуиции, чувствам. Мужественный молодой человек и чуткая, женственная девушка дополняют друг друга.

Не стоит отрицать, что, как правило, интересы молодых парней и девушек разнятся. Так девушки предпочитают скорее романтические новеллы для свободного чтения, нежели научно-философскую литературу, которая заинтересовывает противоположный пол. Видеоигры, футбол, пристрастие к машинам — все эти увлечения отражаются на речевом облике молодого человека, в то время как девушки обогащают свой словарный запас, принимая во внимание свои увлечения: рисование, косметология, скрапбукинг и т. д. На данный момент конкретные границы между интересами мужского и женского пола размываются, каждый человек вне зависимости от пола может заниматься как боксом, так и балетом. Но эти границы не могут исчезнуть без следа, и рано или поздно у девушки проснется ее женственная натура, а молодому человеку захочется почувствовать себя настоящим мужчиной.

Принимая во внимание современную молодежную культуру, следует отметить факт использования сленговых слов со стороны обоих полов. В свою очередь, данный социальный диалект помогает подростку уйти от скучного мира взрослых, родителей, учителей, помогает придать краткость и яркость речи. Также наблюдается совершенно иная, нежели во времена высокой нравственности, картина современного мира, где сниженная и бранная лексика, к сожалению, проскальзывает среди разговоров молодых девушек, а иногда и чаще, чем среди беседы представителей мужского пола.

Девушкам и молодым людям свойственно произносить слова с разной интонацией. При сравнении интонационных особенностей мужчин и женщин, можно заметить, что речь юноши звучит доминантно, звонко, в то время как тон голоса девушки так или иначе будет звучать мягче. Девушки чаще используют в речи междометия, помогающие выразить эмоциональное отношение к происходящему (ай, ой, вау, боже мой), уменьшительно-ласкательные суффиксы, передающие их чувства («сладенький», «страшненько», «вкусненький» и т. п.). С помощью речевых особенностей юноши хотят показать всю свою мужественную натуру, поэтому мы крайне редко можем заметить, как мужчина напрямую выражает свои эмоции, поскольку они, по их мнению, могут быть интерпретированы как бесхарактерность, слабость. Сравнивая эмоциональную окраску похвалы, также можно заметить, что у юношей при разговоре между собой, скорее всего, будут прослеживаться такие слова, как «хорош», « красава, бро», «пожилой», «красавчик»; среди девушек же мы можем услышать такие одобряющие слова, как «молодец», «красотка» «умница», «принцесса».

Как показывает практика, девушки не только чаще мужчин получают комплименты, но также чаще сами их делают. Мы можем заметить, что в социальной сети девушка комментирует фотографию другой девушки, положительно ее оценивая. При встрече между собой женщины всегда похвалят внешний вид, обратив внимание на прическу, одежду, новую сумку, туфли и т. д. Не всегда, конечно, эти комплименты носят бескорыстный характер и зачастую девушки делают комплименты неискренне, возможно, от зависти, возможно, действуют по принципу « Я тебе — ты мне».

Немаловажна в гендерном отношении фонетика русской речи: женщины растягивают гласные, произнося их певуче, и смягчают согласные.

Также языковая система молодежи различается в аспекте этикетных формул, к которым относятся приветствие, прощание, обращение, и т.п.. Так молодые парни, скорее всего, поздороваются рукопожатием и словом «здорово», в то время как девушки смягчают приветствие, произнося слова: «приветики», «приветули».

Биологическая природа отражается на языковой системе человека и проявляется в выборе тем для бесед, отборе лексических средств, на фонетическом уровне в различии интонации и использовании этикетных формул общения.

Список литературы:

1. Бурвикова, Е. В. Язык мой — пол мой [Текст] / Е. В. Бурвикова // Русская речь. — 2012. — №. 3– С. 72–75.

2. Былкова С. В., Крат В. А. Речь мужчин и женщин: гендерный аспект // Молодой ученый. — 2016. — №7.4. — С. 1—2. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/111/28217/ (дата обращения: 25.02.2020).

Borodina M.I. 
Comparison of the art market in Russia and abroad

Borodina M.I., 1st year student {Design}
Scientific adviser:
Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer

State Educational Institution of Higher Education Moscow Region «University of Technology»,
Korolev, Russia

In modern society there is a purchase and sale of almost any kind of creativity. Paintings have already densely entered our lives as objects of aesthetics, but now it is not only material paintings, but also various digital art, game-designs and much more. In general, everything that would rather not become material, as different paintings.

Keywords: art, artists, market.

In Europe almost everyone buys art: lawyers, doctors, notaries. In America in the 1980s, art was a status symbol. But in Russia art as a tool for investment has begun to be perceived only just in the last twenty years. The Internet created an even newer art market. The digital age has changed such famous houses as SOTBEY`S and CHRISTIES, they also have their own internet platform in social networks. According to the results of the research of the rating agency «Art investment» was found out of 4500 auction houses, which are engaged in works of art and antiques in 2005 — this was 3%, and at the moment it is 95% and it is those who were engaged in Internet sales [1].

Primarily through social networks and other online platforms, artists can not only create but also control their careers to a much greater extent than ever before and do not limit themselves in terms of career opportunities. Instagram has become a leader in it, many believe that this platform helps them increase their recognition.

The first application is ART SPACE that is suitable not only for artists, collectors and art lovers. On this site you can find a variety of works of art (paintings, graphics, decorative — applied art), you can also simulate all the fairs and all the events that take place close to you wherever you are in the world.

Saatchi Art is an online art promotion and sales service created by Saatchi Gallery, London’s internationally renowned and highly influential gallery of contemporary art, opened in 1985 by Charles Saatchi with the aim of making art more accessible.

Amazon is the largest online shopping directory. The Amazon Art market section is suitable for artists.

Ebay is the world’s largest auction site. It is an ubiquitous and active art market.

Etsy is a famous website dedicated to the community of artists who make handmade products. It is a huge system in which the main task of the seller is to promote his product up the list, for this product must be unique.

Artsy is a massive, enterprise funded online gallery that sells the art of thousands of artists from around the world. One of the co-owners is Daria Zhukova, who founded the museum of contemporary art «GARAGE». «The mission of Artsy is to make all the art of the world accessible to everyone who has an Internet connection. We are a resource for collecting and teaching art» [2].

Vkontakte (VK) is a Russian social network. At the moment with its help artists promote themselves, create groups with works, also sell and buy objects of creativity.

If we talk about the relationship between artists and buyers, it should be understood that Russia is only getting used to a new art market, you can often see how «buyers» blame the artists for their style or, in their opinion, too high prices. Although if we compare pricing, the prices on Russian sites are much lower than on Western ones. Practically the same is true for demand. Therefore, often Russian artists sell their works on foreign sites.

Speaking about the foreign art market, we can say that buyers are more inclined to buy, usually do not blame artists for the price or style. Therefore, Western artists present works that are more courageous and unusual, compared to Russian artists.

If we talk about the similarity of Russian and Western art markets, we can understand that each of the artists wants to somehow distinguish himself, in his own way, someone does it boldly, someone restrainedly. Competition in any «point of sale» is high and many try to work for a wider audience in order to accurately compensate their investment in the work.


1. [Electronic resource]: Why hasn’t Russia developed an art market?: https://altapress.ru/afisha/story/pochemu-v-rossii-tak-i-ne-slozhilsya-rinok-iskusstva-143178 (accessed date 25/02/20)

2. [Electronic resource]: The Interaction of Art and the Internet.: https://www.lubimart.com/internetart (accessed date 20/02/20)

3. [Electronic resource]: What is Vkontakte?: https://netrocket.com.ua/blog/chto-takoe-vkontakte/ (accessed date 30/02/20)

Botina E.A., Donchenko E.V. 
The problem of transit of goods through the Russian Federation

Botina E.A., 3rd year student {Customs}
Donchenko E.V., 3rd year student {Customs}
Scientific adviser:
Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer

State Educational Institution of Higher Education Moscow Region «University of Technology»,
Korolev, Russia

In the article the problems of customs transit of goods through the territory of the Russian Federation are examined. The customs potential of Russia and transport routes for the delivery of goods through its territory are investigated. Trends and major problems of the transport services market in Russia are analyzed. Recommendations on the development of the transport system of Russia and the elimination of problems related to customs transit are given.

Keywords: The problem of customs transit, customs potential, transport services, customs politics of the Russian Federation.

The uniqueness of Russia as a transit country is due to the fact that it occupies a significant part of the Euro-Asian continent. This minimizes the number of border crossings, as opposed to crossings on alternative routes, since transit routes through Russia pass through a single administrative and legal space. This factor is reinforced by Russia’s participation in the EAEU, due to which Russia does not have customs control at the borders with Kazakhstan and Belarus [4].

We would like to note that transit traffic through the territory of Russia is in demand when delivering goods from Europe to Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and other Central Asian countries, Mongolia, China, the Asia — Pacific countries and in the opposite direction, as well as when sending goods from India to European countries [4].

The development of international transit transport is influenced by various factors including: problems of cargo insurance, tariff and technical regulation, certification and licensing, high environmental requirements [2].

To confirm this information, we asked a question during the survey: «Do you agree that gaps in Russian legislation regarding transit are an obstacle to the growth of transit traffic?».

Figure 1. Answers of respondents to the question about the transit transport problem

It is clear that additional efforts are currently needed to develop Russia’s transit capabilities. This is particularly relevant given the volume of global cargo traffic between the Asia-Pacific region and Europe. Its share is estimated at 20—25% of the global level and amounts to more than $ 700 billion annually. But this is not the limit. According to forecasts, the total volume of trade between Europe and Asia by 2010 will be about a trillion dollars. However, Russia accounts for no more than 2—3% of this cargo flow.

Nevertheless, an increase in the market share of container transport, in particular on the Trans-Siberian railway, from the current 2—3% to 20% could provide additional annual revenue of «Russian Railways» at the level of $2 billion, and revenues to the Federal budget in the form of tax deductions — more than $300 million per year [4].

We also decided to find out the opinion of the respondents on the following question: «What kind of transportation is less expensive in your opinion?».

Figure 2 shows the results of the survey.

Figure 2. Results of a survey on the cost of transport modes

Therefore, despite the fact that the delivery time of goods by sea at a distance of 21 thousand km is 30—35 days, the cost of such transportation is much cheaper than on the Trans-Siberian railway, 10 thousand km of which is covered by container trains three times faster [1].

It should also be noted that the customs territory of the EAEU does not have a single tool that could ensure optimal interaction of cargo owners, railways, related modes of transport, freight forwarders and other participants in the logistics chain.

The shipper does not have the ability to arrange transportation through a «single window» and carry out transportation under a single document.

After the formation of the Customs Union in the single market of logistics services, competition has increased from Kazakhstan and Belarus, which are actively implementing programs to simplify administrative procedures for the control of foreign trade and transit cargo with the support of top government officials. The introduction of modern technologies for registration and state control, their harmonization with international standards, and the provision of more attractive conditions for conducting transport business leads to the fact that cargo is primarily processed in the partner countries of the Customs Union. Thus, three-quarters of cargo going to Russia from China is processed in Kazakhstan.

In this regard, it is extremely important to comply with the obligations assumed on delivery terms, as well as to eliminate unnecessary delays in transit. It should be noted that the possibility of improving the efficiency of the transport sector and the stability of the transport process lies in optimizing the process of cargo clearance, and this primarily applies to checkpoints. After all, a lot of bureaucratic obstacles lead to a significant increase in the delivery time of goods and additional financial losses [3].

According to the degree of cost, the types of transport are arranged in the following order: railway, water and aviation.

The survey participants were asked 2 more questions: How will the creation of a «Green corridor» affect transit?

The respondents answers are shown in figure 3.

Figure 3. Answers to the question of the impact of the «green corridor» on cargo transit

A large majority of respondents, over 95%, supported the introduction of a «green corridor».

Another question was asked: will increased investment help solve the transit problem?

Figure 4 shows the answers of respondents to this question.

Figure 4. answers to the question about the need to increase investment

A large majority of respondents, more than 97%, supported the increasing of the capital investment in this sphere.

Thus, in this theme, it is impossible to select the only correct hypothesis regarding the solution of the problem related to the transit potential of Russia. Therefore it should point out the several solutions:

— development of container terminals and supply railway infrastructure;

— a reduction in the cost of overland freight is required by at least 25%, and by some estimates by 50%;

— it is necessary to unify customs procedures within the EAEU, to improve internal Russian procedures;

— conducting negotiations on the creation of a «green corridor» between Russia and the EU.

In conclusion, it should be noted that the problems of cargo transit through the Russian Federation are urgent and need to be solved.


1. Транзитный рынок РФ: перспективы и проблематика развития// Морские порты №3 (2014) // [Текст] // [Электронный ресурс]: http://www.morvesti.ru/analitics/detail. (дата обращения: 01.12.2020).

2. Транзитный потенциал России — новые решения для развивающихся рынков// [Текст] // [Электронный ресурс]: https://tass.ru/(дата обращения: 01.12.2020).

3. Александр Суходолов // Транзитный потенциал России // [Текст] // [Электронный ресурс]: http://www.nsc.ru/HBC/ (дата обращения: 01.12.2020).

4. Каролина Евгеньевна Каратаева //О проблемах развития транзитных перевозок// [Текст] // [Электронный ресурс]: https://riss.ru/analitycs/(дата обращения: 01.12.2020).

Budyleva A.D. 
Loneliness as a youth problem

Budyleva A.D., 2nd year student {Sociology}
Scientific adviser:
Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer

State Educational Institution of Higher Education Moscow Region «University of Technology», Korolev, Russia

Loneliness as a social problem in the modern world requires a detailed study. The article examines the problem of loneliness in youth environment and the attitude of young people to this phenomenon. The author is considering the causes and consequences of loneliness, gender differences of loneliness feelings, as well as the groups of people in the greatest extent subject to alone.

Keyworls: Loneliness, youth, problems.

According to V. V. Gavrilyuk «in the process of everyday life people perceive yourself only in a certain relative to the surrounding world. He is going through his state as in the context of the complex and extensive network of relationships. The occurrence of loneliness tells about the violations in this network. Often loneliness manifests itself in the form of the needs to be included in some group, or in the form of awareness of the lack of something, sense of loss and the crash. This can be awareness of his rejection by others» [1].

American psychologist Tayron Wolfe said: «Loneliness is not uncommon, not some unusual case, on the contrary, it has always been and remains the main and inevitable test in the life of a man» [2], each of us ever feel alone, but for all this feeling can be expressed in different ways. For someone this is feeling, pursuing him constantly, for other the same feeling has periodic character.

In order to examine the relationship of young people to the problem of loneliness in May, 2019, we carried out a sociological study, held in the form of the survey, with participation of the University of Technology students, Moscow region.

