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Science, Culture and Youth

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Сборник трудов по итогам VI международной студенческой научно-практической конференции (14 апреля 2021 г.)


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Секция 1. Актуальные проблемы современности / Contemporary issues of modernity

Абаканович А. В. 
Логическая культура мышления vs софистика

Абаканович А. В., студентка 1 курса {Программное обеспечение информационных технологий}
Научный руководитель: Миськевич В. И.,
кандидат философских наук, доцент, доцент
Белорусский государственный университет информатики и радиоэлектроники, г. Минск, Беларусь

В тезисах рассматривается история возникновения софистики. Акцентируется вклад софистов в развитие логики и логического мышления. Разбираются некоторые древнегреческие софизмы и анализируются допущенные в них логические ошибки. Обосновывается важность логической культуры мышления в учебе, профессиональной деятельности и при взаимодействии с окружающими людьми. Подчеркивается необходимость уметь аргументированно излагать свою точку зрения. Описываются правила корректной аргументации.

Ключевые слова: логика, логическая культура, софистика, аргументация.


Софистика — это философское течение, которое появилось в Древней Греции в середине V века до н. э. Последователи этого течения называли себя софистами или учителями мудрости. Изначально слово «софист» обозначало знающего и авторитетного в различных вопросах человека. Софисты учили верным приемам доказательства и опровержения, открыли ряд правил логического мышления, предприняли попытки систематизировать приемы умозаключений, одними из первых стали разрабатывать логические и психологические приемы убеждения и противостояния доводам оппонентов.

Известный софист Протагор Абдерский (ок. 480—380 гг. до н.э.) считал, что «человек есть мера всех вещей: существующих — насколько они существуют, несуществующих — насколько они не существуют», а раз так, то объективной истины не существует и «относительно каждой вещи можно выставить два противоположных суждения» [1, с. 316]. Другой известный софист того времени Горгий (ок. 480—380 гг. до н.э.) учил, «что ничто не существует, если существует, то оно непознаваемо, а если и познаваемо, то неизъяснимо» [1, с. 318]. Следовательно, потенциально, опровергать и доказывать можно все, что угодно.

Поздние софисты отошли от логических принципов своих предшественников и начали разрабатывать логические уловки, основанные на многозначности слов, омонимии, синонимии, подмене понятий, внешнем сходстве явлений, принятии ложных посылок за истинные, несоблюдение правил логического вывода, извлечении отдельного события из общей связи событий и других хитростях. Так образовалась риторическая практика, основанная на сознательном нарушении законов логики. Эту практику назвали софистикой, а ее приемы — софизмами (буквально — «уловки»). Софисты утверждали, что так как о каждой вещи можно высказать несколько суждений, противоречащих друг другу, то и каждому доказательству можно противопоставить другое, противоположное, причем столь же хорошо обоснованное и убедительное. По их мнению, более сильными окажутся те доказательства, которые обеспечивают успех в практических делах. Так слово «софист» приобрело негативную окраску, возникло представление о софисте, как о алчном болтуне и лгуне, который говорит, будто все знает и может за недорогую плату в короткий срок и другого этому обучить.

Оценивая феномен софистики в целом, Гегель трактовал ее как первичную форму освоения логической проблематики. В самом деле, некоторые софизмы оказались парадоксами — важнейшей формой постановки логических проблем. Примером такого софизма может служить парадокс Эватла. В его основе лежит полулегендарный исторический случай. У известного софиста Протагора был ученик Эватл, обучавшийся софистике и судебному красноречию. По заключенному между ними договору Эватл должен был заплатить за обучение 10 тысяч драхм, если он выиграет свой первый судебный процесс.

Однако, закончив обучение, Эватл не стал участвовать в судебных тяжбах и, соответственно, не совершал оплату за учебу. Это длилось очень долго, терпение Протагора иссякло, и он сам подал на своего ученика в суд. Таким образом, должен был состояться первый судебный процесс Эватла.

Протагор объяснил свой поступок следующим образом: «Каким бы ни было решение суда, Эватл должен будет заплатить. Если он выиграет свой первый процесс, то заплатит по договору, а если проиграет, то заплатит по решению суда».

Эватл был не согласен: «Ни в том, ни в другом случае я не заплачу. Если я выиграю, то решение суда освободит меня от обязанности платить, а если проиграю, то в силу нашего договора я не должен платить, поскольку не выиграл свой первый процесс».

Как разрешилось дело двух софистов — неизвестно. Есть версия, что судьи отказались выносить вердикт, потому что любое их решение противоречило бы самому себе. [2, c. 261—264]

Рассмотрим еще некоторые примеры известных софизмов и укажем на скрытые в них логические ошибки.

«Что ты не потерял, то имеешь. Ты не потерял рога, следовательно, ты их имеешь». Этот софизм построен на двусмысленности выражения «то, что не терял». В первой посылке оно означает «то, что имел и не потерял», но во второй посылке это значение не подходит, потому что высказывание «Рога — это то, что ты имел и не потерял» является ложным. Следовательно, во второй посылке используется уже иное значение: «то, что не потерял, независимо от того, имел или нет».

«Знаете ли вы, о чем я сейчас хочу вас спросить?» — «Нет». — «Неужели вы не знаете, что лгать — нехорошо?» — «Конечно, знаю…» — «Но именно об этом я и собирался вас спросить, а вы ответили, что не знаете; выходит, что вы знаете то, чего вы не знаете». Ошибка данного софизма заключается в неоднозначности естественного языка. Первый вопрос можно трактовать двояко: «Знаете ли вы ответ на вопрос, который я задам?» или «Знаете ли вы вопрос, который я задам?».

«Сидящий встал; кто встал, тот стоит; значит, сидящий стоит». «Сидящий стоит» эквивалентно высказыванию «тот, кто сидит, стоит». Это высказывание ложно. Правильно было бы «сидевший стоит». В данном софизме ошибка произошла из-за потери контроля над временем причастия.

«5 = 2 +3, но 2 чётно, а 3 нечётно, следовательно, 5 одновременно чётно и нечётно». Этот софизм основан на разъединении смысла целого.

Сегодня под софизмом понимаются логические ошибки, которые преднамеренно допускают в рассуждениях для введения собеседника в заблуждение. Сознательное использование софизмов является некорректным приёмом рассуждения и аргументации, поэтому обоснованно подвергается критике.

Необходимо уметь распознавать софизмы, чтобы не попасться на уловки софиста и не быть обманутым. Чтобы успешно справляться с софизмами, встречающимися в процессе дискуссии, необходимо хорошо знать предмет, о котором идет речь, обладать знаниями в области законов логики, уметь подмечать допускаемые оппонентом логические ошибки и убедительно раскрывать неправоту его аргументов. И первый помощник человека в этом деле — его логическая культура. Благодаря логической культуре мышления можно научится грамотно строить свои рассуждения и отстаивать свою точку зрения верными методами. Очень часто понимание ошибок в софизме ведет к пониманию смысла в целом, помогает развивать логику и навыки правильного мышления.

Вместе с тем, софистика была важным этапом на пути формирования и становления логической культуры мышления и логики как науки. Логическая культура мышления — это прежде всего дисциплина ума, способность и умение человека излагать свои мысли аргументированно, соблюдая законы логики и правила логического вывода. Основы культуры логического мышления закладываются в школе, однако по большей части это происходит стихийно. В Белорусском государственном университете информатики и радиоэлектроники мы изучаем систематический курс логики в течении семестра, сочетая теорию с практикой. Полученные знания и интеллектуальные навыки оказываются очень полезны и востребованы в последующем: при изучении других учебных дисциплин, подготовке работ на студенческие научные конференции, восприятии и оценке информации из интернета и других источников.

Сегодня в обществе идет ориентация на цивилизованный диалог во всех сферах человеческой деятельности, что предполагает умение общаться с оппонентом, дискутировать, аргументированно излагать свою точку зрения и приводить правильные доводы, чтобы в итоге убедить противную сторону. Таким образом, современному человеку необходимо обладать навыками аргументации. Потребность в аргументации возникает тогда, когда по одному вопросу есть несколько точек зрения. Любой процесс аргументации предполагает наличие тезиса, то есть утверждения, истинность которого необходимо доказать, аргументов или доводов и демонстрации — логической связи между тезисом и аргументами. Аргументы — истинностные суждения, которые используются для доказательства тезиса. Они бывают двух видов: корректные и некорректные. Корректные — объективны и касаются сути доказываемого тезиса, это могут быть аксиомы, теоремы, законы, факты, определения. Некорректные аргументы касаются психологии человека и характерных черт личности, например, ссылка на авторитет, игра на публику, угрозы, обещания и заверения, игра на чувствах и т. д. Доказательства с такими аргументами считаются в логике неправильным и их следует избегать

Для корректной аргументации необходимо придерживаться некоторых правил:

1. Тезис должен быть точно, ясно и однозначно сформулирован.

2. Тезис должен оставаться одним и тем же на протяжении всего доказательства или опровержения.

3. Аргументы должны быть истинными, не противоречащими друг другу суждениями.

4. Число аргументов должно быть конечным и достаточным для доказательства тезиса.

5. Истинность аргумента должна быть доказана независимо от тезиса [3, с. 261, 285].

Таким образом, правильное логическое мышление и корректная аргументация должны быть неотъемлемой частью логической культуры каждого образованного человека и помогать ему при взаимодействии с окружающими людьми.

Литература:

1. Антология мировой философии. В 4-х томах. Т. 1, Ч. 1. Философия древности и средневековья / ред. В. В. Соколов, Ф. В Асмус и др. — М.: «Мысль», 1969. — 576 с.

2. Геллий, Авл. Аттические ночи. В двух книгах. Книги I–Х. / Авл Геллий. — СПб.: «Гуманитарная Академия», 2007—2008. — 448с.

3. Малыхина, Г. И. Логика: учебник / Г. И. Малыхина. — Минск: Вышэйшая школа, 2013. — 335 с.

Абдулин Д. М. 
Методы манипуляции сознанием в практике современного сектантства

Абдулин Д. М., студент 1 курса {Программное обеспечение информационных технологий}
Научный руководитель:
Миськевич В. И., кандидат философских наук, доцент, доцент
Белорусский государственный университет информатики и радиоэлектроники, г. Минск, Беларусь

В данной статье определяется понятия секта и сектантство. На примере Церкви Саентологии осуществляется анализ методов и способов вербовки адептов. Анализируются информационные ресурсы саентологии, а также используемые в пропаганде сектантов имиджи, формы и способы манипуляции сознанием людей. Подчеркивается опасность деструктивных культов, их общественное влияние. Актуализируется необходимость наступательной противосектантской повестки в СМИ и Интернете.

Ключевые слова: сектоведение, саентология, деструктивные секты.


В 21 веке, несмотря на доступность информации, продолжают множиться деструктивные культы, которые проповедуют антинаучные, ложные и опасные идеи. Апогей деструктивной деятельности сект наступает в тот момент, когда фанатики, одурманенные идеями своих «пророков», совершают ритуальные убийства. Возникает вопрос: почему люди до сих пор вступают в секты, которые основаны на недоказуемых и часто корыстных речах проповедников культа? Цель моей работы состоит в том, чтобы ответить на этот вопрос. Однако прежде следует прояснить значение понятия религиозная секта.

Религиозная секта — это один из типов религиозных объединений. Возникает как оппозиция к тем или иным религиозным направлениям. В таком сообществе подчеркивается равенство всех членов, провозглашается принцип добровольности объединения, делается акцент на «обращение», предшествующие членству. Стоит понимать, что отдельные вышеназванные признаки могут быть обнаружены и в других религиозных объединениях, но их совокупность характерна именно для сект [1].

Для анализа сектантских инструментов работы с обществом, я рассмотрю такую популярную секту, как саентология. К данному культу относят себя много людей из разных стран, в том числе и большое число знаменитостей. Данная секта обладает высокой скоростью распространения, поэтому я выбрал саентологию в качестве примера.

