Sentence Builder

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The suggested textbook is intended for the students with B2-C1 level of English.

The textbook contains exercises on the syntax of the English language and is divided into seven sections, which includelexico-grammatical exercises to practice the mentioned grammar phenomenon indifferent situations of foreign language communication. The material used in exercises is taken from the authentic books of VOA and BBC Programme Highlights or from the same sites.

Presented exercises cover a wide range of formats (correlation, filling gaps, error correction, multiple choice, word-formation, transformation, composing sentences, translation, creative exercises), which allows to consider them as a complex sufficient for different types of educational activity both in school and at home.

As there is a great variety of textbooks and curricula, it seemed reasonable not to link lexical and grammatical material to any topics or books on speech practice in particular. At the same time exercises in each section are presented in the order from simple to difficult, which gives the opportunity to choose those exercises that comply with students’ level. The transition from skills to abilities is ensured with the help of exercises where you are to use a certain grammar phenomenon according to speech circumstances without any lexical prompts.

The textbook assumes oral practice under the guidance of a teacher, who gives necessary explanations, and subsequent written work at home with the analysis of mistakes made. It can also be used for self-studying. Answer key gives students the opportunity to critically evaluate their knowledge and to outline the ways of elimination of gaps in it. Thus, the presented textbook helps to assure an uninterrupted educational process.

Compound Sentence

Theoretical Part

1. A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The structure of a compound sentence sends certain messages to readers. First, it tells readers that the sentence contains two ideas, each one deserving its own independent clause. Second, it tells readers that these two ideas are approximately equal in importance, since they are balanced as a pair.

A number multiplied by zero is zero, and a number multiplied by one is the same number.

Число, умноженное на ноль, равняется нулю, а число, умноженное на единицу, равно самому себе.

2. Compound sentences can be formed in three ways:

a) by using coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet) or a or by a set of correlatives (either-or, neither-nor, not only-but also, both-and). Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma.

They may take our lives, but they will never take our freedom.

Они могут убить нас, но не могут забрать нашу свободу.

Not only do our parents encourage us to work hard, but also they reward us when we succeed.

Наши родители не только побуждают нас работать усердно, но и поощряют нас, когда мы добиваемся успеха.

b) by using the semicolon, either with or without conjunctive adverbs (also, besides, hence, for example, however, meanwhile, then, so, finally, as a result, earlier, that is, in fact, however, thus).

The apples weren't selling very well; so he decided to have a sale.

Яблоки покупали плохо, поэтому он решил устроить их распродажу.

Note. When two independent clauses are joined by a long linker (consequently, therefore, henceforth, however, moreover, nevertheless, as a result) there is a semicolon in front of that linker and a comma behind it. When only a semicolon is used to link independent clauses, the clauses should be thoroughly parallel in structure and word choice.

I can recite lists of irregular verbs any time of the day or night; therefore, I am idolized by my students.

Я могу в любое время перечислить все неправильные глаголы, поэтому мои ученики боготворят меня.

October days are often beautiful; November days often aren’t.

Дни в октябре красивы часто, в ноябре — никогда.

c) by using the colon instead of a semicolon between two sentences when the second sentence explains or illustrates the first sentence and no coordinating conjunction is being used to connect the sentences.

Rabbits make good pets: they don’t make too much noise and they are clean.

Кролики – хорошие домашние животные: они чистоплотны и не сильно шумят.

3. The semantic relations between the clauses making up the compound sentence depend partly on the lexical meaning of the conjunction uniting them, and partly on the meanings of the words making up the clauses themselves:

a) copulative conjunctions (and, neither…nor) express the addition of the meanings:

You would hardly ever see a cat walking outside of the house with its master, nor would you see a teenager in public with his or her parents very often.

Вряд ли ты сможешь увидеть кота, гуляющего по улице со своим хозяином, ты также не часто можешь увидеть на людях подростка в сопровождении своих родителей.

b) disjunctive conjunctions (or, otherwise, either…or) form a connection of the clauses with distinct alternatives of their meanings.