The study showed that almost 3/4 of respondents (71,4%) think loneliness as a serious social problem of the modern world (amount of answers «Yes» and the «Rather yes, than no» to the question: «Do you think that loneliness is asocial problem in the modern world?»). (Picture 1)

Picture 1. Distribution of respondents to the question: «Do you think that loneliness is a social problem in the modern world?» (in % of the total number of respondents)

One of the tasks of our study was to study the views of the respondents about how dangerous loneliness is for people. Almost two-thirds of the respondents (62,9%) were in solidarity with the statement that the negative consequences of loneliness can be the appearance of society hatred and committing suicide. (Picture 2)

Picture 2. Distribution of respondents’ answers to the question: «What do you think, why loneliness is dangerous?» (in % of the total number of respondents)

As for gender differences of loneliness problems, this feeling is more susceptible to female respondents than male ones, and it is also expected. But the fact that young female respondents, experiencing a sense of loneliness, is almost twice as more than of male respondents, needs to cause for concern. (Picture 3).

Picture 3. Conjugation table: «Do you feel lonely?» and «What is your gender?» (in % of respondents of different sexes)

The feeling of own loneliness often leads to the formation of nihilistic relationship to the society, to the development of behaviour forms aimed at confrontation with it or leaving it. Negative experiences of adolescents and young people affect the process of socialization and the formation of personality, become one of the main reasons for social maladaptation [3].

Thus, the study has found that about half of the respondents (42.9%) admits to feel lonely. This is quite a disturbing fact, since the study involved young people under the age of 26, who are students who are included in the sphere of communication on a daily basis.


1. Гаврилюк В. В. Специфика проблемы одиночества в современном российском обществе //Вестник российского университета дружбы народов. Серия: Социология. — 2007. — №. 3.

2. Тэйрон Вульф — американский психолог. URL: [Электронный ресурс] http://www.wisdomcode.info/ru/quotes/themes/49072.html?page=5

3. Шагивалеева Г. Р. Одиночество и его переживание студентами //Казанский педагогический журнал. — 2003. — №. 2. — с. 55—60.

Waljukewitsch E.K. 
Arbeit und Leben im 21. Jahrhundert

Waljukewitsch E.K., 1-jähriger Student {Zollwesen} Wissenschaftlicher Leiter:
Bondarenko T.N., Doktor (Philologie), Dozent

Die Staatliche Einrichtung der Hochschulbildung Moskauer Gebiet «Technologische Universität», Korolev, Russland

Im Artikel werden Probleme der Arbeit und des Lebens im 21.Jahrhundert behandelt. Die menschliche Arbeit und das menschliche Leben verläuft in der Informations — und Kommunikationsgesellschaft. Und die Zukunft bereitet den Menschen noch viele Überraschungen und Perspektiven vor.

Schlüsselwörter: das Jahrhundert, die Gesellschaft, die Umwelt, der Wandel, die Zukunft.

Für die neue Formation, in die technisch avancierte Gesellschaften sich hineinentwickeln, gibt es viele Bezeichnungen: Wissenschaftsgesellschaft, Informationsgesellschaft, Kommunikationsgesellschaft, telematische Gesellschaft usw. Charakteristisch für die neue Phase des marktförmigen Wirtschaftens sind Beschleunigung, Dematerialisierung, Dezentralisierung und Globalisierung. Die Zahl der Selbstbeschäftigten wächst. Das mittlere Management verschwindet. Das Wachstum der Beschäftigten ist aus ökologischen Gründen höchst problematisch. Ein innovationsgetriebenes Wachstum der Spitzentechnologien steigert Sozialpolitik, schafft aber kaum Arbeitsplätze. Die Menschen entwickeln sich ständig. Sie fahren mit dem Auto, kommunizieren über das Internet und schließen spezielle Maschinen ein, um Geschirr oder Kleidung zu waschen. Wie soll ein arbeitender Mensch im 21. Jahrhundert sein? Die Selbstentwicklung stellt einen zentralen Topos der Selbstorganisation auf wunderbare Weise. Sie führt zu einer besonderen Art regulierter Freiheit oder kontrollierter Automie. Der Mensch macht Geschichte als Autor, Urheber und Held. Er formt die Welt mit seinen Talenten nach seinem Eigenbilde. Lebenslanges Lernen und ständige Weiterbildung ist die beste Versicherung gegen Arbeitslosigkeit. Das bedeutet ohne Bildung keinen Job, ohne Wissen keine Chance im globalen Wettbewerb. Die Computertechnologie eröffnet uns ungeahnte Möglichkeiten für die modernen Menschen. Die neuen Informationstechnologien treiben die globale Vernetzung voran und verändern Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft grundlegend. Für den Menschen gibt es keine Geheimnisse mehr, alle Informationen sind in Echtzeit übertragen, dass Dienstleistungen übers Telefon und die Übertragung bewegter Bilder möglich sind. Der Horizont hat zugenommen. Heute scheint der Planet nicht unendlich, der Kosmos und der Mikrokosmos werden aktiv untersucht.

Wir sprechen heute gerne von Globalisierung und Modernisierung und meinen damit die weltweite wirtschaftliche Entwicklung und die technisch organisatorischen Neuerungen, die unser Leben beeinflussen und verändern. Die Schlagworte sind bekannt: Leistungsgesellschaft, Industriegesellschaft, Informationsgesellschaft, Wissensgesellschaft. Wie die Arbeit konkret in 50 Jahren aussehen wird, können wir uns genauso wenig vorstellen, wie man sich in den 50er Jahren Laptop, Email, Handy, World Wide Web und universale Bearbeitungsmaschinen in der Produktionstechnik hätte vorstellen können.

Der demographische Wandel in den Industrieländern einerseits und die zunehmende Verjüngung in den Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländern anderseits sind zwar wohlbekannt — geschaut aber wird nur auf die Demographie der Industrieländer. Man hat die berechtigte Sorge, altersgerechte Technik in Alltag und Betrieb könnten nicht rechtzeitig entwickelt werden, bevor sich der Altersberg durch die Belegschaften schiebt und Produktivität und Kreativität sinken.

Im 21. Jahrhundert können wir uns einfach nicht vorstellen, was uns die Eltern sagen: Warteschlangen für Käse und Fleisch, das war in den Regalen der Geschäfte nur in begrenzten Mengen, die Möglichkeit, reisen nur nach dem Territorium des Landes, Mangel an Kleidung und so weiter. Wir haben jetzt die Möglichkeit, uns tatsächlich nur um unsere finanzielle Situation zu kümmern. Auf den ersten Blick ist nichts kompliziert- arbeiten Sie gut und verdienen Sie für alle Ihre Bedürfnisse.

Aber dieser Fortschritt beeinflusst die Veränderung des menschlichen Wesens. In einer kritischen Situation bleiben wir völlig hilflos. Entlassen von der Arbeit-wir haben Mittel des Essens verloren. Abgeschaltet zu Hause Licht — unsere Technik funktioniert nicht, wir fühlen uns einsam und verlassen. Es gibt keine Internet-Verbindung — wir können nicht sehen, was am anderen Ende des Landes passiert. Die Welt verändert sich. Menschen verändern sich, Vorstellungen vom Sinn des Lebens, vom guten, von den Generationen. In einer sich schnell verändernden Welt muss der Mensch ständig in Bewegung sein, auf der Suche nach Selbstverbesserung sein. Wenn eine Person nicht zurechtkommt — er ist nicht mehr unter den ersten, so gibt es Probleme -am Ende Depression und Ängste für morgen. Eine instabile und sich schnell verändernde Welt, ein großer Strom widersprüchlicher Informationen — das ist einer der Faktoren, die heute die Moral des Menschen und der Gesellschaft beeinflussen.

Eines der größten Probleme der neuen Zeit ist Umweltschutz.

Heutzutage die Erde ökologisch weit überbeansprucht. Wir verlieren auf der Erde gegenwärtig pro Sekunde rund 3000 Quadratmeter Wald und vielleicht 1000 Tonnen Mutterboden. Die Aufregung, die dadurch in allen Teilen der Gesellschaft entstehen, ist nicht unbegründet. Wir sehen Klimaveränderungen, Brände, Überschwemmungen, Erdbeben und andere Naturkatastrophen. Die Umweltprobleme können durch die Nutzung von natürlichen Ressourcen, die Besiedlung neuer Gebiete sowie als Nebenprodukt der Nutzung von Technologien entstehen. Wir müssen lernen, mit den Schätzen der Natur, mit Wasser, Energie, Land und Rohstoffen wesentlich eleganter und effizienter umzugehen. Ich bin der Meinung, die Weltbevölkerung wachse und die Lebenserwartung steige, die natürlichen Ressourcen der Erde seien begrenzt und werden knapper.

Im Jahre 2030 werden vielleicht acht Milliarden Menschen auf der Erde leben. Dabei ist schon heute die Erde ökologisch weit beansprucht. Aber man muss immer daran denken, dass der Mensch Teil der Natur ist und aus ihr lebt, von ihr abhängig ist.

Die menschliche Arbeit und das menschliche Leben hat sich in Organisation und Inhalten stark verändert. Heute sind wir durch die Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik in einem Wandel begriffen, der radikaler als alle vorherigen zusammengenommen ist. Ein Ausblick auf zukünftige Entwicklung in der Arbeits- und Lebenswelt bietet noch viele Überraschungen und Perspektiven.


1. https://www.facebook.com/MeineGedankenmit/

2.https://studfile.net/preview/Voss Gunter.Atbeit, Beruf und Arbeitskraft,2014.Technische UniversitatChemnitz

Vornoskova Y.A. 
The influence of advertising on consumer behavior of youth

Vornoskova Y.A., 2nd year student {Sociology}
Scientific adviser:
Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer

State Educational Institution of Higher Education Moscow Region «University of Technology»,
Korolev, Russia

The article presents the results of a study of the impact of advertising on youth in Moscow and the Moscow region. It analyzes how important advertising is. Confidence in advertising and the presence of motivation for the advertised product in the modern world and everyday life of youth are revealed.

Keywords: advertising, consumer, product, youth.

Advertising is a dynamic, rapidly transforming sphere of human activity. Almost all the media, anyway, are carriers of advertising messages. A variety of subjects surrounding us in everyday life, are increasingly being used as advertising media. Currently, advertising is the constant companion of the person acting on it everyday, it plays a significant role in the life of human society.

Currently, advertising is an integral part of any organization. From the success of advertising depends the future of the enterprise: it can lose its positions and to acquire new capabilities, for example, to increase the flow of customers. A good advertising campaign provides the opportunity for business development and expansion [1].

In today’s world it is becoming increasingly important the Internet and the services associated with its use. New technologies give us the opportunity to receive the usual services more convenient way: we learn the news in time online, in a variety of applications, from a variety of mailings; we choose and buy goods in online stores; we communicate with friends on the Internet in applications; we get knowledge, learning through the Internet. A significant part of our lives now takes place in virtual space [2].

In order to study the impact of advertising on consumer behaviour of youth in October, 2019, we carried out a sociological survey held in the form of a survey involving young people of Moscow and the Moscow region.

In the modern information society, despite the fact that the advertisement progresses, the respondents have a negative attitude to advertising (40%). (Fig.1).

Figure 1. Distribution of respondents to the question «How do you feel about advertising?» (in% of the total number of respondents)

According to the survey, the vast majority of respondents (82% (the sum of the answers «I rather do not trust than trust» and «No, I do not trust at all» to the question: «Do you trust advertising?»)) Do not trust advertising. A tenth of the respondents (12%) (the sum of the answers «I rather trust than I don’t trust» and «Yes, I trust» to the question: «Do you trust advertising?») Trust the advertisement, and 6% of the respondents find it difficult to answer this question. (Fig. 2).

Figure 2. Distribution of respondents to the question «Do you trust advertising?» (in% of the total number of respondents)

Based on the above study, we can safely say that the vast majority of respondents (84%) of both males and females do not care whether the product is advertised or not. (tab. 1).

Table 1. Correlation of respondents’ answers by gender to the question «How does advertising work for your choice of purchase?» (in% of the number of respondents of different sexes)

The study shows that advertising does not motivate the purchase of any goods after viewing the advertisement with 75% of male respondents (the sum of the answers «No» and «More likely no than yes» to the question: «Did you make purchases of any goods immediately after how did you see / hear the advertisement? «and 80% of female respondents (the sum of the answers» No «and» More likely no than yes «to the question:“ Did you make purchases of any goods immediately after you saw / heard the advertisement?»). (Tab. 2).

Table 2. Correlation of respondents’ answers by gender to the question «Did you make purchases of any goods immediately after you saw / heard the advertisement?» (in% of the number of respondents of different sexes)

The study of the impact of advertising on consumers is one of the most relevant areas at present. Advertising, on the one hand, brings to consumers the information necessary for the purchase and use of goods. On the other hand, combining its informational content with persuasiveness and suggestion, it has an emotional and psychological effect on a person. Advertising is increasingly interfering in human life, managing it at a conscious and unconscious level.

In this regard, while there is advertising, the problem of studying its impact on consumer behavior remains relevant. Advertising is important both for consumers who, with its help, learn about new products, services and changes occurring in this market, and for manufacturers who, with its help, stimulate the sale and consumption of their goods.


1. Nikitina T.E., Problems of legal regulation of relations associated with advertising on the Internet — M.: Moscow State Law Academy, 2017. — p. 121.

2. Protskikh KA, Pidzhoyan mz, Kocharyan GK, Specificity of print advertising of educational services // New science from idea to result — Ufa, 2015. — p. 56.

Galimjanova G.R. 
Dependence of modern youth on social networks

Galimjanova G.R., 2nd year student {Sociology}
Scientific adviser:
Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer

State Educational Institution of Higher Education Moscow Region «University of Technology»,
Korolev, Russia

The article presents the results of a sociological study of the dependence of modern youth on social networks. In general, the study revealed a high dependence of youth on the Internet. Two-thirds of respondents consider themselves addicted to social networks. The article concludes that social networks really have an impact on modern youth. It also turned out that the main purpose of using social networks by young people is communication.
Keywords: social networks, addiction, youth.

In the modern world, the role and importance of social networks will increase dramatically. The dependence of modern people on the Internet is also increasing. Social networks are becoming massive, the nature of the epidemic. This problem, of course, must be fought with. Social networks strongly affect people, especially adolescents and children, whose psyche is not fully formed yet.

In order to study the dependence of youth on social networks, in April 2019, we conducted a sociological study, which took the form of a survey, with the participation of young Russians aged 16 to 35 years. The study involved 62 respondents. The following tasks were set:

1. To find out which social networks are most popular among young people.

2. To analyze the purpose of youth use of social networks.

3. To describe the emotions experienced by Russian youth in the absence of access to social networks,

4. To study the opinion of respondents about their dependence on social networks.

The following hypotheses were put forward in the study: modern Russian youth is dependent on social networks.

According to the results of the study, two-thirds of respondents (66.1%) consider themselves addicted to social networks (the sum of the answers «Yes» and rather yes than no «to the question:“ Do you consider yourself addicted to social networks?») (picture 1). This fact is frightening.

