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Science, Culture and Youth

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Секция 1. Актуальные проблемы современности
Section 1. Contemporary issues of modernity

Andreeva E.A. 
Female and men’s ideal in the representation of Russians

Andreeva E.A., 2nd year student {Sociology}
Scientific adviser:
Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer

State Educational Institution of Higher Education Moscow Region «University of Technology»,
Korolev, Russia

This article analyzes the views of Russians about women’s and men’s ideals. The results of the author’s research are presented. The majority of respondents are convinced of the existence of the ideal of women and men in our country. At the same time, almost half of the survey participants believe that there is no ideal age for either a man or a woman. This article will be of interest to representatives of any generation, since everyone in his life is faced with the following question: «What is an ideal?».

Keywords: Ideal of man and woman, Ideal age, Representation of Russians, Inage of the Ideal person.

Every person, who is born, eventually begins to be interested in different spheres of life in search of himself. In the process of socialization, the individual turns into a full-fledged personality, which is formed in the process of interaction with other people and accumulation of experience.

S. L. Rubenstein wrote about the meaning of ideal in the process of personality formation: «Ideal is a thought model of perfection of anything, in any kind, primaries, prototype, and beginning; representative». And further, as a separate value added «sample-dream» [3]. And of course, each of us tries to achieve the ideal in our aspirations, goals or tries to get to the ideal.

Broadly speaking, the ideal is «a pattern, a prototype, the supreme purpose of aspirations, the perfect embodiment of anything, the notion of supreme perfection in any respect.»

Ideals are closely related to the problem of the meaning of human existence. This is their important, largely undervalued role — «the lack of meaning, goals, values and ideals in life causes considerable suffering»; … «We need some absolute values — sustainable ideals to which we can aspire, and guiding guidelines on which life can be built» [4].

Gender ideals are idealized notions of the purpose, behavior and feelings of men and women that are characteristic of a given culture. In our work we consider them as reference images of men and women, having a certain structure represented by a set of qualities connected between themselves in a non-accidental way. The gender ideal is a general benchmark, a guiding star that, although not achievable in real life, gives it meaning and indicates the path, direction of aspirations.

When we consider the ideal as a social phenomenon, we can trace the existence of the ideal in any era, at any stage of human development. In the course of history, not only people ’s lives changed, but also ideas about the perfect woman and the perfect man. In what way is the ideal forming?

The main reason for the formation of the ideal is the need to overcome contradictions between society and nature, as well as within social contradictions [1].

Understanding the ideal has an important place in the life of every modern person. The ideal of each person is individual, but for Russian society there are universal qualities that are laid down by education in each individual. The topic is truly full-fledged. However, it is important to understand that every person already has a perfect image of «himself,» and the very «universal ideal» can be considered as imposed by society.

In order to study the perceptions of young people about the ideal of women and men, we conducted a sociological study in the form of a questionnaire with the participation of students of the Technological University of the Moscow region in May 2019.

More than half of the survey participants are convinced that in our society there is an ideal of women (58.4%) and an ideal of men (58.4%). At the same time, according to almost half of respondents, there is no ideal age, neither for men (40%) nor for women (46.7%).

According to the study, more than a quarter of respondents (28.3%) believe that the ideal of men and women can be changed. Respondents, feeling some pressure from beauty standards, still do not fully meet it, maintaining their personal image and individuality. More than three quarters of respondents (80%) admitted that in the male ideal the main quality is reliability, and in the female — kindness, responsiveness and understanding.

We also tried to find out from respondents the general satisfaction with the choice of our partner. It turned out that two fifths of respondents (40%) were generally satisfied with their choice and only 5% were not satisfied.

In achievement of young people of their own ideal, not imposed by society, is very important at the moment. This contributes to the formation of a confident and independent personality. The desire to understand the unattainable ideal leads to stress, health problems. And it is also worth remembering that value is result of «activity» of an ideal at all, the ideal personifies «the standard of value». [2]

The problem of gender study involves, first of all, the identification of the subject matter of the study. The subjects involves such as images of men and women, benchmarks of masculinity and femininity. Knowledge of the content and structure of «sexual» samples not only helps to identify those spheres of life in which Russians believe the most pronounced features of the personality of men and women are, but also to judge the degree of formation (in this regard). Our research has shown that almost the only sphere of life in which adolescents ’perceptions of male and female images are formed is the sphere of relations with the opposite sex. These perceptions at each age reflect individual aspects of communication.