You can make a big poster, or you can make a little clay statue.

Ты можешь сделать или большой плакат, или можешь сделать маленькую глиняную статую.

c) adversative conjunctions (but, yet, still, nevertheless, however) form a connection of the clauses with opposition or antithesis of their meanings.

The boy didn’t want to practice playing the violin, yet he was afraid to disobey his mother.

Мальчик не хотел играть на скрипке, и в то же время он боялся ослушаться мать.

Language Focus

Exercise 1. In the following sentences find compound sentences and explain how they are formed.

1. Tides constitute a change in the level of water in the oceans and are caused by the gravitational interaction between heavenly bodies. 2. The Great Depression serves as an example of dramatic fluctuations in the balanced wage rate. 3. Ulysses wants to play for UConn Huskies, but he has had trouble meeting the academic requirements. 4. My grandmother has stayed up late four nights in a row; as a result, she cannot seem to get well. 5. Harold wants the Boston Red Sox to win the World Series, yet his favorite team is the Baltimore Orioles. 6. The union leaders wanted to strike, for the union members were not being paid a living wage. 7. Your resume looks quite promising, so we are anxious to hire you. 8. The President’s recommendation called for a tax increase; very few senators will vote for it. 9. Rocky, my orange tomcat, loves having his head scratched but hates getting his claws trimmed. 10. Kyle refused to eat the salad served with the meal, nor would he touch any green vegetable put on his plate. 11. At a red light, Maria jumped out of Gino's car and slammed the door because she could not tolerate one more minute of the heavy metal music that Gino insisted on blasting from the stereo. 12. Toolmakers not only help to construct elaborate tools but also test them for reliability and utility. 13. Florida has not yet ratified the Equal Rights Amendment, and neither have several other states. 14. She wanted to serve some coffee to her guests; however she did not have much sugar.

Exercise 2. Match the parts of the given compound sentences and translate them.

Exercise 3. Divide the following adverbial conjunctions into seven groups according to their meaning: 1. Addition; 2. Contrast; 3. Comparison; 4. Exemplification; 5. Intensification; 6. Result; 7. Time.

instead, in addition, likewise, moreover, meanwhile, consequently, nevertheless, comparatively, on the contrary, incidentally, thereafter, subsequently, for instance, otherwise, furthermore, undoubtedly, accordingly, certainly, conversely, similarly, therefore, for example, additionally, henceforth, finally, similarly, indeed, however, likewise, as a result, on the other hand, namely, then, next, at the same time, notably, in fact, that is, still, also, now

Exercise 4. Peruse the given statements and select the word from the box below that best completes the sentence.

nevertheless; but; consequently; as a result; or; however; so; for instance; and; furthermore; for; otherwise; finally; moreover

1. She must have been tired, … she fell asleep the moment she inclined her head. 2. Rembrandt was forced to declare bankruptcy in 1656, … his possessions were sold. 3. They have waited very patiently; … the day has arrived. 4. At this restaurant, patrons order food a la carte, … they buy a complete dinner. 5. I want to own my own company; …, I want to pay all my workers a lot of money. 6. I have paid all of the dues; …, I expect to receive all the privileges listed in the bylaws. 7. Everyone knows how to talk, hardly anyone knows what to say. 8. I telephoned at least ten times yesterday; …, the line was never free. 9. Jane is a conservative; …, she voted for a liberal Democrat in the last election. 10. You should put antifreeze in your car’s radiator each fall; …, your radiator might freeze and ruin your car’s engine. 11. Oscar does not study or get enough sleep; …, he will probably do poorly in school. 12. Fatty foods are high in calories; …, butter contains 108 calories per tablespoon. 13. She saw a cat run in front of her, … she fell down while roller-skating. 14. The raging forest fires consumed much of the timberland; …, they threatened the houses of the people living near the forests.

Exercise 5. Connect two simple sentences with different coordinators and adverbial conjunctions and explain how the use of them alters the relationship between the two clauses.