Picture 1. Distribution of answers to the question: «Do you consider yourself dependent on social networks?» (in% of the total number of respondents)

Young people, being unable to access the Internet, experience various emotions. In the absence of access to social network a quarter of respondents (25.8%) are bored (Picture 2).

Picture 2. Distribution of respondents’ answers to the question: «What emotions do you feel when you cannot access the Internet?» (in% of the total number of respondents)

As part of this study, it was important to find out how much time male and female respondents spend on the Internet. About half (42.9%) of female respondents spend from 3 to 5 hours on social networks. A little more than a third of male respondents (37.0%) spend from 1 to 3 hours on social networks (Picture 3).

Picture 3. Comparison of respondents by sex and time spent on social networks (in% of respondents of different sexes)

The study showed that the most popular social networks are VKontakte (91.7%) and Instagram (85.0%). The vast majority of respondents (87.1%) use social networks for the purpose of communication.

Picture 4. Distribution of respondents’ answers to the question: «In which social networks are you registered?» (in% of respondents of different sexes)

Then, a Pearson correlation analysis was carried out between the variables «Respondent’s age» and «Dependence on social networks». The correlation coefficient is -0.068, therefore, the correlation between the variables is weak negative.

Table 1. Results of the correlation analysis «Respondent’s age * Dependence on social networks»

Summing up, we can say that social networks really have an impact on modern youth. Two thirds of respondents (66.1%) consider themselves addicted to social networks. The Pearson χ2 test provides indirect evidence of the existence of a correlation between variables. In the course of the correlation analysis of Pearson, the following hypothesis was proved: age affects dependence on social networks.


1. Belchik T.A. The basics of mathematical information processing using SPSS: a tutorial. Kemerovo: Kemerovo State University. 2013. — 232 p.

2. Demidov V.N., Kazantsev S. Ya., Zgadzai O.E., Eriashvili ND, Khismatullina N.R. Legal statistics: a textbook. — M.: UNITY-DANA, 2015. — 376 p.

Ganeeva A.F. Features of integration of foreign students in the Russian Federation: sociological analysis

Ganeeva A.F. 3rd year student {Sociology}
Scientific adviser:
Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer

State Educational Institution of Higher Education Moscow Region «University of Technology»,
Korolev, Russia

This article discusses the issue of adaptation of foreign students in Russian higher education institutions. Educational activity and academic performance of foreign students in Russian universities directly depend on their integration in the Russian space. The main problems of adaptation are considered sociocultural, psychophysiological and educational-cognitive. The process of adaptation of foreign students is a laborious process that affects all educational activities, focused on creating the necessary conditions for self-realization of a person and its integration in society.

Keywords: foreign students, socio-psychological difficulties, adaptation, sociology.

In modern Russia, the policy of integrating the educational space is actively pursued. In the context of globalization, more and more foreigners come to Russia to receive higher education. Higher educational institutions of the Russian Federation are also interested in increasing the number of foreign students, as this reflects the status of the university.

Adaptation in the educational space is a necessary and integral part for a successful educational process. The socialization of foreign students is a complex process, which is a kind of restructuring of existing knowledge and skills. In this case, adaptation has a significant impact not only on student performance, but also on its overall development, personality formation.

Interaction with the new sociocultural environment affects the mental state of a person. Language barriers may occur.

A.V. Kravtsov writes that adaptation is a process the course of which depends on individual traits and skills, characteristics of situations, the strength of changes required by a person, time spent in a new culture, previous experience and preparation, the presence of close social ties with representatives of the country in which they are. [3]

With the growth of globalization, one can observe a significant increase in foreign students in Russian higher education institutions. This is an important indicator that foreign students are becoming an integral part of the modern education system in the Russian Federation. Every year, the flow of foreign students to Russian universities in all regions of the country is increasing, which in turn indicates a high level of education in Russia.

Foreign students are representatives of various ethnic groups. Differences in culture, language, worldview, upbringing and traditions are a serious problem for the quick adaptation and integration of students at the university.

An important task for teachers and university staff is the organization of adaptation of foreign students, as this clearly reflects on the learning process, attendance and student involvement in university life.

Most foreign students experience many difficulties of a physiological nature (food and climate) and socio-psychological (stress) [3].

I.O. Krivtsova gives a set of factors that affect the effective adaptation of students: psychophysiological, associated with the transformation of personality; educational and cognitive related to language training; sociocultural. [4]

T. R. Rakhimov identifies the following factors: traditional (features of the host society), climate, personality-psychological, educational and pedagogical (especially the organization of the learning system), social, communicative, cultural (life in an international community, tolerance, etc.). [5]

The adaptation of foreign students is not an easy process, so there is a need to create some kind of platform for its implementation. It can be an extracurricular program or the creation of a club to help adapt foreign students.

The Club of International Friendship (KID) was created at the Moscow State Regional University of Technology. KID is a student government under the leadership of the vice-rector for international cooperation and further education. Club members are foreign students of all courses and levels of education. The main objectives of the club are to assist in the adaptation of freshman students at the university and the city, as well as conducting various events (such as the festival of national cultures) and excursions.

The annual flow of foreigners to Russian universities is growing dynamically. According to the head of Rossotrudnichestvo, L. N. Glebova, 15,000 free places in Russian universities are opened annually for foreigners. The total number of foreign students studying in educational institutions of higher education and scientific organizations of Russia, according to the «Russian Statistical Yearbook 2018», in the academic year 2017/2018 amounted to 260.1 thousand people, which is 16.1 thousand more than in the 2016/2017 academic year. This indicator is planned to be increased to 720,000 people by 2025 [7].

In a study by E.V. Brinyuk and N.A. Kozlovtseva, foreign students from Moscow universities were interviewed (sample: 105 respondents from 20 countries). According to the study, the main difficulties in adaptation are paperwork (41%), difficulties in communicating with Russians (38%) [1].

In the study by A. F. Ganeyeva, «The problem of adaptation of first-year foreign students at the Moscow State University of Technology: sociological analysis,» the issue of overcoming the difficulties in adaptation encountered by foreign students in first-year undergraduate studies, as well as relations in the student group and relations with teachers were taken into consideration [2].

Figure 1. Relations between students

In order to find out the respondents’ attitude with classmates, they were asked the question «Describe the relationship between students.» Almost two thirds of the respondents (70%) noted that the relationship between students can be described as «Positive»; one in six respondents (14%) noted that the relationship is «Rather positive than negative»; one tenth of the respondents (10%) believe that the relationship between students is «Neutral»; only 3% of respondents believe that the relationship is «More likely negative than positive» and that the relationship is «Negative» (Fig. 1).

According to the survey, more than a third of respondents in the question «Describe the atmosphere in the student group» note that the atmosphere in the student group is «Friendly» (38%); that the atmosphere of «Understanding» is 36%; The «indifferent» atmosphere in the group has 9.5% of the respondents; 9.5% of respondents also chose «Cooperation» as a characteristic of the intragroup atmosphere; «Inconsistency» was chosen by 5% of respondents and only 2% believe that the atmosphere in the group is «Aggressive».

Next, the survey participants were asked the question: «Describe the relationship of teachers with students.» As can be seen from the above data, more than half (60%) of the respondents answered «Positive»; more than a third of the respondents answered, that the relationship with teachers is «More Positive than Negative» (34%); 3% of respondents believe that relations with teachers are «rather negative than positive» and «negative» [2].

Based on the data shown, we can conclude that the adaptation process for foreign first-year students mostly proceeds smoothly and relatively quickly. During the first semester, three quarters of the respondents coped with the difficulties in adaptation that they had faced when they moved to and entered a Russian university.


1. Brinyuk E. V., Kozlovtseva N. A. Methodology for ensuring effective socio-cultural adaptation of foreign citizens to the conditions of the Russian educational environment // Azimuth of scientific research: pedagogy and psychology. — 2019.- T. 8. — No. 3 (28).

2. Ganeeva A. F. The problem of adaptation of foreign first-year students of the Moscow State Technical University: sociological analysis // Proceedings of the VII Annual International Scientific Conference. — M.: Publishing house «Scientific Consultant», 2019 — S. 183.

3. Kravtsov A. V. Socio-psychological adaptation of foreign students to higher education in Russia — M.: GUP, 2008.

4. Krivtsova I. O. Sociocultural adaptation of foreign students to the educational environment of a Russian university / I. O. Krivtsova // Basic Research journal. — M.: «Academy of Natural Sciences», 2011. — S. 284–288.

5. Rakhimov T. R. Features of the organization of training of foreign students in a Russian university and the direction of its development // Language and Culture. — 2010. — No. 4 (12).

6. Romanova O. V. and others. On the question of the adaptation of foreign students // Agricultural science in the XXI century: problems and prospects: Collection of a hundred. — 2019. — S. 328.

7. Russia in numbers. 2018: Short stat. Sat / Rosstat-M., 2018. — 522 p.

Горбатова А. В. 
Актуальные проблемы социальной сферы в Китае

Горбатова А. В., студентка 4 курс {Зарубежное регионоведение}
Научный руководитель:
Герасимова Н. И., к. пед. н., доцент

Ростовский государственный экономический университет, Ростов-на-Дону, Россия

Статья посвящена актуальным проблемам социальной сферы Китая. Были проанализированы такие направления социальной политики КНР как образование, пенсионное обеспечение, улучшение условий труда, государственная медицина. Актуальность изучения социальных проблем обусловлена существованием дисбаланса в развитии экономической и социальной сфер общественной жизни. Отставание в развитии социальной сферы требует глубокого анализа путей общественного развития для выявления слабых и сильных сторон социальной политики Китая.

Ключевые слова: социальная сфера Китая, реализация социальной политики, актуальные проблемы в социальной сфере КНР.

Специфика проблем в социальной сфере в Китае, возникших в ходе реализации социальной политики государства, определяется историческим контекстом развития общества. По мере усложнения ее структуры, а также применения новых методов реализации социальной политики для регулирования социального развития китайского общества, социальная сфера в КНР начала приобретать современные очертания со второй половины XX-го века. В ходе радикальных реформ государство обязало предоставить бесплатное повсеместное образование для внедрения грамотности среди рабочих и крестьянства, а также бесплатное медицинское обслуживание.

Так, в 1950-е годы правительство издает закон о страховании рабочего класса, согласно которому в случае производственных травм, смертельных случаев на работе, уходу с работы или рождения ребенка в семье рабочего, государство выплачивало определенную сумму для социальной защиты населения. Министерство труда сыграло важную роль в обеспечении социальных гарантий, создав слаженную систему социальной защиты своих граждан. Данный механизм оказания социальной помощи остается неизменным и в настоящее время, что во многом определяется традиционностью китайской культуры, которая в реформировании государственной социальной политики опирается на такие культурные ценности как постепенность и преемственность.

Основными направлениями реализации социальной политики в Китае являются: образование, пенсионное обеспечение, повышение оплаты труда, государственная медицина. Данные направления социальной политики будут рассмотрены в качестве оценки современного состояния социальной сферы в целом, а также для выявления актуальных проблем, требующих своего решения.

Несмотря на быстро развивающуюся экономику, в стране сохраняется много проблем социального характера. Так, затрудняет развитие социальной сферы снижение доходов населения, расслоение общества, высокий уровень бедности в стране, дисбаланс мужского и женского населения, большая конкуренция среди молодых людей при поступлении в университеты, проблемы трудоустройства, безработица, а также высокий уровень коррупции, который сохраняется несмотря на законодательные меры государства. Все это периодически приводит к массовым акциям протеста среди социально незащищенных граждан.

В 2013 году в Китае в ходе нарастания напряженности, вызванной проблемами социального характера, в центральной и северной частях страны происходили вспышки народного возмущения. Жители КНР выступали против ухудшения экологической ситуации, коррупции чиновники, тяжёлых условий труда, насильственных сносов домов и изымания земельных участков.

Наиболее крупной забастовкой было собрание недовольных рабочих в городе Шэньчжэнь в 2017 году, которые требовали выплатить им обещанную премию. Работникам пообещали компенсацию и трудоустройство на переходный период, однако большинство работников к 20 декабря не приняли предложения и решили держаться, в ожидании новых предложений 15 января. Около 1000 работников завода «Бил Кристел» ждут ответные меры от начальства, прежде всего, выплат в фонд социального страхования работников и в жилищный фонд. Невысокая оплата труда вызывает прямую неудовлетворенность работников, поэтому одной из основных проблем, которую правительство КНР обещает разрешить, является неравномерное распределение доходов среди населения. Такое неравенство наблюдается не только между городскими и сельскими жителями, но и между отдельными регионами, отраслями производства и внутри предприятий. Более высокие заработные платы сегодня начисляются в компаниях, ведущих деятельность в крупных городах Китая, поэтому экономическая ситуация в менее крупных городах достаточно остается нестабильной.

Другой актуальной проблемой является неравномерное распределение между городскими и сельскими жителями таких социальных благ, как образование, медицинское обслуживание, обеспечение пособиями и пенсиями.

Конфликтные ситуации также происходят по причине. Несмотря на официальные данные, уровень безработицы в последнее десятилетие составляет 4–6%, в действительности он намного выше, так как статистика не учитывает недавних выпускников ВУЗов и школ. Скрытая безработица в Китае может достигать показателя в 30% и выше. Гао Ф. и Чжан В. в своей статье «Социальные проблемы в КНР и пути их решения», отмечают, что именно высокая безработица «вынудила правительство начать изменение модели социального развития и проводить активные реформы в социальной сфере. Так в последние годы в КНР отчетливо наблюдается переход от достижения максимальной экономической эффективности к построению общества „малого благоденствия“. Данная модель базируется на принципах учета интересов каждого члена общества, согласованности развития экономики и общества, социальной сферы и человеческого потенциала». [1]

Основной целью современной социальной политики китайского правительства является создание гармонично развитого общества со средним уровнем достатка. Для решения тех социальных проблем, которые существуют в китайском обществе в настоящее время, правительство КНР обязуется на законодательном уровне финансово поддерживать малоимущих граждан, особенно сельское население, сдавать жилье по доступным ценам, трудоустраивать выпускников университетов, обеспечить доступную медицинскую помощь и бесплатное образование.

Китайские программы помощи пострадавшим от стихийных бедствий, и катастроф, а также программы оказания бесплатной медицинской помощи, призваны снизить социальную напряженность, существующую в китайском обществе. В период распространения коронавируса на территории Китая в начале 2020 года правительством были предприняты серьезные меры по предотвращению эпидемии и по оказанию помощи заболевшим: в срочном порядке построены новые больницы в очаге заражения — городе Ухань; для оказания эффективной медицинской помощи в самые короткие сроки был подготовлен медицинский персонал, оказывалась финансовая поддержка всем заболевшим.

Для финансовой поддержки жителей страны и оказания социальной помощи государство применяет системы премиальных выплат, обязуется предоставлять сотрудникам социальный пакет, включающий: медицинские услуги, дополнительные дни отпуска в случае тяжелой болезни, оплату туристических путевок, съем жилья для сотрудников. Все это формирует у граждан положительное отношение к труду, уменьшает текучесть кадров, позволяет добиваться больших успехов в компаниях.

