House of Lords
The House of Lords, House of Lords, is the highest, or upper house of the UK Parliament. Also submitted to the Parliament includes in its membership the Sovereign and the lower house, sometimes called the House of Representatives or the House of Commons. Total House of Lords has a membership of 730 unelected members, namely: two archbishops, 24 bishops of the Church of England, which is called the spiritual lords, and 706 members of the Peerage, or secular lords. Lords Spirituals are the members of the House as long as they hold their spiritual position, the secular lords, are members for life. All members of the House of Lords referred to.
The House of Lords was founded in the XIV century and functioned almost always. Until 1544 the name “House of Lords” was not in use. From 1649 until 1660 the House of Lords did not function, because It was abolished by the government that came to power as a result of the English Civil War. Before historical moment the House of Lords had more weight and more meaning than election the House of Commons (the lower house). Nevertheless, from the XIX century, the distribution of forces began to change, and the time of the upper house of Nada much weaker bottom. An Act of Parliament passed in 1911 and 1949 ruled that all legislation excluding “money bills”, which includes the state budget, which passes through the House of Lords, may be detained for a period not exceeding 12 months, but it can not be rejected. In political science, such powers are called suspense veto, the veto deterrent. In addition, the legislative projects cannot make any corrections. The reform of 1999, House of Lords Act, abolished the right to inherit a place in the House of Lords. A small number of peers remain in place, that means the fact that they held high positions of the Great Officers of State, and an additional 92 are elected as representative peers. Additional reforms are included in the plans of the Labour government, but they are not currently unenforceable.
The House of Lords has both legislative and judicial power. Under the judiciary refers to the highest Court of Appeal, which deals with most of the cases of all the United Kingdom. However, the judicial functions belong not to all members of the House of Lords, but only a limited number, have the necessary legal experience, which is called the Lord legalists. Constitutional Reform Act, passed in 2005, would give judicial functions Lords lawyers to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, when the latter will begin its work.
The formal name of the House of Lords is as follows: Honorable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in a joint parliament. And the upper and lower houses hold their meetings in the halls of the Palace of Westminster.
Previously, the Chamber was aristocratic, where the rights of the meeting handed down. At the same time it is a collection of a number of hereditary members of the Lords Spiritual and Lords appointed, which is given a peerage for life, but which, however, is not inherited.
The British Parliament
The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Commons (House of Commons) and the House of Lords (House of Lords).
The House of Commons is elected for five years by universal, equal suffrage by secret ballot on the basis of a relative majority of the majority system.
The order of formation and composition.
Elections to the House of Commons can be shared. Passing at the same time throughout the country. Further it is carried out in some constituencies due to the vacancy of the deputy mandate.
The campaign begins with the delivery of the order on elections, “officials for the elections”, which functions in cities operate mayors and counties — sheriffs. The order is given to the Lord Chancellor and contains an order to the election time. “Officials at Elections” issued a notice in which the citizens residing in their territory, are informed of the place and time of the election.
Passive electoral right enjoyed by citizens who have reached 21 years and entitled to vote. The exceptions are the priests of the Anglican Church, persons in the public service, and bankrupt.
A person who wishes to stand for election to the House of Commons, should provide “an official for the elections,” a document on the nomination and • make an election deposit. Typically, these tools provide political parties nominating candidates for the constituencies. Independent candidates are making bail yourself. If a candidate gains at least the statutory percentage of votes (5%), the deposit is not returned. On average, no returns of about 20% of the total amount of election pledges. Upon completion of all the formalities related to registration, the candidate starts election campaign in the district. Usually in the constituency candidate running for 2—3, and the elected is the one who gets more votes than the other candidates.
The number of elected deputies of the House of Commons is the number of electoral districts (in 1997 — 659). The composition of the deputies of the House of Commons, there should be two main factors:
a) the party affiliation of deputies; b) regional office.
As a result of the general election in 1997, political parties received the following representation in the House of Commons: Labour Party — 419 seats; The Conservative Party — 165 seats; Liberal Democrats — 46 seats; Regional Party -29 seats. Regional representation follows: England with 539 deputies; Scotland — 61 deputies; Wales — 41 deputies; Northern Ireland — 18 deputies.
Speaker of the House of Commons.
Speaker of the House of Commons is an official elected by the House from among its members. Historically, the Speaker had great authority, and provided a link between the communities and the monarch. In accordance with the tradition of the Speaker’s candidacy must be approved by the monarch, with whom this issue previously discussed.