Tom played chess. Ann went shopping.

a) Tom played chess, so Ann went shopping. "Tom played chess" first, and as a consequence, "Ann went shopping".

b) Tom played chess, for Ann went shopping. "Ann went shopping" first, "Tom played chess" because, possibly, he didn't have anything else to do, because "Ann went shopping."

1. Mark did very well on his job interview. He didn't get the position. 2. We thought we might go to see a film. We might have dinner out. 3. The dictionary contains definitions of words. It also contains a great deal of other information. 5. Some animals are endangered. Many people are working to protect them. 6. I have studied German for many years. My German-speaking friends can chat easily with me now. 7. The doctors looked at the x-rays. They decided to operate on the patient. 8. John invested a lot of money in the business. The business went bankrupt. 9. We needed some food for the week. We went to the supermarket. 10. Janet doesn't like sushi. She doesn't like any kind of fish. 11. The students didn't prepare for the test. They didn't realize how important the test was. 12. You are quite intelligent. However, you don’t think before you act. 13. Peter doesn't need to buy a new car. He also doesn't need to go on vacation. 14. The library is a quiet place to study. 15. Many students prefer to study at home. We wanted to visit our friends, but we didn't have enough money to get a flight. 16. Mary thinks she should go to school. She wants to get qualifications for a new profession. 17. The dangers of smoking are well known. Many people continue to smoke anyway. 18. Angela said she might buy him a watch. She might give him a gift certificate. 19. He must have lost his key. He knocked on the door for us to let him in. 20. Wear your seatbelt. You might be injured.

Exercise 6. In most of the lines in the following text, there is a punctuation mistake. Find the mistakes and correct them. Write the correct punctuation mark in the space provided. If you think a line contains no mistake, put a tick (√) next to it.

Exercise 7. Insert the punctuation marks into the sentences below.

1. Some readers contribute funds to private libraries these readers use the library without charge. 2. The power failed for the third time that day and once again we sat in darkness. 3. The handwriting was almost illegible the spelling was very poor throughout the paper. 4. The ancient spirit is not dead old times are still breathing there is still strength and dignity in life. 5. You have to write that paper tonight or you will almost certainly lose points for turning it in late. 6. Most house plants prefer lots of sun and plenty of water others like shade. 7. I have been in the meadows all day and I have gathered there these beautiful flowers. 8. He did not take the money for it was not the right thing to do. 9. Debby left home early but she wasn't able to make it to her class on time because the buses were running late. 10. Some say that all of us want change jobs about every ten years meanwhile we should make the best of our present employment. 11. It was still cold but the rain had stopped. 12. Lewis had been well trained by scientists in Philadelphia and he was a curious man by nature. 13. Mike has a talent for fixing bicycles likewise his brother is very proficient at building motorcycles. 14. My daughter wants to be a computer programmer so she spends all her spare time on the computer. 15. Linda wanted to see Chinatown yet her husband chose Granville Island. 16. They couldn't make it to the summit and back before dark so they decided to camp for the night. 17. The dog came rushing in so the cat ran upstairs.

Exercise 8. Use each of the compound sentences below as the model for a new sentence of your own. Ask your group to translate them.


It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen.

It was a dark, snowy morning in Watertown, and the schools were closing for the day.

1. You will face many defeats in your life, but never let yourself be defeated. 2. Nick had plenty of ideas, besides he knew what to do with them. 3. The days were hot and dry; the nights were extremely cold. 4. I hadn't seen my nieces and nephews for ages, so I went overboard on buying them Christmas gifts. 5. Do you want to stay behind, or will you come with us? 6. Some people did not like the rain, nor did they like the fog. 7. The boys walked down the road and their parents waved from the house. 8. That movie was extremely funny; nevertheless, it was a bit too tasteless for me. 9. Only one choice remained: he must confront his enemy. 10. Everyone knows how to talk, but hardly anyone knows what to say. 11. Every year thousands of salmon swim up the stream near my house, yet I have scarcely ever seen one. 12. Life is full of loneliness and misery and suffering and unhappiness, and it's all over much too quickly. 13. Many tourists visit British Columbia, for they enjoy its natural beauty. 14. Gillian did not like to read, as a result, she was not very good at it. 15. Dogs are obedient animals, in contrast cats are their own bosses. 16. The doctor told him to lose weight; in addition, she advised him to stop smoking. 17. Spelling is hard for many people; nonetheless, there are techniques for improving it.