В ходе реформирования социальной сферы, предприятия в Китае получили возможность самостоятельно определять потребность в рабочей силе, предлагают выгодные условия при поиске сотрудников. В настоящее время применяются новые формы взаимодействия работников и работодателей, становится возможным совмещение дистанционных форм работы онлайн с традиционными формами занятости.

Особо нуждается в эффективном реформировании сфера пенсионного обеспечения. В наши дни процент китайских граждан, получающих полное пенсионное обеспечение, увеличивается с каждым годом, появляются новые программы пенсионной поддержки на частных предприятиях, которые часть средств инвестируют в территориальные пенсионные фонды. Крупные китайские компании, помимо обязательных отчислений, предоставляют своим работникам программы социального обеспечения.

Другой проблемой, актуальной не только для Китая, но и для многих других развитых стран, является стремительное старение населения. По данным специалистов в области демографии КНР, примерно 13% населения составляют граждане старше 60 лет, что соответствует пяти работающим на одного пенсионера. В 2020 году ожидается, что на одного пенсионера будет приходиться трое работающих граждан, и в дальнейшем ситуация будет ухудшаться [2].

Оценка современного состояния социальной сферы в Китае осложняется тем, что она находится в процессе постоянного развития. Цели, которые ставит правительство КПК, помогают обозначить основные направления в решении социальных проблем, таких как распределение подоходного налога в среде городских и сельских рабочих и создание «уровня средней зажиточности» населения страны. В КНР предприниматели, главы компаний и предприятий, а также менеджеры с высокой квалификацией получают большую выгоду от социальных реформ, чем другие категории населения. В привилегированном положении оказались государственные и партийные чиновники, которые пользуются большим количеством социальных благ, в отличие от специалистов и частных предпринимателей, для которых изначально были задуманы социальные преобразования в стране.

В Китае со смешенной экономической моделью развития трансформация среднего звена, состоящего из рабочих и крестьян, имеет незавершенный и неполный характер по причине слабой структурированности общества. По оценкам Э. А. Синецкой, «некоторые социальные образования еще недостаточно консолидировались, не обрели устойчивое самосознание и прочный статус [5]. Это означает, что не сразу, а только через некоторый период практической реализации социальных реформ можно будет выявить степень их эффективности.

Напряженность в социальной сфере китайского общества требует от правительства решительных мер по улучшению социальной политики. Для этого требуются всесторонние, эффективные, рассчитанные на длительный период реформы, которые бы рассматривали социальную политику как важный инструмент в реализации планов правительства. Обобщая опыт прошлых лет, руководство КПК делает вывод, что одностороннее развитие экономической области, не отвечающее задачам, поставленным в социальной сфере, не может быть достаточно эффективным в силу того, что все сферы жизни общества являются тесно связанными.

Как показывает проведенный нами анализ, проблемы в социальной сфере китайского общества все еще требуют своего решения. Эффективная реализация социальной политики в Китае рассматривается в качестве механизма гармонизации социальных отношений между гражданами и правительством. Важнейшую роль в социальной политике играет государство, осознающее важность реформ, направленных на снижение социальной напряженности и повышение благосостояния граждан.

Список литературы:

1. Ассоциация социального обеспечения КНР [Электронный ресурс]. — URL: www.shflxh.mca.gov.cn

2. Гао Ф., Чжан В. Социальные проблемы в Китайской Народной Республи-ке и пути их решения // Молодой ученый. — 2015. — №21. — С. 369—372. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/101/22854/

3. Дамбаева Д. Р., Базарова Т. С. Особенности системы социаль ной защиты в Китае [Электронный ресурс]. — URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/osobennosti-sistemy-sotsialnoy-zaschity-v-kitae

4. Основные проблемы современного Китая. Ху Цзиньтао // URL: http://www. istmira.com/istoriya-azii-i-afriki/529-osnovnye-problemy-sovremennogo-kitaya-xu-czintao

5. Синецкая Э. А. Некоторые социальные явления пореформенного Китая в свете политики «Открытости» [Электронный ресурс]. — URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/nekotorye-sotsialnye-yavleniya-poreformennogo-kitaya-v-svete-politiki-otkrytosti

6. Шафатова С. Социальные изменения в Китае: проблемы и перспективы [Электронный ресурс]. — URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/sotsialnye-izmeneniya-v-kitae-problemy-i-perspektivy

Dekan Ch. Yu., Baklitskaya A.O. 
Poetics of postmodern literature in China

Dekan Ch. Yu., student {Philology}
Baklitskaya A.O., student {Philology}
Scientific adviser:
Chemezova E. R., PhD {Philology}, assistant professor

Humanities and Education Science Academy (branch) of V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University in Yalta, Yalta, Russia

This article examines the poetics of postmodern literature in China in context of modern literary studies. Postmodernism reflects the processes occurring in modern society. This research is fundamental, since the category of poetics is reflected in artistic texts, revealing postmodernism. Modern Chinese literature shows the problems that have persisted in modern society. Portraying the problems of recent past, it tries to establish a connection between the past and the present.

Keywords: postmodern, poetics, Chinese literature.

Postmodernism is a complex, vast and vague phenomenon; there is no single understanding for it, so it is difficult to find a specific definition for this phenomenon. Postmodernism can be understood as a special «worldview expressing the main trends, attitudes and guidelines of a society that has reached a certain level of development» [1]. It reflects the processes that occur in modern society. This phenomenon cannot be attributed, for example, only to literature, because it is an expression of the general worldview of the era.

The complexity of this phenomenon also lies in the fact that it is rather difficult to determine the chronological boundaries of its existence. Researchers argue that the reckoning of postmodernism dates back to the 60s of the last century and originates from the American counterculture, total and accessible mass media and French poststructuralism.

U. Eco is convinced that «postmodernism is not a fixed chronological phenomenon, but a certain spiritual state and in this sense the phrase is valid that any era has its own postmodernism, just like any era has its own mannerism» [2, p. 460]. Despite the inconsistency of this phenomenon, certain features are traced in it. «The main values are novelty, freedom in everything, a game beginning, spontaneity, denial of all norms and traditions, rejection of any authority, including the state or etiquette rules» [3, p. 265].

Any historical era is reflected in a certain way in literature, thus, in the literature of the postmodern era, those phenomena that are characteristic of modern society are shown. If in the XIX century, everything was concentrated around a person, respectively, and the main place in literary works was given to a hero who sought to find his place in the world, in the XX century a person is no longer a value, so the crisis of anthropocentrism becomes a determining topic in postmodern literature. «Despite the multiplicity and sometimes incompatibility of interpretations of postmodernism, in spite of fluid mutability and irreducibility to the uniformity of its literary forms, postmodernism was defined in the constants of artistry of the postmodern text» [4, p. 21]. Before talking about the features of postmodern literature, one should understand the meaning of the term poetics.

The term poetics is one of the most ancient in literary criticism. The philosopher of antiquity — Aristotle has a work called the «Poetics». It sets out a theory of what a tragedy should be. Literary scholars of the XIX — XX centuries apply the term poetics to the skill of creating by the writers of the art world by means of words. Poetics is also called, in contrast to the theory of literature, that part of literary studies that studies its specific segments: composition, language and poetic broadcasting, versioning, and the like. There are also attempts to replace it with one of the directions of the theory of literature — style.

Postmodern literature is trying to remove the seriousness that was inherent in modernist literature, and to become accessible to the general reader, for this it uses the «game technique». According to M. Bakhtin, «a game is a special type of communication, where the latter is an act of creative interaction between communicants. The game, as a special kind of human activity, is characterized by the process of dialogism and polylogism» [5, p. 28]. Thus, while reading a work, the reader is immersed in the game and is an active participant in literary action. He receives information from the work without making any mental expenses, while enjoying it.

In Chinese literature, problems related to postmodernism began to be discussed. Literature becomes focused on the general reader, it loses depth, it does not have the author’s assessment of the events in the work, she pays more attention to the entertaining plot, and not to its instructive side. Many Chinese scholars criticized writers who began to imitate Western authors.

Researcher Huang Lichzhi believed that as a result of the emergence of a postmodern consumer culture in China, «consumption literature» emerged, the main features of which he called «lack of depth, dispersion of meaning and loss of personality» [6, p. 129]. For postmodern literature, critics include the work of writers such as Su Tong, Ga Fei, Yu Hua and others.

Chinese postmodern writers, when writing literary works, can appeal not only to the works of Western writers, but also can beat traditional Chinese literary forms. For example, in the story Bloody Plum Blossoms, Yu Hua applies the wuxia prose tradition. In the center of narrative in prose «wuxia» is a martial artist who is driven by a sense of revenge or revanche. The action in such prose takes place against a historical background, which is used to create the effect of recognition and realism in terms of time and space.

At the center of the story, Yu Hua turns out to be a hero who must avenge his father, who died through the fault of an unknown killer. At first glance, the writer retains all the canons of this genre — the central hero is busy looking for those who can help him realize his noble revenge, but the protagonist’s wanderings are devoid of any spatio-temporal perspective — and, more importantly, are not crowned with victory in the finale. When the hero finds out who killed his father and that the killers are already dead, he does not feel hatred towards them, but only expresses his regret that «such a beautiful, completely purposeless wandering is about to end» [7, p. 27]. Thanks to the desemantization of the actions of the protagonist, the story becomes pasty.

Contemporary Chinese literature shows the problems that have survived in modern society. Representing the problems of their recent past, the authors of Chinese literature are trying to comprehend their present, to establish a connection between the past and the present.

Thus, modern literature is trying to reflect the processes taking place in today’s society. She departs from the established rules for writing literary works, which is manifested in a violation of the composition, as well as in the mixing of different genres and styles in one literary text. Postmodern literature is always based on previously created text, which is processed in various ways. The most characteristic poetic techniques that postmodern literature uses are: pastish, «game play», «slicing method», temporary distortion, metaproza, «magic realism» and others. In order to bring something of their own, the authors use various tricks when writing their works. Inhaling a new meaning, forcing the reader to look at the old topic from a different angle, is what the postmodern author is pursuing.


1. Emelin V.A. Postmodernizm: v poiskakh opredeleniya [Elektronnyi resurs] / V.A. Emelin. — URL: http://emeline.narod.ru/postmodernism.htm (data obrashcheniya: 10.03.2020).

2. Eko U. Imya Rozy. — SPb.: Simpozium, 1997. — 567 s.

3. Gorbunova L.I. Postmodern kak tendentsiya razvitiya kul’tury XX veka [Elektronnyi resurs] / L.I. Gorbunova. — URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267545670_Postmodern_
kak_tendencia_razvitia_kultury_XX_veka (data obrashcheniya: 10.03.2020).

Dragosh N.A. 
Faithfulness to traditions in the face of total globalization

Dragosh N.A., 2nd year student {Economic Security}
Scientific adviser:
Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer

State Educational Institution of Higher Education Moscow Region «University of Technology»,
Korolev, Russia

The article examines the well-known traditions and customs of England, such as tea drinking, love of home, love of gardens, strict English education, private boarding schools, love of animals, courtesy and poise of the English. Also, tradition is considered separately as an element of the social system. The article shows that loyalty to traditions and customs allows us to preserve national integrity and our own cultural identity in the face of general globalization.

Keywords: customs, traditions, national integrity, general globalization.

Consideration of the English way of life really does not make any sense if you do not take into account such an important and very significant aspect of English society as loyalty to its customs and traditions. The desire to preserve their traditions and customs in their original form — this is what actually distinguishes English society from most other countries and at the same time makes England an interesting place to visit as a tourist.

Let’s start with the famous and beloved tradition of the British — tea drinking.

The English tradition of tea drinking arose in the 16th century. This is the most famous and oldest tradition in England. The British are very fond of taking their own, especially tea mixed with them on the trip. The most preferred tea, of course, is Indian tea, followed by Chinese.

The essence of the tradition is that the British, adhering to this tradition, drink tea six times a day:

1st cup of tea. The first cup of tea allows the British to wake up. As a rule they get up at around 6—7a.m., and usually have tea in bed before washing and dressing.

2nd cup of tea. Having woken up, they go to the living room for breakfast.

As a rule, for breakfast, the British prefer to eat oatmeal or scrambled eggs with bacon. After this meal they also drink tea but now with milk.

3rd cup of tea. English lunch (lunch time) starts at 12:00 and lasts until 14:00. They also drink tea at this time.

The fourth cup of five-hour tea is English afternoon tea, which takes place at 17:00 and also accompanied by tea and light snacks.

5th cup of tea. In England dinner comes very late, usually around 19.00 — 20.00. Traditionally it is followed by tea («High Tea»). English dinner is a plentiful meal at a large round table in the living room by the fireplace.

6th cup of tea. After a late dinner before bed, the British can have another cup of tea.

Love of home. The British love to be at home. They say: «My home is my castle». It can’t help demonstrating their touching attitude to their house. Also it shows their desire to protect their personal life even from the neighbors. No doubt, they don’t want them to know what is happening at home. The British prefer to live in a detached house built directly for one family. The heart of the house is a fireplace, around which all family members like to sit and watch the fire, exchanging news for the day. In spite of the fact that the fireplace doesn’t give much heat, it unites the family and creates an atmosphere of calm and conciliation.

Love of gardens (English garden). The national hobby of the English is gardening. It is also a special and famous custom of England. They cannot imagine their home without a well-groomed garden next to it. A garden is a kind of source for understanding many aspects of their character and attitude towards life. Thanks to the mild humid climate, grass is green all year round in England and almost always something blooms. This is why the British spend a lot of time in their garden. The behaviour of an Englishman in his garden shows his personality and character much more plausible than any autobiography.

There are also various contests in England to determine the best garden.

An Englishman whose garden near his home is recognised as the best is considered a very respected person and he can be rightly proud of himself.

Strict (English) education. In England it is customary to keep children strict. Moreover the higher you are in society, the stricter you should be. Often you have to see how in a rich English house with a huge living room, a giant bedroom, an imposing office with a magnificent view the so-called children’s room is almost in the attic and is a miserable closet. And it is done quite consciously for principled reasons, not to spoil children, but to harden them. It is no accident, apparently, the movement of the Boy Scouts appeared in the early 20th century in England, and his slogan was: «be ready! A true Englishman must be ready for any difficulty at any moment.

Separate schools. Another distinguishing tradition in England is good, prestigious education for their children. Wealthy Englishmen prefer to send their children to study in private boarding schools. Schools with separate education for boys and girls are especially popular (it is believed that nothing will distract children from learning). Very often in such private boarding schools, being away from their parents, they come home only on holiday. The tradition of these schools dates back to the Middle Ages, when Englishmen went to work in the colony and left their children in boarding schools.

Love for animals. The English are very fond of pets. They have about five million dogs, almost as many cats, 3 million parrots and other birds, fish in aquariums and 1 million exotic animals such as reptiles. The UK has specialised shops selling food, clothing and other products for dogs. There are barbershops for dogs and cemeteries for dogs. In the UK, pets can even send Christmas cards to their friends. There are special hotels for pets at the airports. It is important to note that England was the first country adopted the law about the proper treatment of animals. They did it at the beginning of the 19th century!