Следует понимать, что для саентологов Интернет не является единственным методом для распространения своих идей. Так, в данном культе предается большое значение личным встречам «проповедников» с проявившими интерес людьми. Это связанно с тем, что в ситуации межличностных контактов человеком проще манипулировать и внушать определенные идеи. Но прежде индивид должен побольше разузнать о существования данной организации. Для этого есть большой штат квалифицированных манипуляторов, которые рассказывают людям про саентологию. Кроме того, существует и Интернет. В Сети потенциальный последователь может еще больше узнать о данной секте и, если его заинтересуют идеи саентологии, посетить мероприятия, которое организуются этой религиозной организацией. В век информационных технологий именно виртуальный вариант общения становиться преобладающим. Поэтому неудивительно, что саентологи ведут постоянную пропаганду своего учения, критикуют противников и создают в глазах пользователей Интернета положительный образ своей организации.

Scientology.ru является официальным сайтом саентологии. Это русскоязычная версия, но существуют версии этого сайта и на других языках (английском, немецком и т.д.) Сайт выполнен очень качественно и выделяется приятным дизайном. Тут очень много креативных и интерактивных элементов, много красочных фотографий и качественных видеозаписей. Фильмы, снятые для саентологов, сделаны профессионально. Они довольно запоминающиеся и интересные. Многие работы для меня были по-настоящему увлекательными и информативными.

Материалы, представленные на сайте, в основном рассказывают о практической пользе саентологии. В них говориться о преимуществах данной секты, ее различных практиках и т. д. На scientology.ru можно узнать и про техники, связанные с личностным ростом. Лидеры секты хотят создать иллюзию пользы саентологии. Человеку обещают, что ему дадут знания, которые помогут ему в достижение материального и духовного успеха. Причем, когда раздают обещания, то редко говорят о самой секте. Например, на сайте представлено видео о том, как бороться с тревожностью. В видеоролике рассказывается об агрессивности окружающего мира, о людях, которые пытаются загнать вас в стрессовую ситуацию для достижения своих целей. А если человек пройдет курс, который предлагается Церковью Саентологии, то он сможет эффективно противостоять тревожности [3].

Однако действительная цель таких фильмов заключается не в помощи человеку решить свои проблемы, а в желание продемонстрировать бескорыстие саентологии, в отличие от других предложений, которые ориентированы на манипулирование сознанием человека ради достижения корыстных целей кукловодами.

После просмотра сайта саентологов возникает ощущение, что эта секта хочет сделать мир лучше, помочь людям и достигнуть светлого будущего. Лидеры этого религиозного объединения, мол, всячески стремятся помочь людям. Ведь только у них есть своя стратегия, которая успешно работает и цель организаторов рассказать про нее как можно большему числу людей, тем самым делая наш мир лучше, добрее и справедливее. Но, в действительности, это не так. Саентологи инвестируют значительные суммы денег и времени на рекламу своего имиджа и тренингов. То есть существует подспудная установка: ты должен отдавать часть своих доходов на развитие организации, но при этом большая часть этих пожертвований реально уходит в единоличное распоряжение руководителей секты.

Веб-странички были бы бесполезны без слов. Именно фразы, слова и речи являются инструментами манипуляции сознанием людей. Все по-Оруэллу. Как известно, в романе «1984» Большой Брат управлял сознанием подданых посредством новояза. Так, человек не сможет говорить о свободе, равенстве и братстве, если этих понятий нет в языке, и он их не знает.

Секты идут по пути Большого Брата. Лидеры культов придумывают новые слова и переопределяют старые. Причем делают они это по-настоящему профессионально [2]. Многие даже не замечают подмены понятий. Для саентологов привычно говорить про важность е-метра в работе одитора, которые являются ключевыми понятиями саентологии, но для простого человека являются непонятными и как бы значимыми. Индивидуума намного проще запутать, если использовать непонятные для него термины. С помощью новых понятий легко пропагандировать выгодные им идеи. Например, саентологи стремятся показать, что одитинг — это их разработка, которая помогает человеку справиться со своими проблемами. Суть одитинга в общении между консультантом и клиентом, у которого есть какая-то проблема. Одитинг очень похож на сеанс у психолога. Но саентологи отрицают пользу психологии. Они утверждают, что именно одитинг позволяет людям решать свои проблемы, а психологи лишь вредят. Очевидно, что это акт двоемыслия. Сеанс у психолога — зло, одитинг — добро. Психолог — злодей, а одитор — целитель. Но на самом деле эти понятие идентичны.

Человечество всегда во что-то верило: в Яхве, в Будду, в Аллаха, в духов или в коммунизм. Вера свойственна людям и попытки уничтожить ее является бессмысленными и тщетными, так как человек всегда будет искать замену запрещенной религии, даже если этот путь окажется тернистым. Но веру нельзя путать с фанатизмом. Поэтому нельзя оправдывать сомнительные религиозные организации, основанные на корыстных целях их лидеров. Нельзя говорить хорошо о тех людях, которые наживаются на внутреннем стремление человека к вере. Поэтому я считаю, что борьба против деструктивных сект необходима. Важно распространять знания о необходимости критического мышления и об опасности сект. Однако, при изучении материалов для данной публикации, я наткнулся на очень серьезную проблему: информация, в которой пропагандируется позитивный имидж секты намного качественнее и интереснее, чем статьи, в которых содержится критика подобного рода религиозных организаций. К тому же люди часто критикуют деструктивные секты, прибегая к дезинформации и непроверенным данным. А это не только не помогает, а, скорее, наоборот вредит в деле борьбы против «ловцов душ человеческих».

Исходя из проведенного мною анализа я считаю, что общество должно стремиться к демифологизации деструктивных культов и вести активную наступательную антисектантскую пропаганду, как через сферу образования, так СМИ и Интернет.

Литература:

1. Атеистический словарь / под ред. Новикова М. П. — М.: Политиздат, 1983. — С. 439.

2. Сектоведение. Тоталитарные секты. Опыт систематического исследования / А. Л. Дворкин, — 3-е изд., пераб. и доп.. — Н. Новгород: Христианская библиотека, 2006. — С. 813.

3. URL: https://www.scientology.ru/courses/solutions/overview.html

Abramov N.V. 
Kangaroos are indigenous dwellers of Australia

Abramov N.V., 2nd year student {Radioelectronic Systems and Complexes}
Scientific adviser: Arutyunyan D.D., PhD {ELT Methods}, associate professor
LEONOV Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

This article discusses the kangaroo-a marsupial mammal. The article describes the animal, its structure, outstanding abilities and some interesting facts that make this animal recognizable all over the world, despite the small habitats in the world. The attitude of a person to a kangaroo will also be considered, and the fact that a kangaroo is an integral symbol of Australia.

Key words: Kangaroo; Australia; Marsupial


Kangaroos are the world’s jumping experts. Many modern athletes could learn from them. Amazing animals live on the mainland of Australia. There they feel great, despite the fact that people eat the meat of these animals.

A powerful lower body, a small head with protruding ears, a large belly, where the females have a bag for cubs-all this characterizes the kangaroo best.

Kangaroos can run at speeds of up to 50 km per hour. The long tail of the animal with a minimum of brown hair serves as a balance for the kangaroo, which keeps the animal in a sharp change of direction. The front legs of kangaroos are small and rarely used for their intended purpose. The coat color varies from light brown to rich red with a whitish area on the belly. Herbivores and marsupials are divided into three species:

— Kangaroo rat. The species reaches 40 to 45 cm in length,

— Wallabies. The animal is slightly larger than its small counterpart;

— Large kangaroos. Those individuals that are considered symbols of Australia.

Large kangaroos grow up to 1.5 m. The weight of animals ranges from 40 to 80 kg. The tail can reach a length of one meter.

Australia, New Guinea, and the Bismarck Islands are the historical home of red jumpers. In the 19th century, Europeans made attempts to settle kangaroo individuals in England and Germany. The animals took root in the new conditions, but, unfortunately, were exterminated by poachers. The Eastern grey kangaroo is considered a rare curiosity in the East of the Australian continent. The animal’s fur can be gray or black. This type is rare.

Offspring and lifestyle

These animals are active at night. At dusk, they go out into the glades and pastures to begin their main meal. During the day, red inhabitants of forest steppes and plains hide in burrows or in the dense shade of trees.

The main enemies of kangaroos in Australia are dingoes. Dogs often organize raids on pastures, where they feed a kangaroo. In order to avoid an attack, some individuals warn their fellow animals of the danger by stomping their feet, snorting, and even grunting. Kangaroos can also make hissing sounds.

Interesting facts about kangaroos

Cute herbivores are perceived by people as good-natured and funny animals, but kangaroos can be quite dangerous when they strike with powerful hind legs. Kangaroos can stand on their own tail.

There are some interesting facts about kangaroos:

— Animals have an excellent sense of smell and hearing;

— Individuals of the species can only jump forward;

— a female carries a Baby for up to 40 days;

— Kangaroos in Australia are 3 times more than residents in the country;

— Males of this species can mate up to 5 times a day;

— Kangaroos can not drink for several months;

— All adults can swim;

— Kangaroos scratch their fur with short fingers on their upper paws.

The name «kangaroo» is derived from the indigenous aborigines of Australia. Animals conquered this continent long before the appearance of man on it. Kangaroos feel great in hot and dry climates, but they can also adapt to warm, snowy winters.

Conclusion

A kangaroo is an unusual animal. His appearance, his abilities are amazing. The kangaroo can rightfully be a symbol of Australia. However, we must not forget about the need to preserve this type of animal. Fight poaching and destruction of their natural habitat.

References:

1. Faunistics.com [Электронный ресурс]: Кенгуру. URL: https://faunistics.com/kenguru/ (дата обращения: 03.02.21)

2. National-travel.ru — [Электронный ресурс]: Кенгуру. URL: https://national-travel.ru/kenguru (дата обращения: 04.02.21)

3. Bilbytravel — [Электронный ресурс]: Кенгуру. URL: https://bilbytravel.ru/kenguru/ (дата обращения: 03.02.21)

4. Экзотические животные — [Электронный ресурс]: Кенгуру — своеобразное австралийское животное. URL: https://www.krasnouhie.ru/kenguru-svoeobraznoe-avstralijskoe-zhivotnoe.html (дата обращения: 04.02.21)

5. Живность.ру — [Электронный ресурс]: Кенгуру животное. Описание, особенности, виды, образ жизни и среда обитания кенгуру. URL: https://givnost.ru/kenguru-zhivotnoe-opisanie-osobennosti-vidy-obraz-zhizni-i-sreda-obitaniya-kenguru/ (дата обращения: 05.02.21)

Aйтым Д. К. 
Взaимoсвязь типoв тeмпeрaмeнтa пoдрoсткoв и их oтнoшeния к цeннoсти «сoбствeннoe здoрoвьe»

Aйтым Д. К., магистрант {Пeдaгoгикa и психoлoгия}
Научный руководитель: Иргeбaeвa Н. М., кандидат педагогических наук, доцент
Унивeрситeт «Турaн-Aстaнa», г. Нур-Султaн, Казахстан

В стaтьe рaссмaтривaются тeмпeрaмeнт пoдрoсткoв и их oтнoшeниe к сoбствeннoму здoрoвью. В нaстoящee врeмя бoльшинствo чeлoвeчeствa бeзрaзличнo oтнoсятся к свoeму здoрoвью. Oсoбeннo пoдрoстки. Фaктoры, oпрeдeляющиe сoстaвляющиe здoрoвoгo oбрaзa жизни пoдрoсткoв, игнoрируются. Пoэтoму прoблeмa фoрмирoвaния здoрoвoгo oбрaзa жизни дeтeй, пoдрoсткoв и мoлoдeжи нa ceгoдняшний дeнь являeтся oчeнь aктуaльнoй.

Ключeвыe слoвa: пoдрoстки, тeмпeрaмeнт, здoрoвьe, oтнoшeниe к здoрoвью.