The Speaker is elected the new members of the House of Commons, and if he remembers the deputy after the new parliamentary elections, the deputies traditionally re-elected Speaker of the new term. Within the framework of its powers Speaker:
— provides interaction between the House of Commons and the monarch, the House of Commons and House of Lords;
— supervises the work of the House of Commons and ensures equal rights to participate in the work of deputies, in particular, constituting a minority of the House. For example, the Speaker may restrict the application of the rules of “cloture” (closure) on the grounds that it violates the rights of the minority or the rules of procedure of the House of Commons;
— It provides advice and clarification on the rules of procedure of the House of Commons;
— It has disciplinary powers against troublemakers in the House;
— It confirms the correctness of the procedure to overcome the veto of the House of Lords;
— certifies the financial nature of the bill, under consideration by the House of Commons.
Speaker of the House of Commons does not participate in the debate. It can not belong to any of the presented to the House of political parties. This is usually the most respected and oldest deputy on a career member of the House of Commons. Its independence is ensured not only non-partisan position in the House, but the fact that the salary and later the pension is paid on the basis of law, not subject to market conditions.
In the Speaker is assisted by three of his deputy and clerk — is a person who performs the functions of the Secretary of the Chamber and advisor to the Speaker on matters of procedure and parliamentary privilege.
Questions of maintaining order and security in the House of Commons assigned to the bailiff.
Committees of the House of Commons: 1) Committees throughout the House (Committees of the whole House) represent the House of Commons in full, which is not a meeting held under the direction of the Speaker, as usual, and led by an elected chairman. This form of work of the House of Commons is used, as a rule, when deciding a constitutional matter. For example, when adopting the European Communities Act 1972 2) Standing Committees (Standing Committees) formed selection committee composed of 16—50 deputies to consider specific bills. Most standing committees are not specialized, but some of them are oriented in a certain way. For instance, legislative-earnment of the EU Committee, the Finance Bill, committees considering bills and other issues associated with Scotland and Wales, and so on. D. The number of standing committees is not restricted by law or the House of Commons rules, which may decide to set up Standing Committee for the consideration of any public bill. 3) Selected Committees (Select Committees) are formed from among the deputies, after consultation with the leaders of party factions and perform the functions delegated to them by the House of Commons. Selected committees are of four types: a) committees considering public bills or carrying out the examination on the most important matters dealt with in future legislation; b) committees considering private bills; c) the sessional committees, created at the beginning of each session of the House to deal with certain issues or perform the functions of a permanent nature. For example, the Selection Committee, Rules Committee, the Committee on Privileges, Committee on the procedure, according to the European Law Committee; The Committee on Public Reporting, g) committees to monitor the activity of ministries. They were first created in 1979 for the control of public authorities. Committees (a total of 14) working in close cooperation with the ministries. Areas of activity correspond to the functions of the ministries. For example, the Treasury Committee, the Committee on public reporting, etc. 4) Joint Committees of both Houses of Parliament, formed of their representatives, and posed for the consideration of non-political issues and some types of laws, such consolidated bills.
House of Lords — the second chamber of Parliament, which has its origin from the “Grand Council” (magnum
concilium), which existed in the Norman period of English history. The structure of “Grand Council” was the largest landowners, who served the king and is called “barons”. Over time, the “Big Board” underwent various changes, and based on it, the Chamber of Lords, whose members were called “peers” and to transfer the title and a seat in the House by inheritance.
Currently, the House of Lords has four types of membership: 1) spiritual Lords: Archbishops of York and Canterbury-sky and the bishops of the Anglican Church (26); 2) Lords of lawyers (12) 1; 3) hereditary peers: dukes, marquees, counts, viscounts and barons (the exact number varies from natural causes.
In general, the hereditary peers make up more than 60% of the total number of members of the House of Lords); 4) lifelong peers (about 36% of the members of the House of Lords). The Institute was established for life peerages Act lifelong peers 1958. In accordance with this law, persons who have rendered great service to the Crown, given the title of Baron or Baroness and lifetime seat in the House of Lords. Among life peers more than 50% are former members of the Pa-armor communities, the others — outstanding figures of literature and art, a retired representatives of industrial and financial businesses, diplomats and trade union leaders, retired with outstanding service to the state. The title is bestowed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.