Politeness and balance. The English are very polite and often say «thank you» and «excuse me». They don’t speak loudly in the street. They don’t push on buses to get a seat. They buy tickets with a seat in the queue at bus stops. The people of England do not shake hands when they meet each other. Normally they will not show their emotions even in tragic situations.

Therefore, tradition is an important element of the social system, one of the basic conditions for a sustainable relationship between past, present and future. Without traditions, progressive changes in complex social systems are almost impossible.

Thus, the preservation of all of the above traditions and national customs ultimately helps ensure the national integrity of the British and protects their distinctive national characteristics in the face of general globalization.


1) Воевода, Е. В. Great Britain: Culture Across History / Великобритания. История и культура. Учебное пособие / Е. В. Воевода. — М.: Аспект пресс, 2015. — 224 c.

2) Миловидов, В. А. Великобритания: история, география и традиции / В. А. Миловидов. — М.: Айрис-пресс, 2015. — 851 c.

Dubinina V. V. 
The institution of marriage in Russia: decay or transformation?

Dubinina V. V., 2nd year student {Sociology}
Scientific adviser:
Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer

State Educational Institution of Higher Education Moscow Region «University of Technology»,
Korolev, Russia

This article discusses the causes of changes in the institution of marriage in modern Russia, as well as research data reflecting these changes. Currently, the public is concerned about the situation of the institution of marriage in our country. Many believe that divorce rates and the number of families living in an unregistered marriage indicate the decline of marriage and morality of Russians, as well as the family crisis.

Keywords: marriage, an alternative form of family, divorce.

Marrying means to halve one’s rights and double one’s duties.

A. Schopenhauer

Throughout its existence, the institutions of marriage and family have changed greatly. In a modern post-industrial society, where spouses may well not be economically dependent on each other, where both of them strive to realize themselves outside the family, there are also factors that R. Levis and G. Spanier call external forces of «repulsion» [1], like: simplifying the process of divorce, society moral liberalization and a decrease in the influence of religion, there are concerns about the decline of the institution of marriage.

Indeed, the fact that in 2017 the divorce rate in Russia amounted to 58.25% [2] makes us think about the prospects that await marriage in our country (tab. 1). In order to give an adequate analysis and forecast of this phenomenon, first of all, one should turn to its causes.

Table 1. Number of marriages and divorces in Russia

The causes of divorce, or rather, the starting point for changes in the institution of the family, originate on a large scale since the development of capitalism and production. According to Reinhard Sieder, thanks to industrialization and urbanization, the family life of workers and educated bourgeois began to acquire the features of personal, private life, which in precapitalist society, when work and everyday life (including family affairs) of the poor classes hardly had any borders [5]. Therefore, the breakdown of family ties and the nuclearization of the family began. Then a series of events that shook a stable family followed. Involving more and more women in economy led to reducing the number of children in the family, as women began to pay more attention to their careers.
Women needed equal rights with men so feminist movements is another blow to the traditional, patriarchal family. And sexual revolution which, according to Maximiliane Szinovacz, in conjunction with the fact that real gender equality had not yet been achieved, gave rise to men who took advantage of personal independence to free yourself from marital obligations, including economic support for children, sexual fidelity, and emotional devotion [6].

But let’s get back to modern Russia of the 21st century. Why are Russians getting divorced? Taking into account the research of E. G. Laktyukhina and G. V. Antonov [3], we can conclude that objective socio-demographic signs of marriage: the presence and number of children (pic. 1) (only for 20% of the respondents, joint children would be an occasion to preserve the marriage), its sequence and duration, coincidence and mismatch of the age of the spouses, their level of education, welfare, etc. and each spouse individually: sex, age, education levels, welfare, etc. do not affect the durability and reliability of the marriage. Also, according to the respondents, ethnicity and religion are not factors that influence family stability. It is the subjective ideas about marriage and spouse and the degree of compliance with them that determine the stability of the marriage relations of the inhabitants of modern Russia. At the same time, a significant part of divorced people does not approve of divorce. To the question «What could keep you from divorcing?» the most popular was the following answers: eliminating the causes of divorce, a feeling of love for each other, and the answer «nothing.» All this leads to the conclusion that divorce in Russia is, to some extent, a necessary measure, when spouses cannot bring their relations closer to subjective ideals, and that Russians still remain under the influence of traditional marriage and family norms, despite the emergence of «new» and «alternative» forms of the family. Interestingly, the factors that can keep a couple from divorcing are subjective, as are its causes.

Picture 1. The presence and number of children in divorced couples, %

When covering the issue of marriage in Russia, one should not lose sight of the «new» forms of the family, because the problems of marriage include not only divorces, but also them. It is worth noting that this form of «alternative» marriage, such as cohabitation, is usually considered in the context of two approaches: the theory of the family crisis and the modernist approach. Proponents of the first approach tend to look for ways to combat cohabitation, they seek to restore the institution of the family and its functions. Rarely in this concept, cohabitation becomes an independent object of research, since it is perceived by proponents of the approach as an indicator of a family crisis. For those who share the position of a modernist approach, cohabitation is a consequence of the modernization of the institution of the family. For cohabitation, proponents of this approach distinguish species that are comparable to the types of official marriage; in general, it is considered as the norm.

So how is this form of «alternative» marriage perceived by Russians? Recently, the term «cohabitation» has been supplanted by the term «unregistered marriage». This may reflect the fact that couples conducting a joint household and living together believe that their union is no less significant than the union of married people, and that in society this form of family has ceased to be considered deviant and is more likely equal to the norm. According to a survey conducted by the Public Opinion Foundation in 2008, 56% of Russians have acquaintances or relatives who have couples who share a common household but do not register marriage. Only 18% of respondents condemn such relations: they are mainly representatives of the older generation — people over the age of 55. Although even among them, 50% of respondents are neutral towards people living in unregistered marriages [4]. According to a sample study of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation for the fall of 2009, for a quarter of women (26%) and a third of men (32%) under 25, their first marriage was unregistered. Also, Russians usually point out that before registering a marriage it is necessary to live together for a year or two, and then register a marriage (more than a third of respondents considered this in the case of the first marriage and more than half with next marriage) [2]. All this testifies to the emergence of a new scheme for building marriage, different from the traditional, patriarchal model. We should not perceive the crisis of this very model as a crisis of marriage in general, because despite the growth of divorces from the beginning of the 20th century, according to the State Statistics Committee («Russia in Figures» of 2015) [2] the number of marriages in general is also growing.

It is also worth adding that a successful marriage for a girl, as shown by the Public Opinion Foundation`s poll (2005), has ceased to be almost the only opportunity for successful self-realization, as was the case in 1990 according to the Russian Public Opinion Research Centre survey (pic. 2). Marriage has ceased to be an aim in itself, and now society does not require a woman to have a stamp in her passport, which gives her the opportunity to choose her husband better, and, therefore, create a stronger, more reliable family.

Pic. 2. Answers to the question «If you had (or if you have) a teenage daughter in your family, then with what first of all, would you link her future with a successful marriage or with a good job?», %

Indeed, the processes of globalization have led to a decrease in social control over intimate relationships (hence the emergence of «alternative» forms of the family), but despite this, studies show that people don’t take marriage more lightly. Residents of modern Russia have become more reasonable and more serious about marriage registration, as evidenced by their desire to «check» the relationship before applying to the registry office. Most likely, thanks to this approach to marriage, there will be more children born in full families created with the mind and love, which is also shown by birth rates, which have been growing since the beginning of the 21st century (according to the State Statistics Committee Demographic Yearbook of Russia 2017).


1. Levis, R.A., Spanier, G.B. Theorizing about the quality and stability of marriage. In W.R. Burr, R. Hill, F.I. Nye and I.L. Reiss (Eds.). Contemporary theories about the family. Vol.2. New York: Free Press, 1979

2. www.gks.ru (Federal State Statistics Service of Russia)

3. Антонов Г. В., Лактюхина Е. Г. Причины развода в современной России/ Г. В. Антонов, Е. Г. Лактюхина//Народонаселение. 2016.№4 (74) — с. 57—67

4. bd.fom.ru/report/cat/famil/civ marr/d082924 (Database of the Public Opinion Foundation 24.07.2008)

5. Зидер Р. Социальная история семьи в Западной и Центральной Европе (конец XVIII-ХХ вв.). М.: Владос, 1997

6. Szinovacz, M. Changing family roles and interactions. In M. E. Szinovacz (Ed.). Women and the family: Two decades of change. Haworth Press, 1984

Жарко Л. Н. 
Диагностика деятельностного компонента готовности преподавателя дополнительного профессионального образования к коммерческой деятельности инновационной направленности

Жарко Л. Н., старший методист, аспирант

Театральный колледж Крымского университета культуры, искусств и туризма,
Симферополь, Россия
Научный руководитель:
Самойленко Н. Б., д. пед. н., профессор, доцент

Гуманитарно-педагогический институт Севастопольского государственного университета,
Севастополь, Россия

В статье представлены результаты диагностики деятельностного компонента готовности преподавателя дополнительного профессионального образования к ведению коммерческой деятельности инновационной направленности. Выделены критерии определения готовности преподавателя дополнительного профессионального образования к ведению коммерческой деятельности инновационной направленности, дана характеристика профессиональных умений в структуре деятельностного компонента, определены и описаны уровни сформированности деятельностного компонента готовности к коммерческой деятельности инновационной направленности преподавателя дополнительного профессионального образования. Делается вывод о том, что деятельностный компонент — составная часть профессиональной педагогической деятельности преподавателясдополнительного профессионального образования. Степень его сформированности позволяет преподавателю дополнительного профессионального образования вести коммерческую деятельность инновационной направленности, совершенствовать навыки и умения, накапливать положительный опыт в профессиональной деятельности.

Ключевые слова: дополнительное профессиональное образование, преподаватель дополнительного профессионального образования, деятельностный компонент коммерческой деятельности инновационной направленности.

Решающим фактором преобразований в сфере высшего образования: корректировка содержания образовательных программ, обновление технологий организации образовательного процесса, дополнение сложившейся методологии и т. д. выступают социально-экономические изменения в обществе. С целью подготовки / переподготовки педагогических кадров «нового поколения» возникает необходимость формирования готовности преподавателя дополнительного профессионального образования (ДПО) к ведению коммерческой деятельности инновационной направленности.

На современном этапе реформирования российского государства конкурентоспособность специалиста на рынке труда, на наш взгляд, может быть обеспечена использованием инновационных подходов в обучении, повышении квалификации, переподготовке педагогических кадров, в том числе в системе дополнительного профессионального образования. Подготовка учебно-методической документации в сфере образования должна опираться на практическую профессиональную деятельность.

Мы выделяем следующие критерии определения готовности преподавателя ДПО к ведению коммерческой деятельности инновационной направленности:

• профессиональный / жизненный опыт;

• уровень профессионального мастерства;

• внутренние ресурсы личности преподавателя ДПО.

Готовность преподавателя ДПО к ведению коммерческой деятельности инновационной направленности формируется во многом благодаря применению деятельностного подхода в осуществлении образовательного процесса, так как именно деятельность — ядро любого процесса. Посредством деятельностного компонента полученные теоретические знания трансформируются в практические действия.

Мы считаем, что деятельностный компонент является ключевым компонентом в структуре готовности преподавателя ДПО к ведению коммерческой деятельности инновационной направленности. Ряд ученых [1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6] сходится во мнении, что для формирования готовности преподавателя к профессиональной педагогической деятельности, в нашем случае к коммерческой деятельности инновационной направленности, не достаточно обладать только знаниями, необходимы и умения. Профессиональные умения в структуре деятельностного компонента преподавателя ДПО рассмотрены нами в таблице 1.

Таблица 1. Характеристика профессиональных умений в структуре деятельностного компонента преподавателя ДПО

Таким образом, готовность преподавателя ДПО к ведению коммерческой деятельности инновационной направленности характеризуется совокупностью аналитических, профессионально-диагностических, проектировочных, организационных, коммуникативных и рефлексивных умений с учетом активности личности преподавателя ДПО, направленной на преодоление внутренних и внешних противоречий, осуществление программ профессионального и личностного роста.

Деятельностный компонент является движущей силой трансформации мотивов (мотивационный компонент), ценностных направлений (ценностный компонент), знаний (когнитивный компонент) в практические действия преподавателя ДПО в процессе профессиональной педагогической деятельности. Степень формирования рассматриваемого компонента показывает практическую готовность преподавателя ДПО к ведению коммерческой деятельности инновационной направленности и позволяет нам охарактеризовать уровни сформированности деятельностного компонента готовности преподавателя ДПО к коммерческой деятельности инновационной направленности (таблица 2).

Таблица 2. Характеристика уровней сформированности деятельностного компонента готовности преподавателя ДПО к коммерческой деятельности инновационной направленности

Проведенная нами диагностика деятельностного компонента готовности преподавателя дополнительного профессионального образования к коммерческой деятельности инновационной направленности показала, что он является составной частью профессиональной педагогической деятельности преподавателя ДПО. Степень его сформированности позволяет преподавателю ДПО вести коммерческую деятельность инновационной направленности, совершенствовать навыки и умения, накапливать положительный опыт в профессиональной деятельности, расширять ее рамки.

Список литературы:

1. Э. Ф. Зеер, Е. Е. Конюхова Психологические факторы влияния установки педагогов на инновационную деятельность // Образование и наука. — 2010. — №4 (72). — С. 41—49.

2. КоломиецО. М. Самоорганизация преподавателем педагогической деятельности. М.: Граница, 2011. — 222с.

3. Леньков С. Л. Динамическая деятельностно-компетентностная модель профессионализма инновационных педагогов // Научный диалог. — 2016. — №4 (52). — С. 337—360.

4. Новикова Т. Б. Содержание когнитивного и деятельностного компонентов в имиджелогии образования // Международный журнал прикладных и фундаментальных исследований. — 2016. — №12. — С. 521—526.

5. Новикова Т. Б. Содержание деятельностного компонента готовности будущего учителя к использованию НИТ // Научное обозрение. Педагогические науки. — 2016. — №6. — С. 124—127; URL: https://science-pedagogy.ru/ru/article/view?id=1583 (дата обращения: 18.01.2020).

6. Перинский Ю. Е. Содержание и компоненты профессиональной готовности учителя технологий к применению инновационных методов обучения // Актуальные проблемы гуманитарных и естественных наук. — 2017. — №3—4. — С.115—119.