Пoдрoстки — oчeнь чувствитeльныe, склoнныe к гнeву и oбидe люди. Eдинствeннaя причинa — их вoзрaстныe oсoбeннoсти, тo eсть пeрeживaниe пoдрoсткoвoгo пeриoдa.

Пoдрoсткoвый пeриoд — этo oпрeдeлeнный этaп рaзвития и сoзрeвaния личнoсти, кoтoрый лeжит мeжду дeтствoм и взрoслoстью. Oнa oхвaтывaeт вoзрaст oт 13 дo 18 лeт, тo eсть являeтся учeникaми 7—11 клaссoв сooтвeтствeннo. Слoвo «пoдрoстoк» oбoзнaчaeтся кaк фaзa пeрeхoдa oт зaвисимoгo дeтствa к сaмoстoятeльнoй и oтвeтствeннoй бoльшoй жизни. Этo oзнaчaeт, с oднoй стoрoны, зaвeршeниe физичeскoгo, в тoм числe пoлoвoгo сoзрeвaния, a с другoй стoрoны сoциaльнoгo сoвeршeнствa. В пoдрoсткoвoм вoзрaстe чeлoвeк прoхoдит нeскoлькo пoзиций. Прoхoдит пeрeхoдный пeриoд мeжду дeтствoм и взрoслoстью. Дo пoдрoсткoвoгo вoзрaстa сoстoяниe рeбeнкa хaрaктeризoвaлoсь eгo зaвисимoстью oт взрoслых, a в этoт пeриoд у рeбeнкa нaчинaeт фoрмирoвaться сoбствeннoe мнeниe и мысль. Poль рeбeнкa кaчeствeннo oтличaeтся oт рoли взрoслoгo и хoрoшo виднa с oбeих стoрoн. Haряду с услoжнeниeм жизни вoзникaeт нe тoлькo кoличeствeнный poст мaсштaбoв coциaльных рoлeй и интeрeсoв срeди мoлoдeжи, нo и кaчeствeннoe измeнeниe, вoзрaстaниe poлeй взрoслых, критeрий caмoстoятeльнoсти и oтвeтствeннoсти.

Xaрaктeрнo прoдoлжeниe paзвития дeтeй cтaршeгo шкoльнoгo вoзрaстa к oснoвным вeдущим услугaм oтнoсятся: oбучeниe, oтнoшeния и труд. В oбучeнии фoрмируются oбщиe интeллeктуaльныe спoсoбнoсти, oсoбeннo кoнцeптуaльнo-тeoрeтичeскoe мышлeниe. Oвлaдeниe этими пoнятиями oсущeствляeтся умeниями их испoльзoвaния, умeниeм лoгичeски и aбстрaктнo aнaлизирoвaть. В oбщeнии фoрмируются и paзвивaются кoммуникaтивныe спoсoбнoсти учaщихся. В трудe aктивнo прoисхoдит фoрмирoвaниe y них прaктичeских умeний и нaвыкoв, кoтoрыe в дaльнeйшeм спoсoбствуют дoстижeнию прoфeссиoнaльных спoсoбнoстeй. Пoдрoсткoвый вoзрaст являeтся ceнситивным этaпoм рaзвития рaзличных спoсoбнoстeй. Нa этoм этaпe прaктичeскoe испoльзoвaниe всeх вoзмoжнoстeй влияeт нa индивидуaльныe oсoбeннoсти [1].

Чтo кaсaeтся тeмпeрaмeнтa пoдрoсткoв, снaчaлa нaдo рaссмoтрим пoнятиe тeмпeрaмeнтa. Oднa из oсoбeннoстeй индивидуaльнoсти кaждoгo чeлoвeкa — тeмпeрaмeнт. Чтo кaсaeтся прoисхoждeния слoвa «Тeмпeрaмeнт», тo грeчeскoe слoвo «крaсис» прoизнoсится нa лaтыни — тeмпeрaмeнтум. Суть тaкoгo нaзвaния зaключaeтся в пoнимaнии тoгo, чтo вeщи — этo рaзмeрнoсть. Тaким oбрaзoм, мы рaссмaтривaeм тeмпeрaмeнт кaк индивидуaльнoсть, зaвисимую oт прирoдных типичных свoйств нeрвнoй систeмы.

Тeмпeрaмeнт — психичeскoe явлeниe, oбуслoвлeннoe физиoлoгичeскими oсoбeннoстями oргaнизмa, oсoбeннo врoждeнными свoйствaми высшeй нeрвнoй дeятeльнoсти. Тeмпeрaмeнт хoрoшo прoслeживaeтся кaк oт oбщeгo движeния чeлoвeкa, силы и глубины психики, тaк и oт oсoбeннoстeй нaстрoeния чeлoвeкa [2.1].

Итaк, тeмпeрaмeнт — этo сoвoкупнoсть индивидуaльных свoйств психики, oпрeдeляющих рeaльную динaмику психичeскoй дeятeльнoсти чeлoвeкa. Эти психичeскиe oсoбeннoсти прoявляются вo всeй дeятeльнoсти чeлoвeкa нeзaвисимo oт eгo сoдeржaния, цeлeй и oсoбeннoстeй, вырaжaют хaрaктeр тeмпeрaмeнтa вo взaимoсвязи, нe измeняясь дaжe в зрeлoм вoзрaстe. Дрeвнeгрeчeский лeкaрь, зaлoживший фундaмeнт нaуки o тeмпeрaмeнтaх — Гиппoкрaт (V в. дo н. э.), утвeрждaл, чтo рaзныe тeмпeрaмeнты связaны с чeтырьмя рaзличными жидкими вeщeствaми в oргaнизмe людeй и живoтных. Всeм извeстнo, чтo Гиппoкрaт внeс бoльшoй вклaд в мeдицину. Oн тaкжe изучaл, кaк oпрeдeляeтся тeмпeрaмeнт. Сoглaснo eгo учeнию, oбщee пoвeдeниe чeлoвeкa зaвисит oт сooтнoшeния чeтырeх сoкoв (жидкoстeй), циркулирующих в oргaнизмe — крoви, жeлчи, чeрнoй жeлчи и слизи (флeгмы, лимфы).

Прeoблaдaниe жeлчи (грeч.) дeлaeт чeлoвeкa импульсивным,» гoрячим " — хoлeрикoм.

Прeoблaдaниe слизи (грeч. флeгмa (лaт. φλέγμα, флeгмa,» мoкрoтa») дeлaeт чeлoвeкa спoкoйным и мeдлeннo — флeгмaтичным.

Прeoблaдaниe крoви (лaт. sanguis, sanguis, sanguis, «крoвь») дeлaeт чeлoвeкa пoдвижным и жизнeрaдoстным — sanguis.

Прeoблaдaниe чeрнoй жeлчи (грeч. μέλαινα χολή, мeлeнa хoлe, «чeрнaя жeлчь») дeлaeт чeлoвeкa грустным и стрaшным-мeлaнхoликoм. [2.2].

Учeниe И. П. Пaвлoвa o типaх нeрвнoй систeмы (типaх высшeй нeрвнoй дeятeльнoсти), присущих чeлoвeку и высшим млeкoпитaющим, явилoсь, пo сути, пoвoрoтным пунктoм в eстeствeннoй истoрии тeмпeрaмeнтa. И. П. Пaвлoв дoкaзaл, чтo физиoлoгичeскoй oснoвoй тeмпeрaмeнтa являeтся тип высшeй нeрвнoй дeятeльнoсти, кoтoрый oпрeдeляeтся сooтнoшeниeм силы, рaвнoвeсия и пoдвижнoсти oснoвных свoйств нeрвнoй систeмы, в чaстнoсти прoцeссoв вoзбуждeния и тoрмoжeния, прoисхoдящих в эктoпичeскoй систeмe. Тип нeрвнoй систeмы — этo гeнoтип, тo eсть нaслeдствeнный тип. И. Пaвлoв выдeлил 4 спeцифичeскиe нeрвныe систeмы, тo eсть oпрeдeлeнныe кoмплeксы oснoвных свoйств нeрвных прoцeссoв и личнoсти кaждoгo из них.

В кaждoм тeмпeрaмeнтe мoжнo нaйти кaк пoлoжитeльныe, тaк и oтрицaтeльныe кaчeствa. Хoрoшee вoспитaниe, кoнтрoль и сaмoкoнтрoль пoзвoляют прoявить сeбя: кaк мeлaнхoлик, чeлoвeк впeчaтляющий свoими глубoкими пeрeживaниями и эмoциями; кaк флeгмaтик, oпытный, нe принимaющий быстрых рeшeний; кaк сaнгвиник, oчeнь чувствитeльный к любoй рaбoтe и aктивный чeлoвeк; кaк хoлeрик, стрaстный, вспыльчивый и aктивный чeлoвeк.

Oтрицaтeльныe кaчeствa тeмпeрaмeнтa мoгут прoявляться слeдующим oбрaзoм: мeлaнхoлик — зaмкнутoсть и зaстeнчивoсть; флeгмaтик — рaвнoдушиe к людям, сухoсть; сaнгвиник — пoвeрхнoстнoсть, рaссeяннoсть, нeустoйчивoсть; у хoлeрикa тoрoпливoсть рeшeний, нeустoйчивoсть. Чeлoвeк с любым типoм тeмпeрaмeнтa мoжeт быть спoсoбным и нeдeeспoсoбным. Тип тeмпeрaмeнтa нe влияeт нa спoсoбнoсти чeлoвeкa, oдни зaдaчи и прoблeмы жизни лeгкo рeшaются людьми с oпрeдeлeнным тeмпeрaмeнтoм, a другим мoгут быть слoжными [3].

Нa нaш взгляд, в пoдрoсткoвoм вoзрaстe прoявляeтся нeустoйчивoсть и нeустoйчивoсть тeмпeрaмeнтa. Видимo, этo связaнo сo слeдующими причинaми.

Вo-пeрвых, к 13—14 гoдaм нeрвнaя систeмa рeбeнкa сoзрeвaeт и исчeзaeт нeрaвeнствo мeжду прoцeссaми вoзбуждeния и тoрмoжeния. В этoт пeриoд рaбoту нeрвнoй систeмы мoжнo срaвнить сo взрoслoй. В пoвeдeнии рeбeнкa этo прoявляeтся в снижeнии тeкущeй aктивнoсти, пoвышeнии урoвня внимaния, нaстoйчивoсти, цeлeустрeмлeннoсти. Всe бoльшe прoявляются индивидуaльныe oсoбeннoсти тeмпeрaмeнтa, нaчинaeт прoявляться индивидуaльный стиль пoвeдeния.

Вo-втoрых, в мeдицинскoй и психoлoгичeскoй литeрaтурe рeчь идeт o мoлoдых пoдрoсткaх в вoзрaстe oт 13 дo 18 лeт. Пoдрoсткoвый пeриoд жизни — этo пeрeхoдный пeриoд мeжду дeтствoм с пoлнoй зaвисимoстью oт взрoслых, нeвoзмoжнoстью жить бeз них и взрoслым вoзрaстoм, eгo зрeлoстью, спoсoбнoстью к сaмoстoятeльнoй жизни. Пoдрoсткoвый пeриoд тaкжe нaзывaют пeриoдoм пoлoвoгo сoзрeвaния, пoскoльку oн включaeт в сeбя прoцeсс пoлoвoгo сoзрeвaния oт пeрвых признaкoв дo пoлнoгo зaвeршeния [4,35].