In young people, the immediate life experience is related only to the position of the child, and therefore their perceptions of masculinity and femininity are apparently simply learned relevant views of adults. Meanwhile, it is known that at this age a system of inter-sex relations is intensively formed. However, as many studies have shown, adolescents ’perceptions of the ideal qualities of men and women for this relationship are predominantly related to the notion of camaraderie without taking gender into account. Therefore, ideal perceptions of men and women and the real behavior of adolescents as boys and girls are sort of in different plans. Accordingly, the ideal does not perform its regulatory function as a model of behavior.

In adult respondents to our study, the basis for the formation of ideal perceptions of masculinity and femininity is a significant sphere for them to deal with peers of the opposite sex. It includes topical needs related to sexual development, awareness of yourself as a person of a certain sex (in the sphere of inter-sex relations), ideal images of men and women as subjects and objects of communication. These perceptions of themselves and others are tested in practice, in the direct activity of communication. However, a system of certain needs, motives, value orientation, is formed at this age only in the named sphere. Therefore, relative to the older generation, it can be said that this is only one of the stages of male and female formation, but not the end of this process.

Thanks to the research carried out, it is safe to say that every person is beautiful in his own way. There is no certain perfect female and male ideal.

The peculiarities of Russian perceptions of masculinity and femininity should be taken into account when studying the course «Ethics and Psychology of Family Life.» This course will be able to achieve its objectives only if it summarizes all the previous work of the school in sexual education of students.

References:

1. Blanutsa D. A. Peculiarities of formation of social ideal//News of the Russian State Pedagogical University named after AI Hercen. — 2008. — №. 51.

2. Bransky V.P. Art and Philosophy. Kaliningrad: Amber narration. 2000. Page 207.

3. Rubenstein S.L. The basics of general psychology in 2 Т.2. M.: «Pedagogy,» 1989, p. 119—120.

4. Yalom I. Existential Psychotherapy/Per. With England T. S. Drabkin. M.: Class, 2014.

Aseeva M.E. 
Current global problems

Aseeva M.E., 1st year student {Customs}
Scientific adviser:
Kazanskaya E. V., PhD {Philological sciences}, associate professor

Rostov State University of Economics (RINH),
Rostov-on-Don, Russia

Thе article is aimed at the modern problems — many existing global problems are covered in it, as well as their meaning and influence on the world, people and environment. The main focus is set by the author at how much humanity is influenced by the outside factors: ecological, social and economic. This problem is already well-known, but needs deep analysis and effective measures.
Keywords: global problems, human, development, economics, environment.

Nowadays a lot of global problems exist on the salvation of which the whole progress of mankind as well as its existence depend. These problems could be characterized by dynamism, as they appear as an objective factor of society’s development and require the combined involvement of all humanity in order to be solved. It should be noticed that global problems are connected, cover all sides of human life and influence all the countries in the world one way or another. All in all, there is a list of main global issues such as: terrorism, ecological problems and international economic problems.

Obviously, human existence is connected to specific conditions of environment (temperature, humidity, air contents, quality of water and others). These conditions have been developing as a standard for thousands of years and their deviations influence human health negatively, which is the main description of the ecologic problems. People are an element of the biosphere — an outside area of Earth, in which all the vital resources are concentrated — water, air, food and most of the energetic and construction elements. It is also the biosphere which collects all the human waste — domestic and industrial. People affect it locally, but in many places all around the world — dump polluting waste, destroy soil, cut forests, destroy the natural habitats of animal and plants. A large amount of local influences leads to an overall degeneration of the environment: drainage of resources, extinction of animals and plants, destruction of local ecosystems.

Therefore, the change of climate is one of the main modern risks. For instance, the inconsistence of the weather condition, which threatens the food supply, the rise of ocean water, which leads to many disasters, are a results of climate change and have a global nature. An intergovernmental group of experts in climate change (IPCC) has released a new report «Ocean and cryosphere». The document states that the governments should immediately make more serious steps to diminish the climate crisis and defend the world ocean. A representative of the ocean program in «Greenpeace» in Britain Criss Thorn thinks: «World leaders at this week’s Summit made it look like thy care. But if their words will not turn into real obligations to solve the serious climatic situation and to make a strong global Deal about the ocean, they will fail to follow the expectations of millions of climatic activists all over the world, who came out to the streets to call for radical changes. The IPCC report is just another signal for those who still was not awakened from their sleep in the shadow of a new climatic crisis. The decisions that the world leaders will make in the next years will have consequences for humanity in the closest hundred years» [2].