Exercise 9. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Вы хотите повести детей в зоопарк, или было бы разумнее пойти с ними в парк? 2. Мы не сможем навестить наших друзей этим летом, а они не смогут приехать к нам. 3. Мы готовились к этому тесту много часов, но так и не сдали его. 4. Они остались на праздник дома, так как им нужно было работать. 5. Мои друзья Аня и Петр недавно переехали в новую квартиру, и они уже заметно преобразили ее. 6. Ваш сын может учиться музыке в следующем году, или же он может вместо музыки изучать драматургию. 7. Ежедневник помогает людям организовать свою жизнь, поэтому вам следует попробовать вести его. 8. Во второй половине дня хлынул проливной дождь, но нам все же удалось устроить пикник. 9. Туристы потратили кучу денег на билеты, иначе они бы не попали на это шоу. 10. Давай пойдем на речку, в доме очень жарко. 11. Я хотел купить щенка тойтерьера, так что начал копить деньги. 12. Этот ребенок снялся во многих фильмах, хотя ему еще нет и пяти лет. 13. Мы закончили ужинать, а потом дети убрали со стола. 14. Позвоните мне завтра, и я дам вам ответ. 15. Я буду рад помочь вам, вдобавок, я люблю готовить. 16. Я люблю гулять по пляжу; кроме того, я надеюсь, что когда-нибудь буду жить рядом с океаном. 17. Сентябрь имеет отличительную особенность: это одновременно и начало, и конец. 18. Многие подростки знают о компьютерах больше, чем их родители; действительно, им они часто приходится учить взрослых пользоваться Интернетом. 19. Мой компьютер сломался, так что я потерял все задания к семинару. 20. Изменение климата влечет за собой резкие колебания температуры, и растения часто не выдерживают подобный стресс.

Exercise 10. In the following text about Whitney Houston, turn the sentence pairs into single compound sentences, each with a coordinating conjunction. You can rearrange or add words in the sentence to make it sound better, but only if it's necessary.


As a teenager, Whitney Houston performed as a back-up singer for Chaka Khan. She also had a successful modeling career by the time she was twenty.

As a teenager, Whitney Houston both performed as a back-up singer for Chaka Khan; and she had a successful modeling career.

As a teenager, Whitney Houston performed as a back-up singer for Chaka Khan. She also had a successful modeling career by the time she was twenty. In nineteen eighty three, Clive Davis, the head of Arista records, heard Whitney Houston singing in New York City. He offered her a recording agreement soon after. The album “Whitney Houston” had seven number one hit singles. It remains the biggest-selling first album by any artist. The singer followed that success with another. Her album “Whitney” sold twenty million copies. It also made her the first female artist to enter the Billboard Top Two Hundred at number one. Whitney Houston was clearing a path of recognition for women artists. However, her next professional move was her most important. She recorded the soundtrack for and starred in “The Bodyguard,” in nineteen ninety-two. Kevin Costner played opposite White Houston in the movie. It is the story of a relationship between a pop music star and a former secret service agent who protects her. The movie was a big hit, making more than four hundred million dollars in ticket sales worldwide. But the film’s popularity did not even come close to the success of the album that went with it. “The Bodyguard” is the fourth highest selling album of all time. Forty-four million copies have been sold. Among the singles is “I Will Always Love You,” a song written and recorded earlier by Dolly Parton. Whitney Houston’s version sold many more copies. In nineteen ninety-two, Whitney Houston’s personal life also grew. She married singer Bobby Brown, of the band New Edition. The marriage surprised many people both in and outside the music industry. Bobby Brown was considered an industry “bad boy.” Meanwhile Whitney Houston had an innocence that led to her nickname the “prom queen of soul.” She and Bobby Brown had a daughter, Bobbi Kristina, in nineteen ninety-three. In the late nineteen nineties, Whitney Houston’s professional behavior began to come under question. She began to cancel shows and was late for important events. Her appearance changed; she lost weight and looked unhealthy. Her voice also was suffering. Many reports said she was abusing drugs and alcohol.