В-трeтьих, в пoвeдeнчeскoм aспeктe в пoдрoсткoвoм вoзрaстe прoявляются нe тoлькo индивидуaльныe рaзличия, нo и oбщиe психoлoгичeскиe, пoвeдeнчeскиe мoдeли. Этo пoвeдeнчeскиe рeaкции пoдрoсткoв, кoтoрыe влияют нa oкружaющую срeду, прeждe всeгo нa внутрeннюю срeду. К тaким рeaкциям oтнoсятся: группирoвкa сo свeрстникaми, рeaкция свoбoды, т. e. oсвoбoждeниe oт oпeки или нaдзoрa сo стoрoны стaрших, кoнтрoль сo стoрoны стaрших, рeaкции, связaнныe с рaзвивaющимся сeксoм. Учeныe oтмeчaют, чтo эти рeaкции сильнee у мaльчикoв, чeм у дeвoчeк [5].

Сoглaснo мнoгoчислeнным исслeдoвaниям, нa здoрoвьe пoдрoсткoв влияют слeдующиe фaктoры:

— Вoспитaниe

— Сeмeйнoe пoлoжeниe

— Сoциaльнaя срeдa

— Спeцификa рaзвития

— Тeмпeрaмeнт

Пoкaзaтeли здoрoвья дeтeй зaвисят oт сeмeйнoгo пoлoжeния. Зaбoлeвaeмoсть дeтeй в нeпoлных сeмьях дoстoвeрнo вышe, чeм в пoлных сeмьях, и в них прeoблaдaeт и числo чaстo бoлeющих дeтeй. Тaкaя рaзницa углубляeтся с вoзрaстoм. Зaвисит и oт вoспитaния, вeдь рeбeнoк любoгo вoзрaстa, нeзaвисимo oт тoгo, являeтся ли oн oблaдaтeлeм кaкoгo-либo тeмпeрaмeнтa, eсли прaвильнo вoспитaн, мoжeт выйти из рaзличных труднoстeй. Устaнoвлeнo, чтo сущeствуeт чeткaя кoррeляциoннaя связь мeжду здoрoвьeм дeтeй и рaспoрядкoм дня. Зрaчки, у кoтoрых нaблюдaeтся низкий пoкaзaтeль здoрoвья срeди шкoльникoв с нeдoсыпaниeм, 1 чaс в дeнь нa свeжeм вoздухe и мeнee, чaщe стрaдaют aнoмaлиeй рeфрaкции глaз, рeвмaтизмoм, нaрушeниями oбмeнa вeщeств, чeм другиe дeти, сoблюдaющиe тaкoй пoрядoк. A в пoдрoсткoвoм вoзрaстe дeти oтнoсятся к свoeму здoрoвью рaвнoдушнo. Oдин стрaдaeт oт глaзных бoлeзнeй из-зa чрeзмeрнoгo испoльзoвaния мoбильнoгo тeлeфoнa, другoй, стрaдaя oт рaзличных гaджeтoв, ктo-тo стрaдaeт здoрoвьeм, нe дoвoльствуясь сoбствeнным тeлoслoжeниeм и нe питaясь. В кoнцe кoнцoв, в пoдрoсткoвoм вoзрaстe нeoбхoдимo тeрпeниe, тeрпимoсть, снисхoждeниe и зaбoтa. Этo сeмeйнoe вoспитaниe и oкружaющaя срeдa, кoтoрыe пoмoгaют дeржaть всe этo вмeстe.

Литература:

1. Aнaньeв Б. Г. Oчeрки психoлoгии.- Л.: лoжь.,1945.- 215с. Шнaйдeр Д. Б. Психoлoгия сeмeйных oтнoшeний. — М.: Aпрeль-Прeсс, 2000.

2. Гиппeнрeйтeр Ю. ввeдeниe в oбщую психoлoгию. — М., 1987

3. Личкo A. E. Психoпaтия и пoвeдeнчeскиe aкцeнты у пoдрoсткoв. Л., Мeдицинa, 1977,208 С., изд. Прилoжeниe 2. и пeрeрaб., Л.: Мeдицинa, -1983.

4. Иргбaeвa Н. М. Психoлoгия. Aлмaты: Нұр-Принт, -2015.-527

5. Урaзaлиeвa, Р. М. Психoлoгичeскиe oсoбeннoсти сaмoстoятeльнoй прoгрaммы пoдрoсткoв / Р. М. Урaзaлиeвa, Р. К. Eсeнoвa, Ж. С. Кушeкбaeвa. — Тeкст: прямoй / / мoлoдoй учeный. — 2015. — №6.2 (86.2).

Babynin V.V. 
Problems of flying to Mars

Babynin V.V., 2nd year student {Radioelectronic Systems and Complexes}
Scientific adviser: Arutyunyan D.D., PhD {ELT Methods}, associate professor
LEONOV Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

This article is devoted to some of the problems that astronauts may face when flying to Mars. The three main problems- overload, solar radiation and gravity are analyzed solutions to these problems still being relevant today.

Key words: Problem; overload; radiation; gravitation; blood; body; rays; dehydration.


In space exploration there exist a lot of problems. Scientists try to solve them.

The first problem and complexity that astronauts will face when flying to Mars is overload, with acceleration, that is, when moving against gravity, weight seems to increase significantly. Traditionally, the increase in weight is compared to the force of gravity. On the ground at rest, people are affected by 1g, but when the rocket starts, they will be affected by a force of up to 7g and this causes interesting effects. Starting with the banal, you just won’t be able to move. If you weigh 70 kg, then at this load your weight will be about 500 kg. But the main problem is not in weight, but in blood. We all know that the body constantly needs energy, not only for work, but also for maintaining the integrity of cells. Energy is provided by oxygen, which is supplied to all tissues by means of electrolytes in the blood, most of all oxygen is needed by the nervous tissue, without it our brain turns off, and later dies. And the situation for astronauts is such that the blood becomes heavier along with the body. The heart is contracting as it pushes blood through the vessels to the head and other limbs, but with this weight, the heart muscle is simply not able to push the liquid high enough. If the overload is sharp and strong, the blood simply does not flow to the brain, there is no oxygen and a person can instantly lose consciousness.

The next problem is solar radiation. Our earth is unique in many aspects, and it is because of its uniqueness that life has emerged. One of the most important things is the earth’s magnetic field. Due to the magnetic field, a lot of radiation coming from space simply does not reach the earth’s surface, unlike the magnetic field of Mars, such as: ultraviolet, x-rays and the solar wind consisting of protons and electrons. All this radiation is simply absorbed and dispersed in the upper atmosphere of the ozone layer. Ionizing radiation is dangerous because it violates the integrity of our structures: proteins, lipids, and DNA. Damage to the DNA leads to an increased risk of tumors and mutations in the offspring. Damage to lipids and proteins is not so bad if the dose is small, but if the dose is decent, then radiation sickness can begin. This radiation is measured in Sievers (Sv). On average, a person receives a dose of 0.3 mSv from space per year. this is very small, only from the decay of uranium, potassium and Thor, which make up the natural radiation background radiating from our earth, we get about 2.5—3.5 mSv per year. If you go up to an altitude of about 400 km where the astronauts live on the ISS, we will receive about 1 mSv per day, but this radiation is still not so terrible. But beyond the boundary of this field, which is up to 70 thousand kilometers from the sun, a person will receive about 1.8 mSv per day. Thus, a person will accumulate too much radiation not only during flight, but also while on the surface of Mars itself.

Another problem is gravity. Gravity is the most difficult problem, because in space our weight disappears and although it will be easy for us to move, it will be just terrible for our health. In the first couple of days, the blood that usually accumulates in our lower extremities will be distributed more evenly and a lot of blood flows to your hands and head, that is, liquid, everything swells, the body begins to feel that it has too much water inside, it is necessary to urgently pour out all the excess, and the body starts the diuretic process by deceiving itself. This may cause dehydration, so you will have to adapt for a while. But this is not terrible, terrible atrophy, the muscles are not used and just a few days without proper training begin to melt. When flying to Mars, you can lose more than 20% of muscle mass, and most importantly, the functionality, the muscles themselves, the cardiovascular system, and bones become weak and relaxed. Calcium and potassium begin to be washed out of the bones especially from the bones of the legs and pelvis which threatens fractures. The heart changes due to the lack of downward thrust and instead of the usual teardrop shape, it becomes round, does less well with its work and becomes thinner, which leads to most diseases. And all this will continue both during flight and on Mars itself, since there the gravity is much less than the earth’s.

Conclusion

The solution of these problems is very important. There exist theoretical solutions being difficult to be implemented in practice. Perhaps in the near future there will appear ways to overcome the given problems and people will be able to colonize not only Mars, but other planets as well.

References:

1. Наталия Ячменикова марс-бросок: три миссии прибудут к Красной планете в феврале 2021 года [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://rg.ru/2020/07/24/mars-brosok-tri-missii-pribudut-k-krasnoj-planete-v-fevrale-2021-goda.html (дата обращения: 12.11.2020)

2. Солнечная радиация и её влияние на организм человека и климат [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://otravleniya.net/izluchenie/solnechnaya-radiatsiya.html (дата обращения: 15.11.2020)

Borodin L.S., Kumikova Zh. T. 
Sport injuries and general physiology (based on the example of rhythmic gymnastics)

Borodin L.S., 1st year bachelor’s degree student {Department of Biology and Chemistry}
Kumikova Zh. T., 1st year bachelor’s degree student {Department of Biology and Chemistry}
Scientific adviser: Zinina J.M., PhD {Philology}, associate professor
Moscow Region State University, Mytischi, Russia

This article considers the research of sport injuries and general physiology on the example of rhythmic gymnastics. The research is based on the statistical information from official studies and examples from sports history. Most people think that injuries are normal for sport, but why? This article will be of interest to the members of any generation since nearly everyone is faced with traumas in sport and everyday life. In the article some risk factors are shortly described and some training recommendations to eliminate these factors are given.

Keywords: sport injuries, risk factors, training recommendations, rhythmic gymnastics.


Every four years, thousands of people gather around TV sets and watch incredibly colorful performances of gymnasts from all over the world. Seeing their bandaged legs, no one is surprised. «Injuries in professional sports are norm that you can’t get away from» — this is how most people think. It’s easy to talk about, but much more difficult to recover from it and show results when the whole world is looking at you, and first of all, your country. Let’s take a look at the statistics based on the example of rhythmic gymnastics and causes of some injuries to understand their nature.

All injuries are divided into acute and chronic; the latter occur due to frequent and repeated actions and loads of the same nature. A recent New Zealand study found that 50% of all injuries of rhythmic gymnasts are classified as acute, while the remaining 50% are classified as chronic or fatigue–related [3].

The study by Adamasco Cupisti et al. showed that most often acute injuries of rhythmic gymnasts are localized in the lower extremities. Lyudmila Korolenko, the coach-consultant of the Ukrainian junior team, clearly stated in her interview: «Most of all, of course, the legs suffer». According to statistics, the foot and ankle joint accounted for 38% of injuries, the lower leg and knee joint — 19%, the hip and hip joint — 15% (in total, 72%) [1]. The next place in the number of injuries takes back injuries (17%). The authors attribute such a high percentage of injuries of the lower extremities to a large number of difficult jumps, as a result of which the gymnast may land unsuccessfully. Other studies conducted on this topic have only confirmed the work of Cupisti and his colleagues.

In the article «Injuries and training recommendations in elite rhythmic gymnastics» stretching of the muscle-tendon units occurred on the lower and upper extremities, was mentioned as the most commonly occurred (85%) injury [5]. One fatigue fracture in the lower back was indicated. Most of the complaints of knee pain were diagnosed as tendonitis. Also, in this study, one concussion was recorded, which required a week’s rest for the athlete.

Among other risk factors in rhythmic gymnastics, many authors distinguish the so-called female triad — irregular (improper) nutrition, menstrual irregularities and osteoporosis. These three interrelated components of the triad are a rather serious syndrome that often occurs in physically active girls and women, which can lead to a decrease in the performance of an athlete, complication of the course of acute and chronic diseases, or even death. Rhythmic gymnasts are subject to stringent requirements for slimness and body weight. Kate Roberts states in her review that the mass fraction of body fat in rhythmic gymnasts should not exceed 5—10%. In various studies, it has been found that the percentage of body fat in female athletes in this sport is from 13% to 16%, while in non-athletes — from 20% to 28%. It was also found out that rhythmic gymnasts tend to consume only 80% of the calories they need per day. Munoz et al. reported that rhythmic gymnasts consume 1,828 ± 500 kcal per day, which is below the recommended level [2]. According to various sources, the body mass index of gymnasts’ ranges from 16 to 18 kg / m². According to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), a person with a body mass index below 18.5 kg / m² is underweight [4].