The IPCC report contains other conclusions as well:

— The rise of the ocean level to the year 2100 could come to approximately one meter, of the global temperature rises by 3° C — and the current policy will surely lead to this. As a result, there would be a migration of millions of people from the coastal areas.

— With rise in the sea temperature and in the acidization of oceans fauna and the oceanic ecosystems will face serious problems. Even if the global heating could be held at about 1.5° C, about 90% of the coral reefs will go to extinction.

— In this century there is a forecast of a massive melting of deepfrozen soil. Arctic and subarctic deepfrozen soil contain 1460—1600 gigatons of organic carbon, which is two times of that in the atmosphere.

The number of conducted researches indicates the seriousness of this global problem that needs to be solved globally [2].

At all times humanity has faced the problem of self-defending against numerous viruses, known as «Bubonic plague» (527 b.c.e.), «The Spaniard» (1918), «The smallpox» and others. The relevance of this problem has risen even in the 21st century. In the December 2019 in China there was an outbreak of pneumonia, caused by a newfound virus 2019-nCoV. Soon it spread into other countries. The status for March 12th 2020 in Europe there were registered more than 20000 cases of this virus and almost 1000 deaths. A cause for the infection can either be a sick person of an animal carrying the virus. Possible ways of transferring: through air, through dust, through feces and through physical contact.

— From the information of The National Committee of China’s healthcare, there have been 80894 registered cases of illness. The amount of diseased all over the world, according to WHO’s latest data, has passed 200 thousands of people. According to the World Health Organization to the evening of March 18th there are 11525 new cases registered during the day. The overall amount of deaths is 8147 (SCMP data). Coronavirus has reached the last country in Europe, which was earlier clear of the illness — Montenegro. Countries of EU have closed their borders for foreigners for 30 days. The organizers of «Eurovision», which was to take place in Rotterdam in May, announced its cancellation due to the restrictions introduced by the Netherlands’ authorities and the other European countries due to the coronavirus.

As to the economic problems, they have been almost constant for many years. Among them is a serious gap between the developing regions and the world leaders in technological and economic aspects. And the world has existed in this state for centuries. It is important to notice, that the most trailing countries are in the regions of Africa, partially Asia and South America. Apart from this problem there is another: an overdependence of economies on each other. Although in perfect conditions this would only be a harmless result of international labor division; in reality it may lead to unlikely consequences. For example, the abovementioned epidemic of coronavirus destabilized most of the Asian countries’ production. Consequently, the world market may soon experience a large deficit of the goods manufactured in those regions. This is basically a negative side of the import dependency of many modern regions. World economy is not ready for a continuous exit of such countries as China from the market, because they contain a large cut of the world’s production. We can only guess how bad will be the consequences if China does not recover from the epidemic in the nearest month.

It goes without saying, that there are lots of actual problems, that we need to solve.

References:

1. Cybernetika.ru

2. Greenpeace.ru

3. Wikipedia.ru

4. Euro.who.inf.ru

5. Un.org.ru

Afanaseva S. A. 
Virtual social networks as a source of social capital formation

Afanaseva S. A., 3rd year student {Sociology}
Scientific adviser:
Fedotova T.V., senior lecturer

State Educational Institution of Higher Education Moscow Region «University of Technology»,
Korolev, Russia

The article is devoted to the study of social capital in virtual social networks. Some reasons for replacing simple social capital with virtual (network) were considered in it. The article gives definitions of the concepts of «social capital» and «social network». It also examines the impact of the Internet and virtual social networks on the formation of social capital and highlights the positive and negative aspects of this phenomenon.

Keywords: social capital, virtual social networks, virtual social capital

The sociological study of social capital and ways of its formation in virtual social networks is a very relevant problem in modern society. This is primarily due to the increasing penetration of Internet technologies into our lives. There are 109.6 million Internet users in Russia alone, which means that the Internet penetration rate is at 76%. The frequency of using the Internet, however, also increases from year to year. This is evidenced by the data of a survey conducted on November 21—27, 2019 by the research organization «Levada Center». The study involved 1616 people aged 18 years and older. According to this survey, almost two-thirds of respondents (65%) go online every day or almost every day in 2019. Drawing a parallel with November 2015, when less than half of the respondents (43%) used the Internet every day or almost every day, we can conclude that the role of the Internet is growing every year (Fig.1). [5].