Exercise 11. Also, try writing your own compound sentences using different coordinating conjunctions. For additional practice, use new vocabulary from a recent class.

Exercise 12. Tell what you like and dislike most of all, using ten simple sentences. Tell the same story, using ten compound sentences.

Complex Sentence

1. A complex sentence is a sentence composed of at least one main clause and one subordinate clause (that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence). A complex sentence is often used to make clear which ideas are most important, and which ideas are dependent.


The people slipped into dejection under the seemingly endless rain that pelted down day after day.

a) The people slipped into dejection under the seemingly endless rain (main idea); b) that pelted down day after day (subordinate idea).

2. The subordinate clauses function grammatically as subject, object, predicative, attribute or adverbial modifier in a main clause. Accordingly, there are five types of subordinate clauses: the subject clause, the predicative clause, the attributive clause, the object clause, and several types of adverbial clauses.


It is obligatory that we finish this assignment before class ends (the subject clause).

A law of physics is that energy in any system cannot be created or destroyed (the predicative clause).

Artificial intelligence is concerned with designing computer systems that perform such tasks as learning new skills (the attributive clause).

Robert Merton studied how society influences the development of science (the object clause).

Because the world is getting warmer, polar bears are in danger of becoming extinct (the adverbial clause).

3. Complex sentences can contain two or more subordinate clauses, besides the principal clause:


I knew a man, who believed that, if a man were permitted to make the ballads, he shouldn’t care who made the laws of the nation.

a) I knew a man (the principal clause); b) who believed (the attributive clause); c) if a man were admitted to make the ballads (the adverbial clause); d) that he shouldn’t care (the object clause); e) who made the laws of the nation (the object clause).

A subordinate clause may follow, precede or interrupt the principal clause:


Each bowler rolls the ball twice in each frame, unless a strike is bowled.

Before Richard Bennett accepted the appointment as the prime minister of Canada in 1930, he had achieved success as a lawyer.

William Hazlitt's essays, which were written in vigorous and informal style, appeared between 1821 and 1822.

Complex sentences are connected:

a) by means of conjunctions and connectives: that, whether, after, as, because, in order that, since, so that, although, whereas, while, even if, if, in case, provided that, unless, before, once, still, till, until, when, whenever, while.


Little land animals live in the polar regions which are covered with snow year round.

b) asyndetically:


Were a drop of water magnified to the size of the earth, the molecules composing it would be about the size of oranges.

Note. These conjunctions and connectives are often polysemantic and multifunctional, which may cause confusion in usage and understanding.


What is fairly gathered is roundly spent (the subject clause). This book was what is often referred to as an autobiographical novel (the predicative clause). I don’t know what you are talking about (the object clause).

4. A comma is generally not used between the main clause and the subordinate clause if the subordinate clause stands after the main clause. But a comma is used between them if the subordinate clause stands at the beginning of the sentence before the main clause.


The child is naughty only when he is concerned about being ignored by his brothers.

Although Connecticut occupies a small area, its weather can vary from one area to another.

Subject Clause

Theoretical Part

1. A subject clause is a clause which performs within a complex sentence the same function that the subject performs within a simple sentence (the agent or target of the action) and answers the questions who? or what? The main clause having no subject is deficient in its structure and meaning unless joined with the subordinate clause.

Whoever loves wealth is never satisfied with income (who?).

Тот, кто любит богатство, никогда не удовлетворен своим доходом.

It is crystal clear that if you lose weight, you will have a happier, healthier, better life (what?).

Несомненно, что, если ты похудеешь, твоя жизнь станет счастливее, здоровее и лучше.

2. Complex sentences with subject clauses may be of two patterns:

a) when a subject clause precedes the predicate of the main clause:

That she will never agree to marry him was absolutely clear to everybody.