Жукенова А. А. 
Традиция и инновации в развитии музыкальной культуры Казахстана в XXI веке

Жукенова А. А., магистрант 2 курса
Научный руководитель:
Иманжүсіп Р. Н., д. филос. н., профессор

Евразийский Национальный Университет им. Л. Н. Гумилева,
Нур-Султан (Астана), Казахстан

Статья посвящена одной из актуальных проблем массовой музыкальной культуры — проблеме привлечения фольклорного материала в поле зрения массовой музыки. В данной статье мы более подробно остановилисьна стиле­вом направлении, тяготеющем к глубоким национальным корням и этническим музыкальным традициям. По сути, это новое стиле­вое направление — этно-рок. Этно-рок в казахской музыке пропагандирует древнюю культуру кочевников, что созвучно с основными тезисами статьи Первого Президента Казахстана Нурсултана Назарбаева «Семь граней Великой Степи», в которой он ставил задачу о придании «нового дыхания» мелодиям и ритмам Великой степи, с тем, чтобы они зазвучали по-новому, в современном музыкальном формате.

Ключевые слова: Рок-музыка, этно-рок, фолк-рок, этническая музыка.

Современная картина культурного пространства представляет собой весьма многообразную, многоуровневую стилевую палитру. В этом смысле XX век пестрит красками сразу нескольких эпох, раскрывающихся последовательно и интенсивно. По мере гло­бального воздействия популярной музыки на общество следует указать на тот факт, что эстрада сегодня является неотъемлемой частью музыкальной культуры современности, ее специфическим атрибутом. Расширив рамки своего активного воздействия, она является не «второстепенным» по значимости компонентом, а ее важнейшей, составной частью.

В этом смысле вполне оправданным и целесообразным пред­ставляется интерес к новому направлению в отечественном ис­кусстве, истоки которого прослеживаются в конце 60-х — начале 70-х годов, но расцвет приходится на девяностые годы прошло­го столетия. Рассматривая современную модель этно-рока, мы, прежде всего, сталкиваемся с явлением динамичным, не устоявшимся, находящимся в процессе становления. В связи с мало изученностью рассматриваемого феномена и отсутствием специальной литературы, так или иначе касающейся его теорети­ческих проблем, создаются определенные трудности в исследова­нии. Однако в последние годы нельзя не заметить усилившегося стремления музыковедов к изучению представленного направ­ления и построению его общей теоретической базы. Среди них научные труды Д. Амировой [1], А. Айтуаровой [2], О. Ощепковой [3] и других.

«Рок-музыка» — термин собира­тельный для целого ряда жанров популярной музыки США, Англии и других стран, появившихся и развивавшихся, видо­изменявшихся на протяжении последних двух десятилетий. Этот термин включает такие резко отличающиеся друг от друга стили, как довольно примитивный рок-н-ролл (он же «ранний», или «невинный», рок) и сложнейший импровизационный стиль этно-рока. Довольно часто его называют «но­вой музыкой».

Следует указать на тот факт, что в казахстанской рок-культуре существующие и развивающиеся параллельно несколько различ­ных стилевых течений опираются на сформировавшуюся универ­сальную жанровую модель рок-музыки (влияние Запада) и стиле­вое направление, тяготеющее к глубоким национальным корням и этническим музыкальным традициям. По сути, это новое стиле­вое направление — этно-рок.

Следует указать на тот факт, что в начале XX века музыкан­ты и музыковеды по-новому открыли для себя богатейший пласт народного наследия. Именно фольклор в свое время стал осно­вой для формирования и развития профессионального компози­торского искусства от начала XX столетия и до наших дней. Он «…скрывался в глубоких подпочвенных слоях народной жизни, оставаясь свободным от наслоений музыки городского быта» [4, с. 12]. Трудно переоценить его значение для творчества современ­ных композиторов, так как «…музыка ныне будто хочет вырвать­ся из оков письменной традиции и вернуться к своим основам и истокам — к некогда тотально устным нормам творчества, однако же, на базе нотной фиксации» [4, с. 16].

Сегодня общее представление о музыкальном искусстве — в восприятии широкой публики и профессионалов — дифференци­руется на профессиональное композиторское творчество, с одной стороны и народное — с другой.

Особо отмеченной может быть содержательная статья ка­захстанского этноинструментоведа С.И.Утегалиевой «Развитие поп-музыки в Казахстане (на рубеже ХХ-ХХІ вв.)», где наряду с историей возникновения и формирования рассматриваются соци­ологические и аналитические методы исследования отечествен­ной эстрады, а также ее фольклорные истоки [4]. В претворении национального стиля музыковед выделяет два этапа. Первый из них связан с созданием новых аранжировок известных народных песен, использованием традиционных музыкальных инструмен­тов в их живом звучании, заимствованием отдельных стилевых приемов народной музыки, таких как феномен горлового пения, тембро-обертоновые дублировки голоса и инструментов. Второй этап характеризуется стремлением поп-музыкантов к органично­му синтезу с народной музыкой на более глубинном уровне. Как указывает С.И.Утегалиева: «Местные исполнители обращаются к разным пластам казахского музыкального фольклора, а именно к архаичному…» [4, с. 172].

Важно отметить проблемы, касающиеся непосредственно фольклорного пласта, который в течение последних лет стал су­щественно востребованным преимущественно в виде материала, на основе которого вырастают разнообразные вокальные, ин­струментальные композиции, причем жанровое многообразие их, весьма внушительных размеров.

Стиль этнической рок-музыки связан в широком смысле с проблемой сохранения, развития и судьбы традиционного фоль­клора. «Постепенно уходящее в „небытие“ традиционное казах­ское искусство, имеет своим преемником новый оригинальный вид творчества, который, во-первых, питается его духовными и эстетическими истоками, а во-вторых, вызывает у молодого по­коления интерес к своей этнической культуре» [3, с.56].

Происходящая в наши дни «фольклоризация» ряда областей музыкальной культуры обязывает к чуткой и заинтересованной политике в данном направлении, основанной на знании законов функционирования фольклора и возможности его адаптации к стремительным преобразованиям, характерным для нашей эпохи.

Невозможно в одной статье остановиться на всех исполнителях этно-рока, но отметим наиболее интересные из них.

Подтверждением вышесказанному следует отнести компози­ции в этно-рок стиле многих исполнителей популярной музыки, в том числе и Ж. Серкебаевой, которая на протяжении длительно­го времени питает трепетные чувства и бережно хранит народ­ный материал, органично сочетая в своем творчестве фольклор­ные истоки с современными мотивами, тем самым подтверждая главную мысль о вековых ценностях, переходящих из поколения в поколение, заключенные в богатом духовном наследии нации. Среди сочинений последних десяти лет весомо представлены композиции в фольклорно-роковом направлении — «Сарыжайлау», «Сары-Арка», вошедшие в первый альбом, песни «Қараторғай», «Қамажай», кюй «Көңіл ашар» из второго диска и другие произ­ведения.

В репертуаре скрипачки есть несколько домбровых кюев, аран­жированных для современного инструментального поп-состава. Стремление придать своим композициям национальную окраску диктуется желанием познать, возродить, по-новому интерпре­тировать традиционную культуру. Как указывает сама Жамиля Серкебаева: «Казахский народный фольклор — это бездонный, богатейший пласт культуры. Работа с ним — одна из отличительных черт мое­го творчества, мой индивидуальный стиль. Я всегда в поиске и стараюсь в каждой музыкальной композиции, цитируя народный материал, использовать оригинальную импровизацию не искажаяпервоисточник. В душе я глубоко национальный художник» [5, с.151].

В репертуаре Ж. Серкебаевой выделяется инструментальная композиция «Қараторғай», целиком базирующаяся на основе песни народно-профессионального композитора Ахана серэ Корамсина1. Несомненно, играя это произведение, важно было через инструмент передать всю силу, глубину слов, раскрывающих его основное содержание.

Современные казахстанские музыканты находят новые темы для творчества, обращаясь к народному наследию. В основном это — либо проекты возрождения казахской народной музыки: Едиль Хусаинов, горловое пение, игра и коллекционирование древних инструментов, Асылбек Енсепов, электронная обработка домбры, либо популяризация народных мелодий эстрадными исполнителями: «Яшлык», «Дервиши», «Мюзикола» и др.

Что касается фолк-рока, то здесь можно упомянуть самобытную, но уже распавшуюся группу «Уркер» и хард-эпическое творчество «Роксанаков», «Улытау» занимаются рок-аранжировкой кюев. [6, с.123].

Рассматриваемые коллективы и исполнители привнесли в отечественную эстраду совершенно парадоксальные на первый взгляд явления — совмещение культурных веяний Запада с инто­нациями казахского мелоса. Богатый и весьма разнообразный ре­пертуар, обращение к духовному наследию, к истокам, преклоне­ние высокому мастерству народных самородков способствовали становлению личностей, формированию музыкантов — универса­лов.

Освещение состояния отечественного эстрадного искусства представляет общую картину его звуковой среды на современном этапе, обозначает общие художественные направления и тенден­ции, соответствующие слушательским потребностям времени. В результате столь новой и сложной музыковедческой проблематики определены ведущие коллективы и солисты в творческих искани­ях которых прослеживаются новаторские поиски и трансформа­ция традиционной культуры (эстрадизация фольклора) в синте­зе с исполнительскими приемами и музыкально-концертными формами, стилевыми особенностями и сценическими манерами, характерными в эпоху глобализации современного культурного пространства.

Список литературы:

1. Айтуарова А. Народные традиции в массовой музыке Казах­стана. -Ташкент, 2012.- 220 с.

2. Амирова Д. Казахская профессиональная лирика устной тра­диции (песенное искусство Сарыарки). — Л.: 1990.- 126 с.

3. Ощепкова О. Массовая музыкальная культура в Казахстане. — Алматы, 2012.

4. Утегалиева С. И. Развитие поп-музыки в Казахстане (на рубеже ХХ-ХХІ вв.).- Алматы, 2012.- 200 с.

5. Евдокименко К. Скрипичный ключ //Bazaar. Kazakhstan. №6, 2005.- С. 22—26

6. Соседов С. О группе «Ұлытау». //www.Ulytau.com

Ishenko V.S., Davidenko E. N. 
Features of Chinese dystopia as a genre in lao she’s novel «Cat country»

Ishenko V.S., student {Philology}
Davidenko E. N., student {Philology}
Scientific adviser:
Chemezova E. R., PhD {Philology}, assistant professor

Humanities and Education Science Academy (branch) of V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University in Yalta, Yalta, Russia

This study describes the features of Chinese dystopia in the novel «Cat Country» by Lao She. Dystopia is a specific genre, popular in XX century. «Cat Country» rises the problems of ideology and political system, of degradation and lack of culture in society. This novel is a worthy representative of dystopia in world literature.

Keywords: dystopia, Chinese literature, Lao She.

Dystopia as a specific literary and philosophical genre is formed and reaches its peak in the first half of the twentieth century. During this period of time, rapid socio-political and cultural events took place in the world, the intensive development of science, the creation of totalitarian regimes, as well as the indelible mark in the world order left by the revolution and two world wars.

A striking representative of the «dystopia» genre in China is Lao She and his satirical novel «Cat Country». This novel was published in 1933 and caused controversy among contemporaries, because in in the novel the author sharply criticizes the orders and mores of Kuomintang China.

«Cat Country» is a special work for the people of China. In contrast to the classic dystopia, where the problems of ideology and political system are raised, in the novel Lao She, first of all, raises the problems of degradation and lack of culture in society. In the work, the author describes all the problems of modern China. He is not afraid to show the stupidity of traditions that have become formalism, the inability of the Chinese because of their own arrogance to learn new and progressive, isolation from the world, refusal to keep up with the times, hypocrisy, and many other reasons for social regression. And the satire used in the novel allows us to attribute it to the satirical-political type of dystopia [1].

The main theme of the novel «Cat Country» is the image of a rotten Chinese society, the harmful influence of foreigners on the life of the Chinese state and remnants of the past that do not allow the development of society and the country. Using satirical techniques, Lao She strives for the most complete description of the phenomena that are criticized in his work. He deftly uses the features of fiction to criticize the Chinese realities of the time. His book also uses the technique of contrasting a fictional dystopian Cat city with a utopian image of China. «I was crying, but not from fear, but because I remembered my homeland-the Glorious and great China, where there are no atrocities, no terrible executions, no kites that devour corpses. I was afraid that I would never be able to see the glorious land» [4, p. 209]. Here you can see that Lao she portrays his homeland as a utopian country, however, all this sounds ironic, because the true situation in China, under the influence of feudalism, and then replaced it with capitalism, is more like the described city of cats.

The main character — a Chinese participant in an interplanetary expedition — ends up on Mars as a result of the crash, and the reader learns about further events from the hero’s notes. According to A. Rodionov: «the artistic hero has traditionally been and in many ways remains in China nothing more than a sign, a symbol of something, and not an individual and a person. Artistic characters are characterized by extreme schematization, and the actions of heroes are always conditioned by normative recommendations» [5, p. 25].

In the final novel, shattered and covered by the incivility of the cat civilization is dying under the onslaught of foreign invaders. Thus, the author concludes that the lack of culture must be actively resisted, otherwise it will absorb and divide everyone quickly and irrevocably.

A distinctive feature of the novel «Cat Country» from Western dystopias is the use of the image of animals. Animal images have a special place in Chinese culture, and animal characters are widely spread in Chinese literature.

The image of a cat in Chinese literature is very popular since ancient times, however, its image is dual. A cat can be depicted as a symbol of fertility, longevity and prosperity, and can be associated with the world of the dead and possess evil forces.

In the literature of the twentieth century, the image of a cat is allegorical and often serves to express philosophical reflections or acts as a symbol of political struggle. The cat in the literature of the twentieth century combines both the traditional folklore image and the personal experience of the writer transferred to it.

In the book «Cat Country» the main role belongs to the connection of two leitmotives — a man and a cat. In this correlation of leitmotives, the artistic meaning of the connection of human and animal principles is put in, the person turns into a beast. To create a grotesque image of «man-beast», Lao She uses the technique of Zoological analogies, which helped readers to see the character’s character and features of phantasmagoria. But the author does not expand it, but uses it to create a generalized image of the cat’s civilization, which has absorbed the worst features.

The image of a cat in this work serves as a representation of evil and death, so the names of the main characters — the Big Scorpion and the Little Scorpion — are also not accidental. In China, the Scorpion is an image of death and destruction. Thus, Lao She emphasizes the destructiveness of cat civilization [3].

Using the technique of parallelism, the author contrasts the image of the narrator, which is associated with a light beginning, with the image of cat people, which is associated with a dark and destructive beginning. And resorting to grotesque, exaggeration and hyperbole, the writer ridicules the described ways of life and worldview of the inhabitants of the Cat city.

The image of a cat, endowed with human qualities, is allegorical in the novel, and through their image, Lao She seeks to convey that these are not animals that look like people, but people in animal masks. It reveals the true nature of people, shows the animal nature and primitive instincts [2].

Resorting to the folklore image of a cat, the writer expands it and brings it closer to modern realities, displaying all the shortcomings of human society.

In Lao She’s novel «Cat Country» important social issues are raised, presenting the reader with a real dystopian world dominated by lack of culture. The author shows how disastrous the consequences can be on the example of the Cat city. Lao She departs from the main signs of dystopia and writes her own work that is not similar to the works of Western representatives. The space in his work is the planet Mars, where the Cat city with its civilization is located. The totalitarian regime in the country of cats is a cult of force and violence.