Despite such a large part and active participation in the work of the House of Lords takes less of it, mostly lifelong peers and lords lawyers. Quorum is only 3 people.
At the head of the House of Lords is the Lord Chancellor, is part of the Cabinet and appointed by the monarch on the proposal of Pre-Prime Minister for a term of five years. As Lord Chancellor is not elected by the House, and appointed by the monarch, he has no authority, similar to the powers of the Speaker of the House of Commons. The Lord Chancellor has no disciplinary or any other rights to organize and control the debate taking place in the House of Lords. These powers are exercised by the House on their own on the basis of the privileges of its members and led by the Leader of the House, which became its leader the largest party faction. The Lord Chancellor is not only a figure head, on the contrary, it performs an important function in various areas of public life. The Lord Chancellor: a) is entitled to participate in the debate and speak on behalf of the Government, when the House of Lords sitting as Committee of the whole Chamber; b) estimates on a preliminary basis requests (hits) peers, sent to the Committee on Privileges; c) is the principal adviser to the Government on issues of justice and application of the Constitution; d) heads the judiciary, presiding in the House of Lords, sitting as the final court of appeal and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council of the monarch; d) ex officio chairman is the chairman of the Court of Appeal and the High Court Chancery Division; e) plays a decisive role in the appointment of judges, as well as in the Commission on the reform of the legal system of the United Kingdom; g) issue orders to convene a session of the House of Lords and to hold parliamentary elections.
In the House of Lords Lord Chancellor has two deputies, elected annually by the Chamber at the beginning of the session.
The House of Lords established a committee to consider various issues of its competence. The most important are the Committee on Science and Technology and the European Union Affairs Committee.
Functions of the House of Lords can be summarized into three main groups: 1) legislation; 2) control; 3) court.
Legislative functions are carried out through participation in the legislative process, in particular in the following forms:
a) Amendments to the bills passed by the House of Commons;
b) Rejection of bills adopted by the House of Commons; c) is bills providing for endorsement by the International Treaties of Great Britain or received as part of legal reform, especially with regard to participation in the EU; d) the study of private bills and acts delegated legislation.
Control functions are manifested in the practice of ministers of the Government and the establishment of ad hoc committees to study the issues involved. Following discussions Lords informs the public and the Government.
The legislative process is to review in accordance with the procedure established by laws, which may be made in any of the Houses of Parliament. The exception is financial bills introduced only in the House of Commons.
Types of bills are under consideration in Parliament. Bills under consideration in the Parliament chambers, called Billy. They can be divided into three groups:
Public bills (Public Bills) — This is a bill for the great public importance of the issues, to regulate relations of general interest. The initiators of the introduction of public bills are members of both chambers of deputies — members of the Government. A bill introduced last, referred to as “Government Bill” and have precedence in the consideration of the House;
Private bills (Private Bills) are the laws governing the issues that affect the interests of a certain group or population of a certain territory. The initiators of private bills are usually local authorities or associations of persons. In the case of private bills to the special procedure for consideration and adoption;
Mixed bills (Hybrid Bills) — This is a bill that combines elements of both public and private bills. The criteria for determining a mixed bill is not clearly regulated. The general rule is to have a great social importance of the bill and the fact that at the same time it affects the interests of certain specific groups of individuals. However, the practice develops very contradictory. For example, a bill to nationalize the Bank of England was accepted as a mixed bill, and bills on the nationalization of the gas, electricity and coal industries as public bills.
Bills are considered in three readings. In the first reading, as a rule, announced the name of the bill, then it will be printed and distributed to the deputies. A second reading is held for 2—3 weeks. It discusses the general provisions of the bill, followed by referral to committees of the House, where the deputies and experts are studying the bill in detail. The third reading of the bill on the report of the head committee considered at the plenary session of the House. Deputies may hold debate, but, as a rule, the Speaker shall put the draft to a vote. If the bill receives a simple majority of votes-tion, it is sent to the second chamber. If the House of Lords to amend the bill, they are discussed in the House of Commons. Usually, the problem is solved by taking into account on the basis of compromise positions of both chambers of Parliament. If you cannot reach agreement, the House of Lords has the right to postpone the bill for one year (for financial matters — for one month). If both chambers pass the bill, it is sent to the monarch, and after its approval becomes law, published in the official newspaper.