То, что она никогда не согласится выйти за него замуж, было совершенно ясно каждому.

b) when a subject clause is placed at the end of the sentence (then it is introduced by the formal it):

It was wonderful that we could see each other.

Как хорошо, что нам удалось повидаться.

Note. In exclamatory sentences the formal it may be only implied.

How lovely (it is) that the sun has come out!

Как чудесно, что выглянуло солнце!

3. Subordinate subject clauses are introduced in the following ways:

a) by means of the connectives what, whatever, who, whom, whoever, which, whose, when, where, how, why, because. (A connective what is used only without formal it). Subject clauses of this type cannot be joined asyndetically, as the opening words signal the subordinate status of the clause:

Because I ask too many questions does not mean I am curious.

То, что я задаю слишком много вопросов, не значит, что я любопытен.

b) by means of the conjunctions that, whether, if. (A conjunction that is used only with formal it):

It is better that she should see everything with her own eyes.

Будет лучше, если она увидит все своими собственными глазами.

Note. Subordinate subject clauses beginning with the conjunctions whether/if should not be mixed with subordinate clauses of time and condition. In subordinate subject clauses a predicate can be expressed by the verb in any of the Future tenses.

If he will call you is hard to predict (a subject clause).

Трудно предсказать, позвонит ли он тебе.

If he calls you, don’t forget to give him my regards (a conditional clause).

Если он позвонит, не забудь передать ему мой привет.

c) asyndetically (only with formal it):

It is a pity you should have forgotten about mother’s birthday.

Жаль, что ты забыл о мамином дне рождения.

4. Subject clauses are not separated from the principal clause by a comma except we have two or more subject clauses coordinated with each other.

Who his father was, and why he deserted his family, were the questions that often pressed on the girl’s mind.

Кем был ее отец и почему он бросил свою семью, эти вопросы часто угнетали девушку.

Language Focus

Exercise 1. In the following sentences find the subjects and explain what they are.

1. Being the first woman president of Harvard did matter to a lot of people. 2. Her mother, who never worked outside of the home, was not one to encourage Faust to higher ambitions. 3. It was anticipated that probably I would marry and be a wife and mother. 4. That Faust's mother didn't live to witness her daughter’s success is a pity. 5. That the cost of an education at the elite private university does not prohibit talented applicants from attending makes sense. 6. For students from families with incomes under $60,000 a year, there is no parental contribution expected at all. 7. American higher education is seen as a model in many other countries. 8. What they wanted to talk with me about was the liberal arts and humanities. 9. To become president of an Ivy League university takes years of hard work. 10. It is essential that education should prepare people for a lifetime, not just a single career. 11. What they saw as characteristic of American higher education is imaginativeness, curiosity and creativity. 12. Faust’s responsibilities as president of Harvard have taken her to many corners of the globe. 13. She is a noted scholar of the American South and the Civil War. 14. Her mother seemed quite angry to have limited options for herself.

Exercise 2. In most of the lines in the following text, there is an unnecessary word. For questions 1-28, find the unnecessary words and write them on the lines provided. If you think a line contains no unnecessary word, put a tick (√) next to it.

Exercise 3. Read the text about Olde Towne Pet Resort in Springfield, Virginia.  Peruse the given statements and select the word from the box below that best completes the sentence.

whoever     that     what     how     when     that     whatever    

that     why     how     if     because     that     who

1. … pet ownership in the United States has reached an all time high is an issue of the day. 2. … a dog was just a dog kept outside in its little dog house out in the backyard has become a past experience. 3. It is not surprising … Ms. Atashbarghi says she too has been guilty of what some might call puppy love. 4. … this puppy will be considered part of the family is still to be seen. 5. … pet food manufactures may say does not discourage many pet owners from feeding the animals people food. 6. It surprises no one … popular this well-to-do hotel for animals has become among the Washington area’s pet owners. 7. … refuses to leave their pets home alone can bring them to «Doggie Day Camp» to come for a day or stay for the night. 8. … brings his dog to the center may be sure there are many different activities and services to choose from. 9. … much you will be charged depends on the size of the room and the number of services chosen. 10. … the center seeks to provide pets with the same kind of care they receive at home is very essential for their owners. 11. … they like the best is that pets can even have their nails done. 12. … some dogs like to be tucked in at night, before they go to sleep, doesn’t amaze Sadaf. 13. … there is also a webcam means owners can see their pets while they are separated. 14. … Ms. Atashbarghi is planning to open a second pet resort in Sterling, Virginia indicates that her business has been successful.