Figure 1. Frequency of visits by respondents to the Internet (in % of the total number of respondents)

Modern globalizing society has led to the creation and emergence of a completely new, different model of social communication. The rapid growth of the virtual segment of this model has marked an important pattern — the gradual replacement of real social networks with virtual ones, and, consequently, the gradual replacement of real social capital with virtual ones.

The term «social network» was first coined by the English sociologist James Barnes in 1954 in his work «Classes and meetings in a Norwegian island parish» [7]. However, long before this event, many sociologists emphasized the importance and necessity of considering society not only from the point of view of registering already established «rigid» social structures, but also from the point of view of complex intertwined social connections and their configurations.

For the first time, the American scientist and founder of Cybernetics, Norbert Wiener, announced the possible appearance of virtual communication communities. However, the full development of virtual social networks occurred only at the end of the nineties of the last century, and they have reached their apogee at the present time [1].

It is also worth noting that in the last decade, there has been a clear trend to study the concept of «social capital» through the prism of virtual social networks, namely, the study of its virtual forms. It is quite logical that the question arises: is it possible for virtual social capital to exist and develop in the Internet space? Researchers such as E. G. Rykov, T. A. Butnyakov, Zh. V. Chernova, V. O. Sayapin, K. M. Martirosyan analyze the process of emergence in the virtual space of certain relations that are similar to traditional social capital, but have a certain specificity [4]. This set of specific relationships in the Internet space is called virtual (network) social capital.

According to the classical definition given by the French sociologist P. Bourdieu, social capital is «a set of real or potential resources associated with the possession of a stable network of more or less institutionalized relationships of mutual acquaintance and recognition — in other words, with group membership» [2].

The American sociologist J. Coleman considered the concept of social capital as a kind of relationship between individuals that is based on trust and partnership. Such relations, according to the American sociologist, cement society [3].

So, as already noted above, in a modern society there is a tendency to gradually replace simple social capital with virtual one. This process has both positive and negative aspects. Among the positive aspects, we highlight the ability to communicate «with everyone» and «without any restrictions»; the ability to establish various relationships within professional communities and groups «by interests»; free access to scientific and educational information; the ability to find a job using social networks and establish business contacts, etc. Thus, we can see that virtual social networks are a good platform for social capital formation and growth.

However, the trend of replacing real social capital with virtual one has some negative aspects. First, it is particularly worth noting such a concept as digital inequality. Despite the fact that we live in the era of information technologies, not everyone has equal access to them, and, as a result, the possibilities of accumulating virtual social capital are different. Secondly, the accumulation of social capital is largely related to the concept of trust to other individuals, various organizations and structures in society. Virtual social communications are mainly anonymous (for example, using a nickname when communicating), which, in turn, makes it difficult to establish interpersonal trust.

To sum up, the development of the Internet and virtual social networks contributes to a fast, clear and simple establishment of relationships between individuals and the accumulation of social capital. However, whether this new type of social capital is really valuable and able to replace the real one is a matter of further studying and consideration.

References:

1. Безбогова М. С. Социальные сети как фактор формирования социальных установок современной молодежи: автореферат дис. … канд. псих. наук: 19.00.05: М., 2017. 25 с.

2. Бурдье П. Формы капитала / П. Бурдье // Экономическая социология. 2002. Т.3. №5. С. 62

3. Динамика пользования Интернетом. URL: https://www.levada.ru/2019/12/05/dinamika-polzovaniya-internetom/ (дата обращения: 10.02.2020).

4. Коулман Дж. С. Экономическая социология с точки зрения теории рационального выбора / пер. М. С. Добряковой, науч. ред. В. В. Радаев // Экономическая социология. 2004. Т. 5, №3. С. 35–44.

5. Леушкин Р. В. Структура виртуального социального пространства. Коммуникации, конструкты, капитал: монография. Ульяновск: УлГТУ, 2017. 157 с.

6. Чебунина О. А. Виртуальный социальный капитал в процессе интернет-социализации молодежи // Гуманитарий Юга России. 2019. №. 1 С. 232

7. Барнс Д. Классы и собрания в норвежском островном приходе // Социальные сети/Д. A. Барнс. — 1954.