A research by Zetaruka and his colleagues mentions that most of the knee injuries of rhythmic gymnasts are diagnosed as tendonitis. The most common tendonitis in the knee is the patellar tendonitis, also called the «jumper’s knee», which occurs as a result of prolonged training, multiple jumps and landings, which lead to microtrauma to the patellar ligament structure. Since training takes place too often, microtraumas do not have time to heal and accumulate. All this ultimately leads to inflammation and degeneration of the ligament tissues. Symptoms of patellar tendonitis include pain in the lower part of the patella, especially during exertion (jumping, landing) and bending the knee. The pain, however, can be quite bearable, which often leads to postponement of the visit to the doctor. This can lead to an aggravation of the disease, the progression of degenerative processes in the ligament tissue and, in the worst case, lead to its rupture.

Acute foot injuries are common in gymnasts due to repeated landings and include subtalar dislocation of the foot, Lisfranc fracture-dislocation, and other fractures and injuries of the metatarsal and toe ligaments. Most often, foot injuries happen when landing or falling from a projectile. Dermatological problems often occur.

In accordance with the results obtained, Zetaruka and colleagues in their work propose the following measures to prevent injuries in rhythmic gymnastics:

1. The duration of training for elite athletes should not exceed 30 hours per week, for sub-elite athletes — 20 hours per week.

2. Stretching exercises should be performed for at least 40 minutes a day.

3. General physical training should not take gymnasts more than 5—6 hours a week.

To prevent pain in the lumbar region, it is necessary to monitor the correct execution of the technique by the athlete and prevent the development of inappropriate skills. Similarly, young athletes should not be overwhelmed or forced to perform movements with a range for which they are not ready.

Athletes should undergo continuous medical examination for fatigue injuries. It is also necessary to carefully monitor the nutrition and body weight of young gymnasts, to prevent and eliminate menstrual irregularities, potentially leading to early osteoporosis.

People who have no prior knowledge about sports are not able to assess how much gymnasts are afraid of severe injuries in their difficult craft. It’s not just a natural fear of damage to the body. Maria Zasypkina, who hasn’t competed at the Olympic Games due to the separation of the spine, now, as a coach, says that if we ask a small gymnast whether she feels the risk of injury, she will not even understand the question, because children do not think about it. The training system is designed to suppress the feeling of fear. That fear, which requires an incredible effort of will, appears after the first serious injury and often prevents from training with full dedication. Ekaterina Lobaznyuk, managed to perform at the Olympics, became second in Sydney and everyone was sure that «Athens 2004» would bring her victory, but in 2001, at the Russian Championships, she severely injured her knee, tried to return together with Zasypkina, but they could not fully rehabilitate themselves. Maria fully recovered from the paralysis, although the doctors predicted her sad fate of Elena Mukhina. The training lasted for 3 months, but then, as the girl said, she had begun to overcome an uncontrollable feeling of panic, she could not do anything else but made the difficult decision to leave the sport, and her coach — Maria Tipkova, who witnessed the fall of the gymnast, vowed not to engage in coaching anymore. Six months after Zasypkina’s departure, Lobaznyuk also ended her career.

These are the words of Olga Korbut, who became a real sensation at the 1972 Munich Olympics: «Until the very last day in sports when I went to the bars, my heart sank into the pit of fear: wobbly legs, dizziness, sickening weakness». She and her coach, Renald Ivanovich Knysh, brought new, incredibly complex and even shocking elements to gymnastics — «Korbut Jump», «Korbut Loop», backflip on the balance beam.

In the sport of great achievements, you cannot do without injuries. Girls endure incredible loads, moral and mental, are formed as strict and demanding, ambitious and ready to fight, strong people. «The idea of becoming the best in the world is crazy, you will agree» — says two-time Olympic champion, international category judge, Lidia Ivanova. Indeed, the development of gymnastics is happening at an incredible speed, and each of the team members wants to take your place. Lyudmila Ivanovna Turishcheva is a Soviet gymnast, the four-time Olympic champion, multiple World and European champion, Honored Master of Sports of the USSR, President of the Gymnastics Federation of Ukraine also said that in sports it was much more difficult to keep your title than to win, so you couldn’t relax for a second.

We talk about the grace, strength and skills of girls under 20, subscribe to their Instagram accounts, watch the championships. Behind the bright swimsuits, perfect bodies, beautiful, sincere smiles caused by victory, there is backbreaking work, numerous injuries and a struggle with rivals and with reluctance, fatigue and fear. As a little girl, each of them deliberately deprives themselves of many of the joys of life available to their peers, and these are the sacrifices that give us, ordinary viewers, the opportunity to observe the incredible abilities of people from different countries.

References:

1. Cupisti A, D’alessandro C, Evangelisti I, Umbri C, Rossi M, Galetta F, Panicucci E, Pegna SL, Piazza M. Injury survey in competitive sub-elite rhythmic gymnasts: results from a prospective controlled study // The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 2007, vol.47, №2, pp.203—207.

2. Munoz MT, de la Piedra C, Barrios V, Garrido G, Argente J. Changes in bone density and bone markers in rhythmic gymnasts and ballet dancers: implications for puberty and leptin levels // European Journal of Endocrinology. 2004, vol.151, №4, pp.491–496.

3. Roberts K. Spine injuries in rhythmic gymnastics // Sport Health. 2009, Vol. 27, Issue 3, pp. 27—29.

4. World Health Organization. Body Mass Index (BMI) classification. https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/nutrition/a-healthy-lifestyle/body-mass-index-bmi

5. Zetaruk M.N, Violan M, Zurakowski D, Mitchell W.A, Micheli L.J. Injuries and training recommendations in elite rhythmic gymnastics // Apunts. Medicina de l’Esport. 2006, vol.41, №151, pp.100—106.

Budyleva A.D. 
Sociological analysis of the reproductive behavior of childless women

Budyleva A.D., 3rd year student {Sociology}
Scientific adviser: Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer
LEONOV Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

This article will analyze the reproductive behavior of childless women in modern Russia. The attitude of the survey participants to abortions, children born as a result of rape will be considered. The respondents ' opinions on the attitude to other people’s children on the street will also be compared. The most popular reasons that encourage women to think about having a child will be demonstrated.

Key worls: childfree, childless women, children.


«Children? Do I want to have a baby?»

Every girl in her life sooner or later asks this question. But everyone will have their own answer. This is influenced by many factors: the economic situation of the family, medical indications, the political situation, and many others. But the most important thing is the very desire of a woman to give birth and raise a child. After all, only a woman who is ready for responsibility can give a child a healthy environment for life and development.

Previously, it was difficult for people to accept women’s decision not to have children, believing that this is a common excuse to hide their «poor health, non-traditional sexual orientation, mental illness, alcohol or drug abuse. It has never occurred to anyone that a woman does not have children for one simple reason: she has no desire» [2]. So in the 1970s, the term «childfree» entered scientific circulation, whose adherents «are „consciously childless“, that is, they are „childless“ people who live a full sexual life, perhaps married, but purposefully take measures to ensure that they do not have children» [3].

The Childfree movement gained popularity in the 1990s when Leslie Lafayette formed one of first Childfree modern groups, the Childfree Network (CFN). Later childfree began to be understood not only by people who deliberately do not want to give birth to children. A Sociologist Olga Isupova calls 4 types of childfree: Rejectors («childhaters») are people who dislike everything that relates to children; Affexionado are people who like a childless lifestyle; Refuseniks are people who constantly change their decision about the birth of children; Those who procrastinate are people who constantly postpone the birth of children to a later date [1].

In order to study the reproductive behavior of women, in December 2020, we conducted a sociological survey in the form of a questionnaire with the participation of 356 women, half of whom are childless, living in Moscow and the Moscow region.

In order to find out the respondents ' attitude to abortion, they were asked the question «How do you feel about abortion?». About half of the respondents (42.7%) believe that abortion is permissible only if the conception occurred as a result of rape. (Table 1)

Table 1. Distribution of respondents’ responses to the question» How do you feel about abortion?» (in % of the number of childless respondents)

About two-thirds of childless women (61.2%) said that they would not be able to love a child born as a result of rape. Also among them there were 5.6% of those who will be able to love such a child with all their heart. (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Distribution of respondents ’responses to the question: «If you were a victim of rape and became pregnant as a result, would you have an abortion?» (in % of the number of childless respondents)

To compare the responses of respondents depending on whether they have a brother (s) or sister (s) and the conditions of their treatment when paying attention to children on the street, a corresponding conjugacy table was constructed. As it can be seen from the data, there are significant differences in the responses of the survey participants. Respondents who have a brother (s) / sister (s) treat other people’s children on the street with great understanding (Table 2).

Table 2. The ratio of respondents’ responses by the presence of a brother (s) /sisters (s) to the question «Do you pay attention to children on the street?» (in % of the total number of respondents)

After studying the percentage distribution of answers to the question «What makes you think about having a child?», it turned out that half of childless women (50%) want to have a child, because they want to take care of someone. Almost every fifth woman (14.6%) thinks about having a child because of her age. A tenth of the respondents (10.7%) are not going to give birth to a child at all, so we can assume that these women are adherents of the Childfree ideology.

Table 3. Distribution of respondents’answers to the question «What makes you think about having a child?» (in % of the number of childless respondents)

Today, the realization of the potential inherent in him is becoming increasingly important for a person. Therefore, the issue of childbearing is postponed until the implementation of plans, the achievement of goals [2]. As a result, we can see that adherents of the childfree ideology have become more numerous over the past fifty years.

References:

1. Isupova O. G. The childfree phenomenon in society / / PostNauka

2. Kazachikhina M. V. Childfree as one of the forms of the modern family //Bulletin of Social and Humanitarian Education and Science. — 2014. — No. 3. — pp. 10—14.

3. Lomakin I. V. What do we really mean when we talk about"childfree»? // Order of Friendship of Peoples Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology. NN Miklukho-Maklaya RAS. — 2018. — P. 225.

Grigoryan E.S. 
The role of the kingdom of Bahrain in the development of Islamic finance

Grigoryan E.S., 3rd year student {Economic}
Scientific adviser: Arutyunyan D.D., PhD {Methods of ELT}, associate professor
LEONOV Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The article describes the special role of Bahrain in the development of Islamic Finance, activities of The Central Bank, its role and the relevance of its role in determining the role of the state as well as its contribution into strengthening the position of Islamic Finance in the world.

Key words: Islamic Finance, Central Bank of Bahrain, Offshore Bahrain, Business in Bahrain, Legislation of Bahrain.


The Kingdom of Bahrain, despite the modest potential and scale of its economy, has played a key role in standardizing the activities of Islamic financial institutions and their regulation, introducing new financial products and approaches to financial activities, and contributing to the development of the international infrastructure for regulating Islamic Finance in the world.

Banks are a key part of the Islamic financial system. Their share in the assets of all Islamic institutions is 93%, followed by funds — 5% and insurance companies — 2%. Islamic banks Finance infrastructure projects, issue loans, including syndicated ones, and along with funds are the main players in the Islamic securities market.

The Kingdom of Bahrain, a small Arab state with a population of more than 1.5 million people, has a very developed modern financial system. The emergence of the financial industry in Bahrain dates back to 1920, when the Eastern Bank branch

(Eastern Bank — now Standard Chartered Bank) started its operations in the country. In 1944 The British Bank of the Middle East was established (British Bank of the Middle East — now Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corp — HSBC). In 1957, the first local Bank appeared — the Bank of Bahrain (Bank of Bahrain). It is now the National Bank of Bahrain. In 1960 it was opened Arab Bank (Arab Bank Limited). These credit institutions have successfully met the needs of clients for trade Finance and Deposit placement for many years.