Exercise 4. Match the parts of the given complex sentences and translate them.

Exercise 5. Define the type of the clause (subject, conditional, time) and choose the correct form of the verb.

1. When future generations hear/will hear these songs of pain and progress and struggle and sacrifice, I hope they will not think of them as somehow separate from the larger American story. 2. If autistic children form/will form an attachment, it predominantly will be to inanimate objects. 3. Whether projections of demographic shifts are reliable and prove/ will prove to be valid in the future is still to be verified. 4. When their profit targets are/will be reached or surpassed senior executives will receive bonuses. 5. When the mining of minerals brings/will bring about the destruction of landscapes and wildlife habitats in this area is not hard to predict. 6. If the smoke from burning fuels is/will be released into the atmosphere it will cause pollution. 7. Until the cubs have/will have grown up foxes stay in closely knit family groups. 8. When too many firms enter/will enter competitive markets, their share of profits will fall. 9. If each reflex involve/will involve some stimulus that causes a response is doubtful. 10. When consumers don’t/won’t have everything they want, they will have to choose what they want most. 11. Whether coaching and preparatory courses yields/will yield results is still to be examined on test scores. 12. Whether the goalkeeper or one of the other players retrieve/will retrieve the ball from the goal makes little difference. 13. When a criminal case goes/will go to trial, the defendant may elect to have it heard either by a jury or by a judge. 14. Even if they don’t/won’t come into physical contact electrically charged particles will exert a magnetic force on one another.

Exercise 6. Make complex sentences with subject clauses from the sentences below.


Today, the Space Needle is the most popular place for visitors to Seattle. And it remains the internationally known symbol of the city.

That the Space Needle has become the internationally known symbol of Seattle makes it the most popular place for visitors to the city.

1. The red clover is high in protein content. It is an extremely important leguminous hay and pasture plant of the eastern United States. 2. Unlike most Europeans, many Americans are used to eating bacon and eggs for breakfast every day. It is remarkable. 3. The financial manager's job is to shop around among the many sources of finance. He ought to find the best interest rates available. 4. All matter has kinetic energy because of its motion and mass. An axiomatic assumption in physics holds that. 5. Gardeners transplant bushes and flowers by moving them from one place to another. It is a well-known fact. 6. Fruit flies do not have to leap to take off. The scientists have established the cause of it lately. 7. Eskimos migrated from Alaska to Greenland in two great movements. Historians postulate when it happened. 8. Many people go to the Olympic Games. Each of them is hoping to be entertained by world-class sports. 9. Charles Kettering patented something in 1911. It was the first successful spark-based starter for automotive vehicles. 10. The planet Mercury rotates more slowly than any other planet except Venus. It surprises me. 11. Much information can be retained in short-term memory. The amount of it depends almost exclusively on how it is arranged. 12. Educational toys and games give children an opportunity to enjoy themselves. It is indisputable. 13. Humorous misunderstandings are often used in children's poetry and rhymes. They are a result of a word used in ambiguous contexts. 14. Water fire extinguishers must never be used for fires that involve electrical equipment. It is crucial.

Exercise 7. Use each of the compound sentences below as the model for a new sentence of your own. Ask your group to translate them.


How he is going to get across the border is the greatest difficulty.

How they are planning to lift the piano to the fifth floor is an insurmountable problem.