Ways to limit debate on the bill. In order to ensure the effectiveness of the legislative process in the Parliament there are different ways to limit debate on the draft laws: 1) “termination of debate” on the bill at the request of 100 deputies, is directed to the Speaker of the House; 2) the method of “Kangaroo”, which consists in the discussion of individual articles of the bill and not just the main text; 3) the method of “guillotine”, assuming a fixed time to consider the issue, after which the discussion of automatically be terminated; 4) method of party discipline, and some others.
Along with legislative powers and the authority to adopt the budget the British Parliament performs other functions, important among which are for the Government’s activity control function.
House of Commons
The entire United Kingdom is divided into districts, or constituencies, equal in population living there, which is determined by the Commission on the Limits. In each of these districts here comes election of a parliament in the House of Commons.
Currently, all Prime Ministers and Leaders of the Opposition are selected members of the House of Commons, not the House of Lords. Alec Douglas-Home took off his peerage within a few days after taking office, Prime Minister in 1963, and the last prime minister to the Lord he was in 1902, Robert Gascogne-Cecile, who bore the title of the 3rd Marquis of Salisbury.
Almost always there is the party having a majority of votes thanks to elections of the First and the Past electoral system, resulted in the formation of the two-party system. Nonpartisan or “Independent” MP is the only one at the moment, but from the small parties there are two of them. By tradition, the monarch asks the person appointed to form a government if it is able to survive in the House of Commons, the head of the majority it should be able to. In special cases, the monarch can ask to form a government with a parliamentary minority; this can be explained by only one fact — the creation of a coalition of government.
Usually such accidents occur during wars. A similar proposal was made in 1916 by Andrew Bonar Law, and after its failure — Lloyd George. The government is created not by a vote of members of the House of Commons, but only on behalf of the ordinary of the reigning monarch. The House of Commons is the first time to express their attitude to the new government only as a result of voting Speech from the Throne, the government programme.
Biography of Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II is a woman known on both sides of the Atlantic. As head of the whole of the British Commonwealth of Nations, it was and remains a living symbol of the United Kingdom, as well as the former might of the Empire on which the sun never sets. Now this woman is a living symbol of England. But what is hidden under the mask of stone lady who, as it seems, can be low-key and unflappable in all situations? To answer this question, we will try today, tracing the career of Queen Elizabeth. The early years of Queen Elizabeth II Future reigning queen was born in London in Prince Albert Family (better known under the name of King George VI) and Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon. Its genealogy goes back to the Windsor dynasty, which ruled England for many years. However, with our current heroine from childhood could hardly count on the fact that one day ascend to the British throne. According to the rules of the English succession to the throne, Elizabeth was only the third in the hierarchy of persons applying for the royal crown. This list is inferior to his father — Prince of York, as well as his older brother — Edward VIII. Despite this fact, a representative of the august family from early childhood was brought up like a real princess. She had best teachers, who gave her an excellent education; as well as private teachers who taught her to ride a horse, basics of etiquette, and many other disciplines, knowledge of which was a prerequisite for members of her family. It is noteworthy that the girl is always very kind stretched to knowledge. As they say many literary sources tell about the early life of the future queen, she was actually self-learned French, and many other important items. Not by years of conscious and courageous, Elizabeth appeared before the inhabitants of Britain during the Second World War. Then her uncle Edward abdicated the throne because of his love for a married lady, and ascended to the English throne by her father — George VI. During this period, a thirteen year old girl was remembered by the fact that it is often performed with his father to the radio message to the British people, mainly referring to the children of his age. In 1943, she appeared for the first time in public during the visit of the King to the Guards regiment of soldiers. A year later, it was officially included in the number of state advisors — persons entitled to replace the monarch during his absence. Already being in this status, our heroine today entered the women’s self-defense detachment, where was trained and received the rank of lieutenant of the armed forces of England.