The 1973 oil boom and subsequent rapid growth in business activity made Bahrain (along with other Gulf countries) a recipient of major financial resources. This led to the creation of 15 new commercial banks in 1977. 20 years later (by 1998) there were 80 branches of foreign banks in the country.

It should be noted that the Central Bank Bahrain is the only financial regulator in the country. Unlike other regional regulators in Bahrain, this Bank regulates the banking sector, capital markets, investment funds, and insurance business.

Bahraini law is a mixture of Sharia and civil law. Sharia courts often have the advantage. In this country, you need to be very careful and use the services of a local consultant. Registration of a company is not cheap (from $ 10,000) the registration period is on average 3 weeks. All forms of companies in Bahrain are regulated by the commercial Companies act of 1975, with subsequent amendments, as well as by a government decree of 1977.

There is an opinion that this jurisdiction is less bureaucratic than the UAE and it is easier to register an offshore company in Bahrain.

The jurisdiction of Bahrain is suitable if your business interests are located in the Persian Gulf region. Bahrain is especially good for trade with India and Pakistan, due to its established economic ties. Bahrain is well connected to Saudi Arabia, there is a highway «King Fahd» that goes over the sea. But from the UAE to Saudi Arabia can only be reached by air, this is also important when doing business in these countries. There are absolutely no taxes for offshore companies. But it is necessary to submit reports and conduct an audit. Bahrain allows foreigners to own 100% of certain types of companies, requiring them to open an office in the country. In addition, there are no restrictions on trading on the local market.

Based on the above, conclusion can be made that Bahrain is an interesting alternative for the UAE in the region with its own characteristics. However, the ease of doing business and opening accounts is still not enough.

References:

1. https://internationalwealth.info/offshore-offshores/will-offshore-jurisdiction-bahrein-suit-you/

2. https://www.nbbonline.com/

Ivanov A.O. 
Modern problems of electric cars in Russia

Ivanov A.O., 2nd year student {Radioelectronic Systems and Complexes}
Scientific adviser: Arutyunyan D.D., PhD {ELT Methods}, associate professor
LEONOV Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

This article deals with the problem of using electric cars in Russia, the feasibility of using electric cars, the history of creation, and why the idea of electric cars is difficult to implement.

Keywords: electric, problems, cars, alternative, temperature, discharge.


Electric cars are our future. Since sooner or later gas and oil will run out, humanity has thought about how to fill up all the transport in the world. Of course, in the 21st century, there are already cars that use renewable energy sources, such as the hydrogen engine. The production of a hydrogen engine is still very expensive, but many automakers are already trying to reduce the cost of creating such an engine, so that cars with a hydrogen engine are available to every inhabitant of the Earth. In the meantime, this has not happened to date, the electric motor is of great relevance.

Back in 1828, the Hungarian inventor Anjos Jedlik made an electric-powered trolley. However, this invention of Jedlik served as a powerful impetus in the development of this area of engineering. The first electric car in the form of a trolley with an electric motor was created in 1841. Also, in 1899, in St. Petersburg, Russian nobleman and engineer-inventor Ippolit Romanov created the Russian first electric omnibus for 17 passengers. Its general layout was borrowed from English cabs, where the driver was located on high trestles behind the passengers. That is, today it is an analog of a trolleybus or electric bus.

Unfortunately, by the 2000s, electric transport was not widely used. There were only trams, trolleybuses and mopeds with an electric motor. Scientists sounded the alarm when it turned out that various cataclysms occur on Earth due to the release of exhaust gases. And many automakers have thought about how to help significantly reduce emissions or even switch to another energy source. The very first car manufacturer that seriously began to release electric cars is Tesla Motors. At first, cars were very expensive, as production was not established and there were very few cars. They had a number of advantages over cars with internal combustion engines, such as an all-electric engine, freed up space where there could be an internal combustion engine, not as large as electric motors, and the accumulator was located in the bottom of the car. But there were also several significant disadvantages, because of which people thought about the feasibility of buying an electric car, such as a small power reserve. That is, it means that such cars could safely move between the nearest cities, but there could be no question of traveling. And if there was a speech, it was only where the charging stations are located. And then there is the second significant minus of electric cars, this is a reaction to low temperatures. Just like most smartphones are sensitive to low temperatures, so are electric cars. Because of the low temperature, as well as smart phones, there is a very fast discharge of the battery, which is why the power reserve becomes even less. And in winter, as a rule, it is customary to turn on the car interior heater, which is even less. High sensitivity to high temperatures can be noted as the downside. As in this case, there is a rapid discharge of the battery, and sometimes, unfortunately, due to a large current, a thermal breakdown occurs, and the battery fails.

In this case, the feasibility of using electric cars is only in the place where it is not very cold in winter, and not very hot in summer. And then the whole idea of electric cars is lost, as there is no prospect of their use around the world.

Moving on to the main topic, it was told about the feasibility of using electric vehicles. All of the cons and pros are peculiar not only for Russia but for other countries as well. But even in Russia, you can find their applications, for example, in the Krasnodar territory where just the use of such a car takes place. There charging stations can easily been organized, the temperature being not too high in the summer. Some benefits for the use of electric cars can be introduced.

But what about the rest of Russia? Unfortunately, traditional internal combustion engines using gasoline or diesel are used, as well as internal combustion engines with an electric motor, the so-called hybrid engines. In this case, there is a place for a hybrid engine, since the power reserve of the electric motor is exhausted immediately the gasoline engine is connected, providing the duration of movement and charging of the electric motor. In this case, you can even travel and save a lot on refueling the car.

The main idea of the electric car is to use electric energy without polluting the atmosphere. For this purpose, there are solar panels, hydroelectric power plants and windmills. But if we consider Russia in particular, then there is a place to be an environmentally friendly source of energy — this is a hydro-electric station. Why aren’t solar panels used? Because to ensure stable electricity, you need at least several hundred football fields of such panels and at least a constant clear sky. Windmills cannot be used. As practice shows, the mills have the property of freezing, thereby stopping the production of electrical energy. Only hydro-electric stations remain, but they are also not always possible to fully implement them. You need a stable, fast and strong flow of water, and it is desirable that this water should not freeze in winter. It turns out that in order to ensure the stability of electricity, it is necessary to use traditional methods such as nuclear power plants.

Also, in Russia, in winter, there is always a lot of snow, which is why only cars with all-wheel drive can drive through high snowdrifts, as public utilities do not have time to clean the roads. As of 2021, there are no electric-powered SUVs available yet.

It is also necessary to note the high prices for electric cars in Russia. Good cars with a large power reserve are like an expensive Mercedes sedan.

Conclusion

Summing up, there is a great chance that all the disadvantages can be minimized and the feasibility of buying an electric car will increase. When there are a lot of electric cars, then the prices will be lower, and people will most likely choose an electric car as a means of comfortable transportation to work or to the store.

References:

1. Shchetina V. A., Morgovsky Yu. Ya., Center B. I., Bogomazov V. A. Elektromobil: tekhnika i ekonomika. — L.: Mashinostroenie, 1987.

2. Zhuk A. Z., Kleymenov B. V., Fortov V. E., Sheindlin A. E. Electric car on aluminum fuel. — Moscow: Nauka, 2012.

3. Iz.ru: Article «Днем с огнем: не садятся ли батареи на электромобиле зимой» — Electronic resource. Access mode: https://iz.ru/811769/ignat-shestakov/dnem-s-ognem-ne-sadiatsia-li-batarei-na-elektromobile-zimoi (accessed 27.02.2021)

4. Autonews.ru: Article «Электромобили не переживут русской зимы» — Electronic resource. Access mode: https://www.autonews.ru/news/58259cd29a7947474311f025 (accessed 27.02.2021)

Karpachyova M.S. 
Why do we need to save our national identity?

Karpachyova M.S., 2nd year student {Information Security}
Scientific adviser: Arutyunyan D.D. Ph. D. (ELT Methods), associate professor
LEONOV Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

This article examines the issue of the importance of national identity for Russia, why it is needed and whether it is possible on the territory of the Russian Federation. The material is based on various sociological studies and articles from Russia and America.

Key words: Sociology, National identity.


There is a huge variety of problems beginning with economic ones related to demography and social inequality to technological ones related to the lack of qualified workers and the creation of safe artificial intelligence in our time. Certainly they are of great interest and importance for reasoning, but the question that needs consideration today is about national identity in our country — Russia.

Russia is a huge multi-ethnic state with a huge number of nations, so it is especially difficult and at the same time important to bring to people living in this country the concept that we are all Russians.

National identity is not identical to ethnic identity, but these concepts are certainly strongly interrelated, because an individual is perceived both from the point of view of a multicultural national, and from a monoculture ethnic identity.

Ethnic identity emerges from the awareness of belonging to an ethnic community or group, when a person knows and associates himself with his ancestry while national identity is expressed in the individual’s recognition of his involvement in the state, nation.

So why do we need this? The answer to this question is quite obvious. National identity unites and strengthens ties between all the members of society, which undoubtedly benefits all its members. Common identity allows you to determine the belonging of citizens to the country and thereby unites people around not only by their appearance and line in the law, but also by the set of attitudes in the state, which allows a person to determine that he is a citizen of his country. Thanks to this sense of a person’s belonging to the rest of the people living in his country, a person has a completely different attitude towards its participants than if he had nothing to do with the people around him. The most important function of national identity is to maintain effective social safety nets that mitigate economic inequality. If members of the community feel like they are part of a «big family» and have a high level of trust in each other, they are much more likely to approve of social programs that help their weaker fellow countrymen [2]. Studies show that people begin to work better for the common good, when they feel they belong to their world, and also feel less alone.

Without sufficient national identity, a crisis occurs in the work of political institutions: corruption is growing, local elites are pursuing their own policies, which leads to a weakening of the internal sovereignty of the state, its stagnation and a crisis of development, while people tend to emigrate to other countries where it will be better and easier in this regard.

Now the question arises whether it is possible to improve the perception of identity in our multinational and diverse country.

I will immediately answer the question, yes, we can, but first, let’s talk about what national identity is based on.

Kuznetsov KA. and Shchelin P. A. back in 2014 identified 3 components that allow a person to feel his commitment to the state in which he lives, these being the experience of statehood, the history, a set of common values and shared responsibility for the future countries. The history of the state allows to perceive it as a whole, common values allow us to understand that our goals and thoughts are one and the same, and responsibility allows us to make sure that we act together [2].

What are the steps that can help strengthen Russian identity? Everyone will agree that Russian society is extremely fragmented. A person is attached to his family, friends, home, but this is where his attachment ends. Based on this statement, as well as on the previously mentioned components of identity, the following directions can be built to strengthen Russian identity, these being:

— Socialization of people. The development of associations and the creation of more active identities where people can unite in communes.

— Creation of the rule of law. It should not be reduced to the next rewriting of the constitution and the creation of new control and punitive bodies. It is necessary to involve citizens in politics and, what is important, their awareness of the issue. That is, people should understand politics, and education in this matter should increase from year to year.

— Culture. It is one of the brightest and most important areas, because nothing connects people like common culture. The restoration and popularization of classical culture is not enough. And in the early twentieth century it was not enough for the creators of the Russian avant-garde, which became the world’s avant-garde. It is necessary to create modern culture, develop it in all forms, the diversity of which is greater today than ever.

— Politeness of the community. Everyday culture is responsible for moods within society, which, of course, unites people.

— MASS MEDIA. Comments are superfluous here. Nothing unites like the media.

— Large projects of national importance.

— Symbols of Russian identity [3].

The conclusion is that it is the national identity that transforms a nation or several nations, living in a certain territory in the nation, supports the functioning of various political, economic and social institutions, and also deepens and makes awareness of the formation of such an important social institution as the state. That is why Russian identity should be preserved.