The main character of the novel «Cat Country» does not rebel against the destructive system because the system destroys itself in the final work. Also, in contrast to the classic examples of Western dystopia, which describes the post-war or military world or the consequences of NTR, in this novel the author, describes the problems of lack of culture and social regression. And the use of the image of cats makes his work unlike other dystopian novels.

Thus, Lao She’s novel «Cat Country» is a worthy representative of the Chinese dystopia in world literature.


1Antipovskii A.A. Rannee tvorchestvo Lao She. Temy, geroi, obrazy / A.A. Antipovskii. — M.: Nauka, 1967. — 185 s.

2. Bunakova R. Yu. Obraz koshki v kitaiskoi literaturnoi traditsii (na materiale romana Lao She «Zapiski o koshach’em gorode»). — M.: Filologicheskie nauki. Voprosy teorii i praktiki, 2013. — S. 33 — 38.

3. Kitaiskie demony-zhivotnye. [Elektronnyi resurs]. 2006. — URL: http://wap.adepts.borda.ru/?1-4-0-00000019-000-0-0 (data obrashcheniya:12.03.2020).

4. Lao She. Zapiski o koshach’em gorode. Izbrannye proizvedeniya. / Lao She. — M.: Gos. izd-vo khudozh. lit., 1991. — S. 209 — 328.

5. Rodionov A.A. Natsional’nyi kharakter kitaitsev v tvorchestve Lao She / A.A. Rodionov. — Spb.: 2001g. — 330 s.

Ismael B.A. 
Athletes as a Role Model

Ismael B.A., 1st year master’s degree student {Physical education}
Scientific adviser:
Zinina J.M. PhD {Philology}, associate professor

Moscow Region State University, Mytishi, Russia

Athletes have long been figures of idolization as a perfect example of physical health and strength. However, with the advent of social media and an unhealthy obsession with sports, professional athletes are now perpetually under a microscope. That means everything they do and say is scrutinized, which shines a light on the stuff that isn’t considered to be «role model» behavior. Whatever the reason, kids and fans alike look up to their favorite players and are aspired to be like them. But is that a good thing?

Keywords: role models, athletes, professional, sport.

A good role model symbolizes the behaviors, actions, and qualities that will lead a person to be happy and successful in every stage of life.

Young people or teenagers have the abilities but they don’t know the right path or sometimes they do not get the proper guidance and here comes the part of role models as they can provide them with a proper path to achieve their dreams, happiness and success in life.

Considering athletes as role models is a tricky business. It is a vast generalization to lump all athletes into the same category and call them role models. Each individual athlete is different, and should be considered for their own contributions. It is difficult to say whether athletes should or should not be called role models, as each of them has their own individual personality, and some shouldn’t be looked up to as being model citizens. Many people put responsibilities on role models, and say that they should act in a responsible manner, but that is a burden those athletes don’t ask for, and it is unfair for them to have to act in ways that provide inspiration for people, and particularly for children. On the other hand, athletes make a lot of money and that money is thanks to the fans they have, so, one could say that the athletes owe it to their fans to give back.

Player codes of conduct attempt to ensure that professional athletes do not behave in ways which bring the game they play into disrepute, but the language used in these codes is typically very general and consequently the clauses of these codes are very much open to interpretation.

Athletes carry personal characteristics such as discipline, talent and diligence. Not only might they be better than the average human, but they are expected to show citizenship, morality, and wisdom in some way or another [4]. Some critics believe that being an athlete means being able to play the sport to their best ability. Others state that athletes have a platform to make a positive influence and should use that to become a leader in their community.

Role models can be generally defined as an «individual who is perceived as exemplary or worthy of identification or imitation» [4].

What are the responsibilities of a role model? The term can be ambiguous and uncertain when it comes to defining what to expect from a role model. Being a role model is more than simply being a good citizen and displaying a positive influence.

Professional athletes should feel some sort of responsibility to the public to do good, and to provide an influence for young people. They are in a position that allows them to be very influential, and it is only ethical for them to not behave poorly, as that is only promoting that behavior in others. However, we don’t think it is necessary for each athlete to proactively perform tasks that promote good behavior, or that provide inspiration to young people. While it is their duty to not act poorly, we don’t think it is their duty to have the responsibility and burden of meeting with kids and playing sports with them, for example. However, that would be the right thing to do, considering the privileged position the athletes are in, and the little effort it takes to make such a big difference in people’s lives [6].

Society puts pressure on athletes by using forms of media to connect audiences to the athletes themselves. Media plays a significant role in «showcasing and personalizing the lives of athletes» creating a responsibility for them to be cautious about their behavior [2].

Professional athletes face the daunting question of how it may affect their career. For athletes to make a decision to «engage publicly on potentially controversial topics such as civil rights equality, and social justice issues» they already know that it is dangerous [2]. In certain cases, athletes have been «criticized and marginalized» after speaking out on a social issue [2]. For example, Colin Kaepernick, a departed quarterback from the San Francisco 49ers, protested against police brutality by sitting down during the national anthem and is now unemployed [3]. While many fans commend his action, others believe that it’s not his place to voice his opinion. We should ask ourselves, or those who disagree with Kaepernick’s actions, what makes him a bad role model by standing up for what he believes for? How come certain athletes are not scrutinized when they participate in social movements?

Lebron James as a Role Model. In the Nike advertisement, a young kid from a small neighborhood looks into his future and follows his journey to the NBA. The commercial features Lebron James himself, being an influential icon for the young boy who eventually grows up to be on the same team. Lebron James has clearly stated in many of his interviews, social media platforms and press releases that he is a role model to many children and acknowledges the type of power he holds. He has been one of the most involved athlete activists in the NBA and also known to be outspoken on his political views such as Black Lives Matter and his unfavorable opinion on President Trump. As «a community leader and a voice people turn to, the media often portray him as someone who can bring change and cause positive outcomes for others» [2]. Coming from Akron, he carries out many charities within the community and continuously gives back to the place that he grew up in. Lebron is more passionate about being a positive influence on children because he was one of those kids when he was younger. He was the kid that looked up to the successful NBA player and he had dreams to become the best because he didn’t have a strong figure in his life. Could you imagine if Lebron didn’t become a basketball player? That’s hard to believe, considering he has broken historical records in this era of basketball.

Charles Barkley «I Am Not a Role Model». He believes that basketball players should not be responsible to be a role model for kids. In 1993, Nike released a commercial starring himself, stating why parents should be role models for their children with no remorse.

In a 2014 Barkley stands by his word and explains why most black children have hopes in dreams of being an entertainer or professional athlete [1]. The misleading title caught many people off guard at first, but the message that Barkley was sending was more about the lack of parenting on their kids. Barkley does believe that NBA players should have some responsibility but to an extent. Hoping to bring more attention to this issue, his Nike commercial is still being referenced to repeatedly. One question that comes to mind about Barkley’s message is, what if the kids don’t have parents to look up to? What if they have no positive influencers in their community to idolize and look up to?

In a sense, Lebron is speaking to young individuals in the slums, with no parents, and living a difficult lifestyle. Whereas Barkley is encouraging young people to understand that there is more than just professional basketball as a career and that they should listen to parents instead of NBA players. Charles Barkley has managed to stay away from the role model status, as he speaks freely and openly about controversial topics and does little to be an athlete role model. This goes to show that not all athletes need to be an active role model if they don’t want to be.


Elite athletes are comparable to celebrities in the entertainment industry. It’s inevitable that their popularity and success will draw in fans and impressionable youth. That is not to say that all athletes have the obligation to speak out on social issues and comment on their political stance. Nonetheless, «if one has a special ability to influence others positively, they ought to do so» [5].

We can see that NBA players, Lebron James, and Charles Barkley, have a strong opinion on why they should be a role model or why they shouldn’t be. Not only are they speaking for themselves, but they are speaking on behalf of other professional athletes. Some may agree with Lebron, and others will agree with Barkley, even so, that is up to the athlete to decide how much of an active role model they want to play. There should be some responsibility to do the best you can at being a positive influence. We know that professional athletes are humans just like everyone else and no one is perfect. There will be mistakes here and there but as an individual in the public eye, especially being in commercials, press releases, interviews, community events and advertisements, it is undeniable that your actions will be watched by parents and young kids.


1. CNN: Barkley: Kids don’t need to be Jay-Z [Electronic resource] (2014, January 24). Retrieved: April 09, 2018, from. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bNIiNHmy8tw (accessed 10.03.2020).

2. Coombs D. S., & Cassilo, D. Athletes and/or Activists: LeBron James and Black Lives Matter [Electronic resource] // Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 2017. URL: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0193723517719665 (accessed 11.03.2020).

3. Farris J. (2016, September 18). Why Kaepernick must keep kneeling: Voices [Electronic resource]. Retrieved: April 09, 2018, from URL: https://www.usatoday.com/story/opinion/policing/spotlight/2016/09/
16/why-kaepernick-must-keep-kneeling-voices/90383480/ (accessed 10.03.2020).

4. Guest A. M., & Cox S. Using Athletes as Role Models? Conceptual and Empirical Perspectives from a Sample of Elite Women Soccer Players [Electronic resource] // International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 2009. URL: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1260/174795409790291385 (accessed 11.03.2020).

5. Klein Shawn E. «An Argument against Athletes as Political Role Models» // Fair Play. Journal of Philosophy, Ethics and Sports Law, 2017. [Electronic resource]. URL: https://www.academia.edu/34099953/An_Argument_against_Athletes
_as_Political_Role_Models (accessed 12.03.2020).

6. LeMier K. Relationship Between Athletes and Role Models [Electronic resource] // Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato, Vol. 8, Art. 7. — Minnesota State University, 2008. [Electronic resource]. URL: https://cornerstone.lib.mnsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1077&context=jur (accessed 12.03.2020).

Kalachev K.A. 
Formation of ideology and its performance in the modern socio-political blogosphere

Kalachev K.A., 3rd year student {Sociology}
Scientific adviser:
Arutyunyan D.D. Ph. D {Methods of ELT}, associate professor

State Educational Institution of Higher Education Moscow Region «University of Technology»,
Korolev, Russia

This article presents and describes the structure of the modern blogosphere and its ideological aspects. The relevant aspects of the ideological sphere of social life that have a direct impact on the content of specific blogs and the structure of the entire blogosphere are identified. The advantages and significant disadvantages of the blogosphere as an institution for forming public opinion and ideology are considered and explained.

Key words: blogosphere, blogger, ideology, society, content, communication.

Over the last ten years, the Internet has become one of the most effective institutions both forming the ideology of the younger generation, and having a great influence on the ideology of the older generation. The Internet penetrates into all spheres of public life exerting a noticeable influence on people connected with it. With the appearance of high-speed connection, more and more advanced communication methods are opening up for society. Communications in the Internet is noticeably different from contacts in real life. In particular it is necessary to highlight the informality of communication itself. It is easier for people to earn contacts, to make new acquaintances, to express their thoughts online. This type of communication does not require participants to pay attention to interlocutors. It is known that there are even more than a thousand speakers (e.g. disputes in comments under any popular blogger’s post).

The blog (from the English web-log, Internet-journal) is the feed of messages (entries, posts) located in reverse chronological order [1]. The hosts of the blog can be both individuals having their own page on a social network and a group of people connected by common interests (both in terms of interest in the specifics of the blog and in commercial terms). A blog is inherently public phenomenon. So all the people who have access to a specific social network can familiarize themselves with a content of the blog, evaluate it and have feedback from the direct author (as a comment or personal messages).

In order to research the socio-political aspects of the ideology of the modern blogosphere you need to turn directly to blogs that are based on the subject relating to the political and social life of modern society. Recently these blogs have become very popular as their specificity is based on the consideration of the socio-political life of the state.

The structure of this blogosphere includes direct representatives of opinions (bloggers) and the audience whose interests should be represented by these bloggers. Such blogs often attract a large number of viewers, listeners, readers due to the problems that are described in the blogs. So in the Internet it is difficult to identify the right «side» because each individual has his own ideology according to which he makes decisions in his life. The task of the blogosphere is not to convey information to the audience. It is in the formation of ideological content most suitable for the contemporary realities of society.

It is known that every blog cannot avoid subjectivity of the actor (blogger). This fact means that all of the information brought by one or another blogger should be checked for the truth. People who follow such bloggers often do not realize what the real situation is. The element of subjectivity can be enlarged into an outright lie which leads to dissonance in the society which often chooses only the point of view that is similar to its own.

Speaking about the socio-political blogosphere as an institution for the formation of ideology it is worth noting the fact that a blogger is not always competent in specific matters. The formation of a social ideology, without a doubt, does not pass without the participation of the Internet. But often it is the network and people who have direct recognition in it create circumstances in which society cannot form its own view of a particular situation that affects public and political life of the state.

In the scientific discourse the modern blogosphere is associated with the concept of an environment in which society finds the right decisions for itself on socio-political issues.

E.V. Lazutkina believes that «blogs have turned from a means of interpersonal communication into a mass communication environment» [2]. At the same time I.M. Shatin characterizes the blogosphere «as a specific informational, communicative, social environment with a network structure integrated into a complex system of modern society» [3]. These approaches to determining the socio-political blogosphere are based only on communication which is not entirely correct for the Internet community, since the basis of everything in the online space is information. Each blogger specializing in politics or public life of the state, from the very beginning analyzes the information received from primary sources, the media, and eyewitnesses. Then he forms a critical assessment of this situation in order to share it with the audience of his blog in the next.

Also raising the topic of the blogosphere, it is impossible not to say about the role played by its actors (bloggers). It is worth considering what place bloggers directly occupy in the hierarchy of the formation of the ideology of society. The blogosphere is considered to be an institution that has a rather strong influence on the worldview of society. But we must not forget that people looking, listening or reading a blog often are in search of like-minded people. It is not bloggers that influence public opinion, but it is the society that creates such circumstances in which specific bloggers are popular. This point of view also has a right to exis, as modern sociology and political science have not fully studied the blogosphere phenomenon and it’s influence on the public opinion.

Touching upon the actors of the blogosphere it should be noted that in the modern world when any socio-political organization has no significance without public support the role of advertising and recommendations has grown more than ever. The most obvious tool used to increase the number of potential customers and like-minded people are bloggers. Often people blindly trust a well-known blogger reinforcing their faith with the phrase: «He will not risk his reputation and audience because of the benefits.» But it is worth noting the fact that there are a huge number of cases where even very well-known bloggers engaged in public relations of both fraudulent and incompetent and inactive organizations in their field. This fact makes it clear that the blogosphere requires critical thinking from a modern person, which helps to sort of filter the content that is served for perception.

Summing up it must be said that the blogosphere is a relatively young phenomenon, and its study will continue for many more years. But studying the blogosphere as an institution of the formation of the publicity ideology it should be noted that due to the abundance of information and the informality of its content, its structure changes faster than the structure of other social institutions. Therefore, the phenomenon of the blogosphere as a social phenomenon and the influence of its content on public opinion is still not fully understood.