Queen Elizabeth II After World War started appearing in public and speak to the citizens of the UK. In 1947, she said, his legendary speech in which he promised to be faithful to his homeland and its people. Around the same period, the girl began to meet with Philip Mountbatten — British officer, whose race goes back to the Danish and Greek monarchical families. Young people had previously been known for a long time, but only eight years later became common to see and spend time together. Queen Elizabeth II in her youth with her future husband Philip Mountbatten Also in 1947, the lovers officially tied the knot. A year later, Elizabeth and Philip’s first child was born — the son of Charles (the current Prince of Wales). In 1950 it came to light, and the youngest daughter of the royal family — Princess Anne. In 1952 there was another momentous event in the life of our heroine today. In February of thrombosis of the above, the death of her father — King George the Sixth. And twenty-six new princess became Queen of England, and all the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations. In Westminster Abbey her coronation was held, which was broadcast on the central TV England many countries in June 1953. This ceremony brought together thousands of people from the screens and is considered by some, to a large extent contributed to the growth in popularity of television. It is noteworthy that even in the fifties she became the first representative of the British monarchy, visited New Zealand and Australia with a long-term visit. Nearly forty years later, she became the first queen appeared with the official speech at the joint session of both houses of the United States Congress. During its many years of reign of Elizabeth II has traveled many countries in the world and participated in various iconic events. So, as the Queen of Canada, she participated in the opening ceremony of the XXI Olympic Games in Montreal, and then as the Queen of England — in such an event, which was held in London. As befits a royal head of the house, she has been at Windsor Castle representatives of foreign delegations, and actively working on its re-establishment after Regal palace was badly damaged by fire. Bloody dictator Elizabeth II Video does not work? At present, Elizabeth II remains one of the main symbols of England and the UK. Being in power for over 65 years, she was able to strengthen the authority of the British monarchy and become a true role model to millions of Britons.
Family and children
Queen Elizabeth II is now, as before, is the head of the Windsor dynasty. From marriage to Philip Mountbatten she has four children, the eldest of whom — Prince Charles — is the current heir to the British throne. It marks the 60th anniversary of when Queen Elizabeth II ascended the throne. To this date, the Queen Elizabeth has eight grandchildren and three great-grandchildren. Junior-grandson of today’s heroine — George, was born in the mid-2013.
British royal family
British royal family is a group of close relatives of the monarch of Great Britain. In 1917 George V of the war with Germany renounced all German titles for himself and successors and renamed the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to Windsor house.
In the UK, there is no clear legal or formal definition of the royal family member, usually members of the royal family are considered to be the monarch, the monarch’s spouse, widowhood monarch spouse, children of the monarch, the monarch in the male line grandchildren, spouses and widowed spouses sons and grandsons in the male line of the monarch.
Historically, the British royal family was represented by the monarch on the British Empire and held responsible and representative posts, today they perform ceremonial and social functions in both the UK and abroad, and in addition to the monarch have no constitutional role in the government’s affairs.
Titles and reference
British Royals titles Their Majesties (reigning monarch, the wife of the reigning king, the queen dowager) and Their Royal Highnesses (the Queen’s husband, the younger members of the family) male family members on the eve of the wedding is prepared, as a rule, one of the royal dukedom, historically belonging to the Crown:
• Duke of Edinburgh (the holder of a spouse Elizabeth II Prince Philip, the title will be transferred to his youngest son Prince Edward in the future);
• Duke of Gloucester (granted to younger members of the family, currently the holder is Prince Richard, grandson of George V);
• Duke of Kent (usually granted to younger sons of the monarch, the holder is Prince Edward, grandson of George V);
• Duke of York (as a rule, it is obtained the second sons of monarchs, the holder of Prince Andrew, the second son of Elizabeth II);
• Duke of Cambridge (granted as younger members of the family Holder — Prince William, grandson of Elizabeth II);
• Duke of Sussex (get the younger children of the monarch, meant for the youngest son of Queen Elizabeth II Prince Edward, who, however, preferred to specially created Earl of Wessex title. In the future, is expected to receive the title of Prince Harry).
The heir to the throne has traditionally received the title of Prince of Wales and along with it — the titles of Duke and Cornish Duke (as Scottish heir to the throne).
The reigning monarch is also the holder of the title of the Duke of Lancaster (titles with the “duke” regardless of gender) and the Duke of Normandy in respect to the Channel Islands
Of special note is the title of Duke of Windsor — it was created by King George VI for his older brother Edward, to abdication known as King Edward VIII and was not created earlier. Edward left no children, so his death in 1972 the title returned to the Crown.
Members of the British royal family
Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh:
• Charles, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of Elizabeth and Philip, heir to the throne, and his second wife Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall
• Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, the son of Charles and his first wife, Diana, Princess of Wales, and his wife Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge:
• Prince George of Cambridge
• Princess Charlotte Cambridge
• Prince Henry of Wales, more commonly referred to Prince Harry, the second son of Prince Charles and Diana
• Prince Andrew, Duke of York, the second son of Queen Elizabeth II
• Princess Beatrice of York
• Princess Eugenie of York
• Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, the third son of the queen, and his wife Sophie, Countess of Wessex.