1. That he was prepared to die for her that day revealed his blind and unrequited love for her. 2. It is necessary that each student should write an essay before taking an oral exam. 3. What they learnt from him was that they were never going to have it so good again. 4. It had seemed certain that their meeting was fortunate. 5. Whether I help you or not depends on your behaviour, my boy. 6. Whoever makes trouble during the World Cup will be severely dealt with. 7. That some of the famous athletes shave their heads is cool. 8. It was demanded that I should tell them all that had passed at the conference. 9. Whatever the little girl said or did became immediately known to her parents. 10. It seemed necessary that his friends should be kept away from interfering with his work. 11. What the country needs at the present point in time is new and better leadership. 12. That the price of petrol is rising again doesn't surprise me. 13. How they could get through it all, had often amazed Mrs. Eden. 14. Whoever moved to this haunted house next would need to keep the presence of mind. 15. It was unlikely that he would take any steps against his brother. 16. What nominee is saying is welcomed by his supporters. 17. It was all wrong that someone so young should be so ill. 18. It is advisable that she should have someone to look after her. 19. It was agreed that he should be the first to pilot a new jet. 20. That he would get into a pretty mess was clear from the very beginning.

Exercise 8. Compose your own complex sentences with subject clauses from the words below. Ask your group to translate them.

Model 1:

It is apparent that the asteroid belt took shape early in the formation of the solar system, about four and one-half billion years ago.

is/was apparent, clear, critical, disconcerting, disgusting, distressing, due (to), evident, essential, important, indisputable, inevitable, obvious, remarkable, significant, striking, suggestive, true, undeniable, vital, worrying.

Model 2:

It is a fact that the Treasury Department continually works to change the design of bills to make it difficult to copy.

be+noun a fact / a factor, an accident, a reason, a consequence, a miracle, a result (of), a problem, no reason (for), the fault (of), a source (of), a measure (of), a pity.

Model 3:

It surprises the world market that Indonesia’s economy has become a bright light amid global economic gloom, with strong growth drawing new attention from international investors.

verb surprises, amazes, amuses, angers, astonishes, bothers, deters, disgusts, disturbs, enriches, helps, illustrates, impresses, influences, infuriates, makes us (verb), matters, offends, reflects, reveals, shows, stuns, upsets, appeals (to), indicates something (to), means something (to), occurs, suggests (to).

Model 4:

It is acknowledged that food can have a powerful impact on showcasing a culture and can help to generate increased tourism.

be+Participle acknowledged, appreciated, believed, challenged, doubted, disputed, found true, recognized, remembered, understood, verified, well-known.

Exercise 9. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Странно, что никто никому ничего не говорил, но все знают обо всем. 2. Очевидно, что нельзя заставить ребенка хорошо учиться только тем, что ругать его все время. 3. Тебе не кажется подозрительным, что он с тех пор больше ничего не написал? 4. То, что беспокоит меня сейчас, это состояние здоровья моей матери. 5. Есть ли жизнь на других планетах нашей Галактики, до сих пор неизвестно. 6. Как будет продаваться книга, зависит от ее сюжета и автора. 7. Давно известно, что молния есть не что иное, как электрическая искра. 8. Несомненно, что друзья должны держаться вместе в разных обстоятельствах. 9. Кто спас жизнь тонущей девушке, осталось неизвестным. 10. Сомнительно, является данная выплата вполне законной. 11. Весьма возможно, что ты встретишь их по дороге в университет. 12. Что ей было нужно, так это то, чтобы он сказал ей, как сильно он ее любит. 13. Что он выдумал эту историю с начала до конца еще надо доказать. 14. Трудно сказать, когда эта яблоня принесет первые плоды. 15. Важно, чтобы письмо было отправлено сегодня. 16. То, что она забыла меня так быстро, стало для меня шоком. 17. Никому не ясно, почему взорвался атомный котел. 18. Согласятся ли они с тем, что аренда будет оплачена на следующей неделе, еще неизвестно. 19. Неизвестно, когда будет изобретено лекарство от рака. 20. Многих людей удивляет то, как быстро могут бактерии размножаться при благоприятных условиях.

Exercise 10. Retell the following story using as many subject clauses as possible.

Through Writing, Afghan Women Find Freedom


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