1. Квятковский К. О. Дискурс политической блогосферы как объект политического исследования // Вестник ЮУрГУ. Серия: Социально-гуманитарные науки. 2012 №10 (269)

2. Лазуткина Е. В. Особенности коммуникационной модели блогов // Наука. Инновации. Технологии. 2010. №66

3. Шатин И. М. Социальные среды современной политики: блогосфера // Вестник РГГУ. Серия: Политология. История. Международные отношения. 2011. №1 (62)

Kareva A.A. 
Customs control and customs examination regarding cultural values

Kareva A.A., 4th year student {Customs}
Scientific adviser:
Romanov P.S., Doctor of Pedagogy, associate professor

State Educational Institution of Higher Education Moscow Region «University of Technology»,
Korolev, Russia

The article is devoted to the procedure for moving cultural values across the customs border of the Union when imported into the customs territory of the Union and exported. For many passengers, these items are of great value. They are moved in certain containers, plastic boxes, as well as packages specifically designed for such goods and are an integral part of them. However, during customs control, customs officers may identify cases where cultural items may be hidden in secret places of the vehicle on which they were transported in order to avoid paying customs duties and taxes. As well as when individuals take them with them in hand Luggage, without the necessary documents, passing through the green corridor, thereby violating the rules regarding the need to declare goods that are equated to cultural values. In such a situation, it is necessary to conduct an analysis and expertise to be sure that a batch of goods or a separate cargo is a cultural value. At the same time, the person transporting such items must have all the documents that give accurate and specific information about such goods: the certificate of origin, gross/net weight, licenses, and other shipping documents. Persons who intentionally try to evade the law will be criminally liable for their offenses in the future.

Keywords: Cultural values, customs control, criminal investigation, customs expertise.

The relevance of this topic is caused by the increase in illicit trafficking of goods in the domestic and foreign markets, as well as in cases of provision of false documents and information about them to customs officers. This is done with the aim of paying a lower rate of import customs duty, including excise tax, or illegal transportation of large quantities of goods through the customs border that are subsequently used to sell and receive profitable proceeds from the crime.

At the same time, the person who subsequently is held responsibility for unlawfully committed actions will be an individual or legal entity acting intentionally, as well as an organized group of people who, by prior agreement, through a certain number of people and an agreement between them, perform these operations.

Also, there are frequent cases, when the transfer of funds for the unlawful movement of goods occurs between customs officials. In such a situation, it is not easy to identify the involvement of these persons in the crime being committed, and at this moment there is an improvement in the technical means of customs control, including information technology, which makes it possible receive clearly and definitely all the necessary information. This allows to identify the involvement of officials in this case, which in the future will entail them responsibility and very heavy punishment, according to the temper of the crime itself.

It should be noted that initially the process of delivery of goods begins with prior informing the customs officers of the place and date of its arrival. Today it is necessary to notify which cargo will be imported or exported, as well as which vehicle. This happens two hours before crossing the customs border of the Union. And it starts with checking the transport, commercial, transportation and other necessary documents available to the carrier, or a person acting on his behalf or on his behalf, with a list of information obtained by prior informing. If the customs officers did not reveal any discrepancies in the declared information, the goods fall into the customs control zone. But, if a certain number of discrepancies were revealed by the persons conducting the inspection, they have the right to refuse to register a declaration for goods and other available documents, and to import goods into or out of the country. They also have the right to detain the goods, taking it from the owner, to place them in temporary storage warehouses, depending on the temper of the crime.

Then, once at the checkpoint across the customs border, the goods are subject to customs control carried out by customs officers, and in some cases, the dog service, using service dogs involved in the inspection process. The procedure for customs control depends on the chosen form. After checking all the necessary documents and information, the customs inspection step follows.

Most often, customs officials carry out a visual inspection of goods without opening the packaging, containers and other construction or material in which they are transported to preserve the integrity of the goods and their further placement under the necessary customs procedure. But, if during the verification of documents a fact of inconsistency of information was discovered, other offenses were revealed, such as forgery, failure to provide the entire set of necessary documents, customs officers have the right to carry out customs inspection with opening the seal, stamps, labels, seals, which are an integral identification product sign. Officials perform similar actions even when indicators of a high level of the risk management system are triggered. They also have the right to take samples and samples that will be necessary for conducting a customs examination.

To increase efficiency, as well as to reduce labor and time costs, customs officials can use technical means of customs control: instruments and devices. The procedure for their use is established by law. Most often they use special mirrors, endoscopes, probes and video scopes. They help to feel more clearly with the help of X-rays, and understand, is the product reliable, and whether there are some interferences.

During the customs inspection, inspectors use technical means of customs control in various directions, depending on which goods and vehicles will be inspected. They are both simple and complex. X-ray installations and inspection and inspection complexes are complex. With their help, inspection of transport packaging, luggage and cargo compartments of vehicles are carried out. This is necessary in order to establish the number of goods in the container, their temper, and also to identify all hidden places where counterfeit and contraband products related to cultural property are illegally moving across the customs border of the Union, based on an analysis of the obtained X-ray images.

It should be noted that the reason for conducting a customs inspection may be cases when the inspector found damaged seals, as well as traces of opening a sealed container. In this case, he is obliged to send to the head of the post a memo on the customs inspection, which caused suspicions of the cargo, indicating the location and depth of the inspection.

If we talk about cultural values moved by individuals, as well as a certain party, it should be noted that customs officers use such technical means as «DeMon» or «DeMon-yu» that identify gems and cultural values. It allows individuals who carry out verification to perform non-destructive express control of jewelry on the electrochemical surface of the material. This device makes it possible to identify the sample (for gold items from 333 to 999th, or from 8 carats to 24). Moreover, the integrity and qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the object of study will not be violated.

In case of detection of a fake, the display will display such entries as: «Not gold» and not «Precious metal». And the words «Not in the program» make it clear the following: the alloy being tested does not contain the necessary substances; it has an unknown composition, which with the help of this technical tool cannot be identified; the product is not made of jewelry alloy.

Thus, customs control, its measures and forms allow for a more detailed and clear verification of imported and exported goods. It is aimed at suppressing certain types of counterfeit products, which are most often used by unscrupulous persons or persons issuing their goods as original, without the authority of the author of this work. Authors of works or objects recognized as cultural property as a result of examination may suffer considerable losses sizes. In addition, various labels, names, pictures, the authenticity of which is established only as a result of examination or a more detailed customs check in the department of commodity research, can be faked.

In this regard, before further placement of goods under the necessary customs procedure, according to all the information contained in the documents, including the goods declaration, certificates of origin, and the foreign trade contract concluded between the parties, the goods are subject to customs examination [3].

Customs examination is a procedural action that is appointed by an official who has certain powers for this and performed by the appointed expert according to certain rules.

In turn, an expert, independently or within a legal entity, must conduct an examination and submit an expert opinion in the prescribed form. An expert can be professional and have the necessary document issued by the relevant organization confirming his competence.

Thus, it can be emphasized that the examination is a mandatory event appointed by an official with specific authority to do so.

It may include assessment, research, measurement, testing, comparison, verification, and identification and certification.

A mandatory examination is appointed if all the necessary reasons are available. Its main purpose is to provide information to authorities in cases requiring special results, according to their instructions, for their decision.

The head of the customs laboratory approves conclusions on all examinations and studies carried out and is responsible for the accuracy of their results. In this case, it is executed by customs officers.

An additional examination is appointed if the conclusions of the main are incomplete or unclear.

An examination is called repeated, which is carried out on the same facilities if during the first period doubts are raised among customs officers. It is entrusted to another group of experts.

The examination may be appointed at the discretion of the inquiry officer, as well as by an official of the customs body of the Russian Federation, with the consent of the head of this body or his deputy, or the head of the fight against smuggling during customs control.

Particular attention in the appointment of an examination to customs officials should be given to the issue of the availability of sufficient grounds for its conduct [4].

Now is important to focus on how exactly the import and export of cultural property is carried out.

When cultural property is imported into the Russian Federation, including for the period of temporary import, their customs declaration is carried out in writing using a passenger customs declaration.

There is a list of cultural property exempted from customs duties and taxes, regardless of their weight and value, subject to the availability of the necessary document confirming the legality of their movement. Also, the customs declaration of imported cultural property is accompanied by the submission to the customs authority of the conclusion of an authorized expert that this product can be attributed to this category.

As for export, the export of cultural property in this case is accompanied by a certain list of rules regarding individuals. They can transport them as goods for personal use, subject to a conclusion (or permit) and provides for the submission of a passenger customs declaration. It must spell out all the necessary identification features of such products (name, author, year of creation, the material from which they are made, and for stringed musical instruments (violin or cello) — a passport for them).

In the absence of a passenger customs declaration, confirmation of the right of export is possible by the presence of a permit, which must be issued by the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation.

In the case when a person is taken out of the customs territory of the Union that is equated with cultural property but is not an antique, it is necessary to present an opinion issued by the Federal Service of the National Guard of the Russian Federation [2].

Of particular importance is the procedure for conducting a customs examination in relation to cultural property.

Goods declared for export or temporary export from the territory of the Russian Federation, as well as those that were returned after their temporary export from the customs territory of the Union are subject to mandatory expertise. It is carried out by authorized ministries of culture of the Russian Federation, as well as specialists from archives, museums, libraries, restoration and research organizations that are freelance experts, or members of expert commissions for the preservation of cultural property. The results of the examination can provide a very significant basis for the adoption by the Ministry of Culture and its territorial bodies of a decision on the possibility or impossibility of exporting a full or temporary from the customs territory of the Union.

If the result of the decision was positive, then the person responsible for the transport of goods is issued a certificate of export right.

In most cases, the examination is carried out at the request of the owner of cultural property, or a person authorized by him. It should contain information about the owner; where does the person transporting such goods have reasons for the emergence of property rights; Description of cultural property.

The application must be accompanied: a list with a description of cultural property; three photographs of each cultural value; copies of documents proving ownership; documents certifying the value of cultural property.

And in case of temporary export, the application also includes: a certificate of inclusion of temporarily exported goods in the protection lists and registers; an agreement with the receiving party on the purposes and conditions of temporary export; documented guarantees of their safety.

The application and documents specially attached to it are registered in a special journal. The applicant, meanwhile, is given a notice of receipt of the application indicating his registration number.

If during the consideration of all the above circumstances, which would indicate the absence of the applicant’s authority to carry out the transport of cultural property, it would be a good reason for refusing to temporarily export and import it.

And if moments that reveal the illegality of possession of the declared cultural property are noticed, then the persons conducting the examination are obliged to inform the higher law enforcement agencies about this.

And in the end, on the basis of the application and documents, experts are entitled to agree on the place of examination and time with the owner of these items.

If we talk about the timing of the customs examination, it is set depending on the complexity of the expert work and the volume of material provided but should not exceed 30 calendar days. If necessary, with the consent of the applicant, additional studies can be carried out. In this case, the period may be extended, but not less than 30 calendar days.

The customs examination of cultural property that has been returned to the customs territory of the Union should be carried out on the basis of a return notice, which must be submitted by the owner of such items or by an authorized person within 10 days. It should indicate the state of each cultural property after its return.

An expert opinion is drawn up in writing and made on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of cultural values with a determination of their authenticity, authorship (since they can sometimes be issued as counterfeit goods), the name, place and time of creation, the material used for the manufacture and distinctive features.

It must contain grounds for their export or temporary export, or for a ban on further movement.

The ministries of culture of the Russian Federation and its territorial bodies verify the declared cultural property. If the final results of the examination confirm the need to include information on the goods in state protection lists or registers, then the examination materials are transferred to the relevant authorities, regardless of the consent of the person applying for their export.

Note that the examination of cultural property is carried out on a fee basis. The amount of the required payment is determined taking into account direct costs, overhead costs and the necessary payment of taxes and fees. It is calculated for each customer individually. Payment is made in cash or by bank transfer, on the basis of the «Invoice», or a cash receipt order [1].

Thus, we can conclude that the examination is a very weighty argument for further actions with the goods. Indeed, in the course of the audit, a number of points can be discovered or revealed that do not give the right for the subsequent movement of such goods. Or fully confirming all the information that was stated in the shipping documents and the release of goods may be allowed.

The results of the examination help to understand many things that are impossible to see with the naked eye, as well as using technical means. It may entail punishment in various forms in an amount depending on the nature of the crime and the subject who committed it. Actual statistics of offenses in this area reflects a large number of offenses that entailed a person’s responsibility for the crime in accordance with the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation [5].


1. Ввоз и вывоз культурных ценностей — https://www.tks.ru/nat/0030000001#13.

2. Культурные ценности — http://customs.ru/fiz/pravila-peremeshheniya-tovarov/peremeshhenie-kul-turnyx-czennostej.

3. Таможенный контроль — https://ucsol.ru/tamozhennoe-oformlenie/tamozhennyj-kontrol.

4. Экспертиза в таможенном деле — В. А. Соложенцев, А. В. Нестеров.

5. Уголовный кодекс Российской Федерации — http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_10699/b3bd20ba

Kirilina D.V. 
Combining professional and family responsibilities

Kirilina D.V., 3rd year student {Sociology}
Scientific adviser:
Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer

State Educational Institution of Higher Education Moscow Region «University of Technology»,
Korolev, Russia

The article deals with the problem of optimal combination of work and family responsibilities, in particular of those with family and children. The time when women always had to be at home engaged only in household chores has passed. Now most women with children are also engaged in the professional sphere. Work is aimed at achieving harmony and the ability to maintain a healthy lifestyle. A total of 154 people have participated in the empirical study. The reasons why people get so tired as well as the principles for choosing a job have been identified. Moreover, the distribution of domestic responsibilities among household members has been analyzed.

Keywords: Combining professional and family responsibilities, work and home, children, motherhood, support, work-family balance.

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the problem of combining professional and domestic responsibilities. Many people feel guilty because they spend too much time and energy on work instead of their family. Due to the fact that it is next to impossible to maintain work-family balance, people get sleep deprived, exhausted and easily irritated. The above mentioned factors lead to increased number of conflicts in families. [2, 3]

It is said that people are eager to sit at home and do household chores. However, the research has shown that most of them still feel unsatisfied without going to work. [5] It can be proved by the fact that people in such a situation frequently need a change of scenery. Besides, they don’t want to lose stable income or joy of self-actualization. This lifestyle doesn’t fully meet their needs in different spheres of life which leads to increased irritability. [4]

The situation also depends on where a person works. If they work at home, it’s much easier for them to combine the two areas. However, if they don’t work remotely, a number of factors affect their family life and personal (spare) time in general. Consequently, their work schedule has a strong impact on this problem. [1]

A corresponding table has been built in order to compare respondents’ answers according to their sex and work. The findings have shown that almost two thirds (61.7%) of the respondents are currently working; 76.6% of them are female, whereas 46.8% are male. (Table 1)

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