• James, Viscount Severn
• Lady Louise Windsor
• Princess Anne, the only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip
• Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, the Queen’s cousin, and his wife Katharine, Duchess of Kent.
• Prince Michael of Kent, the Queen’s cousin, and his wife Marie Christine von Reibnitz, Princess Michael of Kent.
• Princess Alexandra, the Honorable Lady Ogilvy, a cousin of the Queen.
• Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the Queen’s cousin, and his wife Birgitta, the Duchess of Gloucester.
UK Legal System
In accordance with the so-called hierarchical structure of the judicial system, there are two types of courts in England: the higher and lower, though they are served by judges of the three categories. The system of higher courts of England and Wales are not included on the adopted classification of the House of Lords and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, because of their exclusive position in relation to the courts of all the United Kingdom. After the British entry into the European Communities in the English literature of a new classification: the first in the court system called the European Court in Luxembourg.
House of Lords.
As the highest and final court House of Lords hears appeals against decisions of the courts of England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland — in civil cases and sentences in criminal cases the courts of England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Of particular importance the House of Lords as the highest court is determined by the fact that its precedents are binding on all, without exception, the courts. Thus, the Chamber is now free to introduce new legal provisions for its decisions, which have the same effect as the norms established by the legislative acts.
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is the supreme and final authority for vessels of all parts of the United Kingdom. The Committee is composed of the Lord Chancellor, the ordinary appeal Lords and a certain number of “secret advisers” appointed by the crown. As part of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council of the Crown, its solutions are expressed in the form of “Council respectful” Her Majesty. They hear appeals against decisions of the superior courts “foreign” territories, and in respect of the territory of England — the decisions Queen’s Bench Division of the High Court in the so-called “prize” cases, the decisions of the ecclesiastical courts and certain disciplinary tribunals.
The Supreme Court of England and Wales.
So they called three independent higher court in England. The Court of Appeal, High Court and the Crown Court (since 1971). Their structure and jurisdiction are governed by the new law of 1981 of the Supreme Court.
The Court of Appeal in 1966 is divided into two branches: civil and criminal. President of the Court is the Lord Chancellor, but in reality, these functions are performed by Lord Keeper of the Rolls, who is also the chairman of the civil department. Act 1981 set the maximum number of Court of Appeal judges. There may be no more than 18. The judges of the court of appeal judges named Lord or simply lords-judges.
Since 1982, as directed by the Lord Privy judicial archives Donaldson, who succeeded the famous Judge Denning, allowed a quorum of two judges, and if they diverge in opinion, an appeal is transmitted to three judges.
The civil department sent an appeal to the High Court, county courts, Court of prohibited commercial practices, the court for the protection of the mentally ill interests Appeals Tribunal for Patents, the Land Tribunal and the Appeals Tribunal of the labor dispute.
Criminal Office was established in 1966 instead of the previous Criminal Court of Appeal. In this department receives appeals from the Crown Court sentences handed down after proceedings with participation of the jury, as well as to those sentences, which he pronounces on matters referred to it by magistrates’ courts to the stage of determining penalties. Criminal department does not consider the appeal against the acquittals.
The High Court is composed of three divisions: the Queen’s Bench, Chancery and the separation of the family court. Each of the branches has its own appeal presence, formed by at least two judges from office. Senior office or residence time in it presides. The High Court is composed of the Lord Chancellor, Lord — Chief Judge, chairman of the Department of the Family Court, the Vice-Chancellor and ordinary judges of this court, the number of no more than 80 people.
Establishing a higher high is made crown “Order in Council” approved by the Parliament. All ordinary judge of the High Court have equal rights, power and jurisdiction. In accordance with the specialization of judges are distributed according to the divisions, although the Lord Chancellor with the consent of the senior judge of the judges can transfer from one department to another, if it is required under high load.
Branch of the Family Court consists of a chairman and 16 ordinary judges, including two women. This fact emphasizes the British lawyers, since they are the only women in the composition of the higher courts of England. This department deals with complaints against decisions of the courts and county magistrates ‘courts for the guardianship of minors, on the orders of magistrates’ courts in cases of adoption, on the magistrates appellate decisions and judgments of the Court by the Crown disputes paternity.