References:

1. Batirev D.N. The problem of national identity in globalizing world. 2009. 36 p.

2. Kusnetsov K.A., Shchelin P.A. National identity and sustainable statehood. 2014. 6 p.

3. Valdai International Discussion Club. National identity is future of Russia. 2014. 74 p.

4. David W. Johnson ED. D.. Need for National identity. 2019.

5. Sikevich Z.V., Skvortsov N.G. The ratio of national and ethnic identity of youth on the example of St. Petersburg. 2020. 15 p.

Korolkov K. A. 
On the issue of changes in the incoterms 2020

Korolkov K. A., 4th year student {Customs}
Scientific adviser: Arutyunyan D.D. Ph. D. (ELT Methods), associate professor
LEONOV Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The article provides a brief overview of the main aspects related to the new version of INCOTERMS 2020 in connection with the expected significant changes. Conditions and reasons leading to amendments to be made to help participants in foreign economic activity to choose appropriate delivery terms, are analyzed. Comparison of the new version with the previous one is given.

Key words: INCOTERMS, foreign economic activity, international delivery rules


International trade rules INCOTERMS were developed for the harmonization and unification of the trade practices around the world. The scope of the international rules of INCOTERMS includes only some aspects of a trade deal, these rules not regulating the types and terms of payment for the delivered goods, the transfer of ownership rights, and others.

The INCOTERMS rules apply primarily to the mode of transport by which the goods will be transported from the sender to the consignee; оn the distribution of risks between counterparties and the moments of their transition from one participant of the trade deal to another; to the distribution of obligations directly between the seller and the buyer, which are associated with the delivery of goods, and other aspects.

At the end of 2019, the project of the new INCOTERMS 2020 was presented for review. The terms of delivery Ex Works (EXW) were expected to be removed from the upcoming edition, in spite of the fact that they are often used by organizations with a small foreign trade turnover. The reason was the contradiction of the EXW terms with the customs legislation of the European Union, according to which the export customs clearance of goods is the duty of the exporter, for which he is responsible [1].

It was also assumed that the term Free Alongside Ship (FAS) would be removed from INCOTERMS 2020. This decision is due to the fact that in term FAS the seller places the goods along the ship, and the risks from it pass to the buyer after signing the bill of lading, and if the ship arrived at the port before the schedule, the seller was not able to transfer the goods on time, which happened quite often, and this led to the cancellation of delivery and losses of the seller. And if the cargo flight was delayed, then the losses associated with storage were already incurred by the buyer [1].

In the new edition of 2020, the term Free Carrier (FCA) was to be divided into two: one would be used for land transportation, and the second one for delivery in containers by sea [1].

By analogy, the Delivered Duty Paid (DDP) was to be changed to «delivery to the terminal with payment of duties» and «delivery to the destination with payment of duties». That is, under these terms, the risks from the seller to the buyer would pass in the first case after the delivery of the cargo to the agreed terminal, and in the second case after the delivery of the cargo to the address. And in this regard, it was expected to rename Delivered At Terminal (DAT) to Delivered Named Place Unloaded (DPU) [1].

Changes were also expected in such terms as Free On Board and Cost Insurance And Freight. These terms are used when placing goods on board the ship in bulk or in packaging, but not in a container. It was assumed that FOB and CIF would be applicable for the transport of goods in containers, which would make these terms more relevant, because about 80% of international trade is carried out through container transport [1].

And the main innovation was to be a new delivery basis — Cost and Insurance, which would allow the seller to be responsible for international cargo insurance [1].

However, at first sight, the new INCOTERMS 2020 did not bring global changes: no new terms were added or removed, but one term was renamed. As expected, DAT turned into a DPU, for which there were several reasons.

The first reason is the confusion caused by the difference between Delivered at Terminal and Delivered at Place. Their main difference is that in accordance with DAT, delivery is carried out after the goods have been unloaded from the vehicle and provided to the buyer at the terminal, and in the term DAP, delivery is carried out before the goods are unloaded, when they are provided to the buyer on the arrived vehicle ready for unloading [2].

The second reason is the possibility of providing more flexibility in determining the place of delivery of the goods. Otherwise, the DAT and DPU are the same.

The term «Carriage and Insurance Paid to» in INCOTERMS 2020 now requires the seller to insure goods against all risks at least 110% of the cost of goods, but counterparties can also agree about lower insurance [2].

INCOTERMS 2010 was created with the condition that the transport of goods will be carried out by a third-party carrier. But in fact, it was not always required if the seller or buyer used their own transport, which is provided for in the new version of INCOTERMS.

All expenses associated with the various terms of delivery are now listed in the corresponding articles A9 and B9 «expenses allocation», so that the seller and buyer know more exactly what they are responsible for [2].

The new version of INCOTERMS 2020 provides a more precise explanation of which side of the deal assumes responsibility for customs clearance and the costs incurred in this regard.

It is worth noting the new norm — this is the safety of transport, according to the new rules, for example, it is necessary to check containers.

Also, INCOTERMS now requires the seller to perform any formalities related to the security of formalities during export processing, if such an opportunity exists, and to assist the buyer in obtaining any documents that will be needed during customs clearance [2].

And in the conclusion of the analysis of the new version of trading rules, it is worth noting that at the end of each delivery term there are now «explanatory notes», which contain detailed information about the specific basis of delivery, for example, when a delivery term can be used, at what point the risks pass, how the costs associated with the delivery are distributed. This was introduced in order to help participants in foreign economic activity to choose the most accurate and correct delivery term for their deal [2].

To sum up, we can conclude that INCOTERMS 2020 looks similar to the 2010 version. No bases were removed from it and no new ones were added. The new version of the international rules is rather a clarifying version of the previous version of 2010.

References:


1. Каких изменений ждать в INCOTERMS 2020. URL: https://www.alta.ru/expert_opinion/71010/ (date of request 18.01.2021)

2. Новые правила Инкотермс 2020. URL: https://www.alta.ru/expert_opinion/73746/ (date of request 18.01.2021)

Kuzemina P.O. 
The role of electronic declaration in improving the customs control in relation to goods transported by road

Kuzemina P.O., 3rd year student {Customs}
Scientific adviser: Kyuregyan M.P., Senior Lecturer
LEONOV Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

This article is devoted to the disclosure of the advantages of the widespread introduction of electronic declaration in the territory of the Eurasian Economic Union, as well as the impact of these advantages on the customs control of goods transported by road.

Key words: electronic declaration, CED, road transport.


International transportation by road transport is quite widespread. Carrying out customs control in relation to this type of transport, as well as the goods transported by it, pursues several main goals:

1. Identification of vehicles used to hide goods from customs clearance and control, suppression of these actions of carriers who move goods by road.

2. Verification of the compliance of documents submitted to the customs authorities for goods transported by road transport, the conditions for observing prohibitions and restrictions on foreign economic activity, and non-tariff regulation measures.

3. Control of the vehicle’s compliance with technical requirements for the delivery of goods under customs control.

To improve the process of customs control in relation to goods transported through the customs border, since 2012, the Federal Customs Service of Russia is gradually introducing ubiquitous electronic declaration. This term refers to the electronic submission of documents and information about the transported goods to the customs authorities [3].

The concept for the introduction of electronic declaration is the creation of electronic customs and their subordinate centers for electronic declaration (ECD). In accordance with such a plan, the customs of actual destination and the customs posts subordinate to them (that is, those places where the goods are actually located) will carry out actual control of goods and vehicles, and the duties of electronic customs and CEDs will include electronic declaration of goods in transit and the implementation of documentary control.

According to Ruslan Davydov, the first deputy head of the FCS of Russia, the declaration submitted in electronic form must enter the system of customs authorities and be dispatched depending on one or another category of goods being transported [4].

According to this reform, the electronic customs office or the electronic declaration center checks the data specified in the declaration using an RMS (risk management system) with artificial intelligence elements, selects the object of customs control and forms commands for the officials of the customs authorities of actual control (about checking the weight of the cargo, requesting necessary documents, customs inspection, inspection, etc.), and transmits them via the Internet [4].

Significant advantages of the electronic declaration system for both road and other types of transport of goods being moved are:

1. Reducing the time spent on customs operations with transported goods.

2. Automation of the process of checking the completion of the customs declaration and the information specified in it for compliance with the necessary requirements.

3. Lack of authority to make decisions on the release of goods by the customs inspector in order to minimize the risks associated with corruption in the customs authorities.

4. Reducing the costs of foreign trade participants associated with the logistics of supplies, as well as the time of delivery of goods to their recipients.

The use of electronic declaration allows for auto-registration and auto-release of goods.

Auto-registration of goods being moved means automatic registration of a goods declaration without the participation of DL TO. At the moment, the average auto-registration time in Russia is 20—40 seconds.

The automatic release of goods is carried out by the TO information system in relation to customs declarations filed by participants in foreign economic activity with a low level of risk, on average in 4—5 minutes. According to Ruslan Davydov, about 10.5 thousand companies out of 110 thousand participants in foreign economic activity belong to a low level of risk, which is about 10% of the total [2].

Thus, thanks to the use of electronic declaration, customs control in relation to goods transported by road transport has been sufficiently simplified due to a significant reduction in the time of customs operations related to the submission and verification of documents and information on goods, vehicles (cars, trucks car), ensuring the objectivity of the so-called control, its acceleration for those carriers that are classified as low-risk, as well as reducing the delivery time of the transported goods to their recipients.

References:

1. Decision of the Board of the Eurasian Economic Commission of 12/19/2017 N 188 (as amended on 01/28/2020) «On some issues related to the release of goods.»

2. Ruslan Davydov’s interview on the digital development of customs: [electronic resource]. URL: https://customs.gov.ru/press/aktual-no/document/228587 (date of access: 22.03.2021).

3. Regional centers for electronic declaration: [electronic resource]. URL: https://tamliga.ru/blog/ediniy_CED/ (date of access: 24.03.2021).

Kupriyanov R.V. 
Analysis of customs examinations in the activities of the Federal Customs Service of Russia

Kupriyanov R.V., 3rd year student {Customs}
Scientific adviser: Vinichenko N.V., Senior Lecturer
LEONOV Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

This article examines the activities of the customs authorities to conduct customs examinations. The indicators of customs examinations for 2016—2018 are compared. The main problems in the conduct of customs examinations are identified.

Key words: customs examinations, goods, counterfeit products.


The Institute of Customs Expertise as an independent area of activity of specialized divisions of the customs authorities of Russia has existed for about 30 years. At the initial stage, the Central Customs Laboratory was created, in subsequent years — a network of customs expert units — regional customs laboratories, which in the process of its development underwent a number of administrative transformations. Currently, this work is headed by the Central Expert and Forensic Customs Directorate (CECTU). CECTU is a specialized regional customs department that carries out forensic, research, and scientific and methodological activities.

Officials of the CECTU of Russia are endowed with the functions of customs administration through customs control and customs operations, including examination and research.

Experts of CECTU annually inspect more than 1 million 200 thousand objects. In 2018, 39996 examinations and studies were performed, including: customs examinations and studies were carried out by 7.5% less than in 2017; examinations in the framework of the proceedings on the AP by 5.2% more than in 2017; examinations in criminal cases by 15.5% more than in 2017, etc. (tab. 1)

Table 1. Number of examinations carried out by customs authorities in 2016—2018

As follows from Table 1, in 2018, an increase was noted for all types of expert work. The main attention of the customs authorities was directed to consumer goods, in connection with which forensic examination, commodity, chemical, examination of information objects and examination of intellectual property objects prevail in the structure of examinations and research.

It should be noted that annually, based on the results of customs examinations, at least 1 billion rubles are additionally transferred to the federal budget.

In 2018, an additional 3.5 billion rubles were transferred to the budget.