Баснева И. А. 
Гендерные особенности речи современной молодежи

Баснева И. А., студентка 2 курса {Социология}
Научный руководитель:
Серова Т. О., к. фл. н., доцент

ГБОУ ВО МО «Технологический университет», Королёв, Россия

В данной научной статье поднимается проблема дифференциации языка по социальному полу молодежи в современном обществе. В статье приводятся наблюдения социолингвистов по данной научной проблеме, а также собственные наблюдения автора. Анализ гендерных особенностей речи базируется на изучении лексики, фонетики, а также этикетных формул в речи современных мужчин и женщин.
Ключевые слова: социолингвистика, гендерные различия, молодежная речь.

Проблема гендерных различий в речи интересовала ученых на протяжении всего двадцатого столетия. «Мы говорим на разных языках», — в одном из своих стихотворений преподносит нам эту мысль русский поэт серебряного века Константин Бальмонт. Интересны наблюдения датского лингвиста Отто Есперсена, который в 1922 году посвятил целую главу фундаментального труда о происхождении и развитии языка особенностям женской языковой компетенции. Есперсен полагал, что два языка существуют потому, что женщинам нельзя было произносить определенные слова, которые впоследствии ушли из женского лексикона, но их позволялось произносить мужчинам. Тематика бесед, которыми могли пользоваться женщины, находила отражение в книгах по этикету. Так, девушкам запрещалось выражать злость, использовать в своей речи бранные слова; они должны были говорить мягко, тихо и т. п. [1]. И в наше время на данную проблему проливают свет различными способами: с помощью наблюдений, социолингвистических исследований. Продолжают задумываться о ней и современные поэты, об этом свидетельствует цитата современной писательницы Ольги Май: «Ты говоришь, а я не понимаю, Я говорю, не понимаешь ты…».

Безусловно, не все мужчины и женщины придерживаются конкретных правил в речевой этике, однако можно отметить определенные тенденции в языковых и коммуникативных аспектах обоих полов. Так хотелось бы отразить специфику языковых отличий в среде современной молодежи. Если задаться вопросом, в каком возрасте проявляются лингвокультурные гендерные особенности, то стоит отметить, что прослеживаются они с раннего возраста. Так мы можем слышать, как кто-то из родителей говорит своему ребенку — «Саша, мальчики не жалуются и не хнычут!»; «Таня, девочки так не говорят!».

Языковая система человека преобразуется под влиянием структуры направленности личности, в которую входят потребности, интересы, ценностные ориентации, идеалы, убеждения, мировоззрение и цели. Именно в подростковом возрасте начинают формироваться данные понятия. Язык отражает все мировоззренческие аспекты личности. Мировоззрение женщины и мужчины может быть схожим, а может базироваться на разных взглядах, ценностных ориентациях, представлениях о мире и своем месте в нем. Однако в большинстве случаев, мировоззренческая сфера девушек и молодых парней различна. Так устроено природой, что мужчина по своей натуре — главарь и лидер, для которого наиболее важно, чтобы его уважали и поддерживали. Мужчины в своих действиях руководствуются рациональностью, в то время как девушки больше принимают во внимание свои внутренние ощущения, следуют интуиции, чувствам. Мужественный молодой человек и чуткая, женственная девушка дополняют друг друга.

Не стоит отрицать, что, как правило, интересы молодых парней и девушек разнятся. Так девушки предпочитают скорее романтические новеллы для свободного чтения, нежели научно-философскую литературу, которая заинтересовывает противоположный пол. Видеоигры, футбол, пристрастие к машинам — все эти увлечения отражаются на речевом облике молодого человека, в то время как девушки обогащают свой словарный запас, принимая во внимание свои увлечения: рисование, косметология, скрапбукинг и т. д. На данный момент конкретные границы между интересами мужского и женского пола размываются, каждый человек вне зависимости от пола может заниматься как боксом, так и балетом. Но эти границы не могут исчезнуть без следа, и рано или поздно у девушки проснется ее женственная натура, а молодому человеку захочется почувствовать себя настоящим мужчиной.

Принимая во внимание современную молодежную культуру, следует отметить факт использования сленговых слов со стороны обоих полов. В свою очередь, данный социальный диалект помогает подростку уйти от скучного мира взрослых, родителей, учителей, помогает придать краткость и яркость речи. Также наблюдается совершенно иная, нежели во времена высокой нравственности, картина современного мира, где сниженная и бранная лексика, к сожалению, проскальзывает среди разговоров молодых девушек, а иногда и чаще, чем среди беседы представителей мужского пола.

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