Judges of the office as judges of all divisions of the High Court may be appointed only from candidates who for 10 years or more have the right to speak as advocates in the High Court, in all departments and in all cases. In other words, those lawyers who have a lawyer a certificate to do business in the High Court. In addition to these persons High Court judges are appointed by district judges with experience of at least two years.
Crown Court consists of 12 jurors. Jurors are elected at random, it may be any British citizen, aged 18 to 70 years. Jurors are elected every 2 weeks. He is the supreme criminal court of first instance, it is, at the same time plays the role of “average” for the appellate court magistrates. However, he considers the appeal not only against judgments and orders in criminal cases, but also the decisions and orders issued by magistrates in order of their limited civil jurisdiction (orders of adoption, licensing, etc.). Thus, the Crown Court carries out on behalf of the higher courts supervise the courts of global justice.
County courts. Currently, 90% of all civil cases considered in the county courts. Their jurisdiction is competing with the High Court, limited to the cost of the claim.
Magistrates courts. Like the county courts, they are the local courts. In England and Wales about 1,000 magistrates, who served 25 thousand magistrates who are not lawyers and do not get paid. They are paid only travel and subsistence expenses. On average, such a magistrate gives the work a day for two weeks. The Magistrate’s Court is limited to punishment in criminal cases. He could be sentenced to imprisonment for up to 6 months (with multiple offenses — to 12 months), and (or) a fine up to £ 5000.
Magistrates courts have limited civil jurisdiction in matters of guardianship, adoption, alimony and administrative functions for the issuance and cancellation of various licenses. Their main load — it is criminal cases summarily, ie without a jury. On average, they discussed about 2 million. Cases per year, accounting for 95% of all criminal cases. More than half of this amount relates to transport violations. Magistrates Courts also act as a specialized juvenile courts.
Crown Court — appointed by the local authorities of barristers, solicitors and doctors with 5 — years of experience to investigate the accident that led to the death “mysterious” deaths, the cause of which is unknown or when there is suspicion of murder and infanticide, as well as identity reasons of suicide and death in prison.
Military courts, headed by a military court of Appeal.
Court for the banned trade practices and numerous administrative tribunals.
UK education system
UK education system has evolved over the centuries and is now subject to strict quality standards. Education in the UK is compulsory for all citizens between the ages of 5 to 16 years.
There are two sectors of education: public (free education) and private (fee-paying schools, private schools). In the UK there are two education systems that are easy to get along together, one in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, the second — in Scotland.
According to the OECD and UNESCO in 2012, the country had an enrollment of 3.5 million students, of whom 427,000 — foreign citizens. At the same time about 27 thousand British trained abroad.
There is a huge variety of schools in the UK. In various handbooks, online, magazine and newspaper articles of different criteria for the classification of schools can be used. A common type of school in the UK — a boarding school (Boarding School), where students are taught how, and live at the school. The first boarding schools appeared in Britain in the early Middle Ages, mainly in monasteries. In the XII century, Pope ordered all Benedictine monasteries open charity school at Catholic monasteries. Later fees in such schools began to take charge. Although aristocratic families preferred to convent school home schooling, eventually spread the belief that young people, regardless of social background useful to learn together with their peers. This belief became the basis for the organization and development of privileged boarding schools, among which there are those that nurture, educate and form the elite of modern British society for over a thousand years. In the list of the most expensive and prestigious schools in the world are present, and the British boarding schools.
Classification school-age students
full-cycle schools — where children are taught all ages from 3 to 18 years.
• Institutions of pre-school education — also called crèches and kindergartens for children from 2 to 7 years. There are taught to read, write, count, and develop through play. Typically, these schools are organized in collaboration with the schools for younger students. — Age of the students from 2 years 9 months to 4 years.
Institutions for younger students
• Primary schools — pupils from age 2 to 11 years. Exams SATs carried out in 2 phases, on the first and sixth years of study. The results of the second test are important for admission to Secondary School.
• Junior Schools — for children from 7 to 13 years. Here, children are special initial general training cycle on various subjects, which is completed by passing the exam Common Entrance Examination. Successful completion of the exam — this is a mandatory condition for admission to high school.
Institutions for older students
Senior Schools — for teenagers from 13 to 18 years. Here, children are first two-year training to pass the GCSE exams, followed by another two-year program: A-Level or International Baccalaureate.