According to the Federal Customs Service of Russia, 80% of world trade falls on goods that are objects of intellectual property. Their originality is quite difficult to distinguish from counterfeit, and therefore, a customs examination is carried out (Table 2)

Table 2. Main indicators of the activities of customs authorities for the protection of intellectual property

From Table 2 it follows that the volume of counterfeit products is growing annually (in 2018 more than in 2017 by 6.5%), the amount of prevented damage to copyright holders in 2018 doubled, according to the facts revealed, cases were opened under the Administrative Code by 17, 1% more than in 2017

Most of the intellectual property rights were violated by manufacturers of shoes imported from China. Having analyzed the practice of considering cases by arbitration courts, the most common trademarks that have come under the attention of unscrupulous manufacturers are the trademarks ADIDAS, LANGPAI, TRIOSHOES, DAGENI, NIKE.

Trademarks are usually applied to a product by the seller and not by the manufacturer. The trademark tells the consumer that it is the original, although in fact it may be a fake. And, only, specialists of the customs authorities, based on the determination that the goods are counterfeit, that the goods do not meet certain criteria: the color of the letters, the font, the size of the letters, their location, the presence of small parts and their quantity, can determine this. In addition, all trademarks are registered in the register of intellectual property of the Federal Customs Service of Russia, where the details of the original analogs are indicated.

There are other problems as well. The ineffective functioning of the expert system is evidenced by the growth of expert opinions, which are misleading and are the subject of litigation with participants in foreign economic activity. The procedure for the appointment of customs examinations has not been regulated, the dissatisfaction of participants in foreign economic activity in connection with the violation of the terms of the customs examination is growing.

In customs practice, it is practiced to attract other (non-governmental) expert organizations, which leads to the development of a market for expert services for customs purposes. The emerging market for expert services has not been regulated; it is necessary to improve the quality of the services provided. It is obvious that expert organizations (state and non-state) should use a single methodological and methodological base to conduct examinations on the single territory of the EAEU.

Thus, in order to improve the quality of examinations and studies carried out by the customs authorities, it is necessary to avoid unjustified delays or costs for participants in foreign economic activity in connection with:

— close cooperation in carrying out examinations, especially when it comes to the exchange of information;

— using modern information technologies and tools when conducting express exams;

— highly specialized forensic equipment;

— advanced training of specialists of customs authorities.

Practice shows that the creation of an organized market of expert services is equally necessary for both customs authorities and participants in foreign economic activity, since customs expertise affects the development of the economy as a whole, by importing high-quality, original goods into the customs territory.

There are several problems during customs examinations.

The first among them is the inability of a significant number of customs officials to correctly determine the range of issues that need to be established in a specific case when assigning customs examinations and research for customs purposes. As practice shows, it is not uncommon for customs officials, when deciding on the appointment of a customs examination, to ask an expert question, the answers to which require significant time expenditures and special knowledge, but at the same time do not affect the code declared in the declaration for goods (according to TN EAEU) and do not solve other practical problems facing the customs authorities. The so-called «unnecessary» questions distract the customs expert from conducting other (in the queue) examinations, which are important from the point of view of the customs authority’s performance of the established performance indicators.

Since 1999, systematic work has been carried out to form a list of standard questions to be asked to an expert when assigning examinations and studies for customs purposes (for priority groups of goods), since then this «questionnaire» has been repeatedly edited and supplemented. In the scientific and educational literature, questions have been repeatedly raised about the need to update methodological recommendations for posing questions to an expert. But even the best guidelines will be useless if not applied. Proceeding from this, it would be advisable to introduce appropriate training for officials of the customs authorities, who are authorized to appoint expert examinations.

Another important problem is the delay in updating ineffective risks. For example, the appointment in accordance with the current mandatory risk profiles of customs examinations for a number of goods (dental materials, implants, medical diagnostic equipment, etc.) is persistently ineffective. As practice shows, as a result of the performance of such examinations by the customs authority, which made a decision on the appointment of a customs examination, the declared product code for the EAEU nomenclature of goods subject to foreign economic activity, declared in column 31 of the DT, is confirmed. In this case, there are no additional charges to the budget (according to information from feedback certificates received from the customs authority that made a decision on the appointment of a customs examination), cases of administrative offenses are not initiated, that is, the result of the customs examination carried out at CECTU in monetary terms is zero and hence the customs experts are working for the «trash can». Information on such ineffective examinations is systematically analyzed in CECTU and communicated to the customs authorities in order to update such ineffective risk profiles with the aim of canceling them.

The third problem in the interaction of customs authorities with CECTU is the cases of non-fulfillment by the customs authorities of certain provisions of the order of the Federal Customs Service of Russia No. 2264 dated November 20, 2014, which determines the procedure for sampling (samples) for customs examination and the timing of its implementation. During their practical activities, forensic units are faced with violations committed in the selection of samples (samples) of goods by the decision to appoint a customs examination of the CED and non-observance of the deadline for transferring materials and research objects to CECTU for the production of examinations. Speaking about this, it is necessary to note the reasons of an objective and subjective nature.

Objectives include the difficulties of practical implementation and operation of new advanced technologies in the implementation of customs control, the need to modernize the existing software products AIS «AIST-M» and AIS «DB» Expertise», the remoteness of many CEDs from the customs authorities of actual control, where the goods are directly located. A subjective factor is the inability or unwillingness of a number of customs officials to adapt to work in the new conditions. Each of these factors affects the timing and quality of the examinations performed.

And the fourth point, which I would like to dwell on, is the incomplete execution by some customs authorities of certain provisions of the order of the Federal Customs Service of Russia dated January 17, 2014 No. 62, which determines the procedure for informing based on the results of the examination, in part concerning the timeliness of informing CECTU. In particular, there are cases of untimely provision of feedback certificates by the customs authorities that have made a decision on the appointment of a customs examination and received an expert opinion. Untimely receipt of information on the measures taken based on its results (the number of additional charges, fines, the number of initiated cases of administrative offenses) from the customs authorities that made a decision on the appointment of a customs examination from the customs authorities that made a decision on the appointment of a customs examination, significantly affects the final indicators of the activity of CECTU. Violation by the customs authorities of the deadlines for submitting feedback certificates, in addition, reduces the quality of reporting information provided by CECTU to the Federal Customs Service of Russia, which does not assess the effectiveness of the work actually performed by the forensic departments, in particular, on the additional accrual of funds to the budget.

On this issue, the leadership of the forensic services of the CECTU conducts explanatory work with the customs authorities, this problem is voiced at operational meetings and working meetings in the customs authorities by the heads of the structural divisions of the CECTU. In my opinion, it would be advisable to provide for the possibility of bringing to disciplinary responsibility the officials of the customs authorities responsible for the timely provision of the specified reporting information to CECTU.

References:

1) Текст научной статьи по специальности «Таможенное дело» «Анализ проведения таможенных экспертиз в деятельности ФТС России» М. В. Непарко, В. Ю. Адаменко 2019 г

2) Официальный сайт ФТС России. — [Электронный ресурс] — Режим доступа: http://www.customs.gov.ru

3) Текст научной статьи по специальности «Право» «Экспертное обеспечение таможенных органов: состояние и проблемы» Воробьев И. И. 2019 г.

Кюрегян Е. А. 
Потеря самобытности России в лингвистическом и историческом аспекте

Кюрегян Е. А., ученица 10 класса
Научный руководитель: Трифонова Н. Г., учитель русского языка и литературы
МБОУ Гимназия №3 им. Л. П. Данилиной, г. Королёв, Россия

Статья посвящена изучению проблемы потери самобытности России. Предметом исследования является русский язык и история нашей страны. Автор изучает причины этого процесса, выявляет способы решения данной проблемы. Осознание существующей проблемы поможет вернуть утраченное, сохранить уникальность родной речи и восстановить нашу богатую историю. В статье представлены результаты социологических исследований, проведенных автором и подтверждающие его гипотезы.

Ключевые слова: Русский язык, история, люди.


В современном мире, когда СМИ стали мощнейшим оружием, наполняемость русского языка и отношение к нему вызывают беспокойство [5]. Речевая безграмотность, использование слов-варваризмов, неоправданные заимствования приводят к потере самобытности и внутренней культуры языка. Забота о родном языке помогает сохранить целостность государства, а отсутствие таковой ведёт к необратимым последствиям. Очевидно, что носитель языка должен большое внимание уделять богатству, которым он пользуется и жизнь без которого невозможна.

Русский язык, ввиду особенностей богатой истории России, формировался под влиянием многих факторов: татаро-монгольское нашествие, Петровское окно в Европу и многих других. К сожалению, становление современного языка было предопределено намеренными вмешательствами, как и Петром I, так и последующими правителями и лингвистами. Безусловно, неоправданные заимствования также повлияли на чистоту и самобытность нашего родного языка.

Главные проблемы в лингвистическом аспекте

Начнем с важнейшего социального института, отвечающего за становление личности — школа. В российских школах изучению русского языка выделяют меньшее количество времени, нежели иностранным языкам. За время обучения в российских образовательных учреждениях дети изучают родной язык в течение 866 часов, а иностранные — 939 часов. А в старших классах ученики изучают русский язык только 2 часа в неделю.

Современные лингвистические тенденции способствуют упрощению русского литературного языка. Таким образом, русский язык деградирует, как на образовательном уровне, так и в разговорной речи. Русские слова искусственно подменяются и вытесняются иноязычными неологизмами, сленгом, жаргонами.

Факторы, оказавшие влияние на язык

Татаро-монгольское нашествие и его влияние на русский язык

Длительное бремя татаро-монгольского ига, под которым находилась Русь, неизбежно привело к изменениям русского языка. Даже привычный русскому слуху боевой клич «Ура!» тоже пришёл к нам из тюркской языковой группы: слово «урагша» из монгольского языка в переводе означает «вперед» [4]. А уже в русской языковой культуре оно видоизменилось до яркого клича. Большое количество пословиц и поговорок, надолго вошедших в русскую речь, зачастую являются лишь удачными переводами с татарского языка. Например, «Дарёному коню в зубы не смотрят», «Собака лает — караван идёт» — это не русские поговорки, это наследие культуры монголов.

Петровское «окно в Европу»

В 1710 году вышел указ Петра I «О введении новой гражданской азбуки». Большое количество букв упраздняется, их внешний вид становится более легким для написания и чтения. В алфавит введена новая буква Э. Русский язык эпохи Петра I собрал в себе множество немецких, английских, голландских, французских заимствований (батальон, брешь, галоп, алгебра, анатомия). Были устранены буквы старославянского кирилловского алфавита, которые казались лишними: буквы «кси», «пси», малый и большой «юсы». Однако современные историки языка О. М. Мирошниченко [2], Р. Ф. Брандт, М. В. Панов и другие не согласны с позицией реформаторов 18 века. Они считают, что такой подход к языку влечёт за собой не упрощение, а потерю богатства, созданного когда-то предками русского человека. Например, буква «омега» означает созидание, «кси» — дух, а «пси» — душа [1].

Англицизмы

Англицизм — это заимствование слова из английского языка, в нашем случае в русский. Конечно, любой живой язык не может существовать отдельно от современного общества, он должен развиваться. Естественное заимствование слов — абсолютно нормальный процесс в языкознании, и сложно найти язык, полностью очищенный от любых иностранных влияний. Значительная доля заимствований гармонично ассимилировалась в нашем родном языке, и они не воспринимаются как чужие (мэр, пудинг, радио, президент, сэндвич, футбол и т.д.).

Рассматривая проблему заимствований, англицизмы, вошедшие в русский язык, можно разделить на два вида: оправданные и неоправданные заимствования. Нам же более важно остановиться на втором понятии, т.к. первое вполне нормальное явление для живого языка. Неоправданное заимствование или слово-варваризм — слово, закрепившееся в языке, но уже имеющее синоним для его определения. Например: менеджер (управляющий), тинейджер (подросток), презент (подарок). Некоторые люди используют «лишние» англицизмы с целью показаться внушительнее, эрудированнее, другие — слепо следуют «лингвистической моде», не обращая внимания на необходимость употребления определенных слов. Каждому человеку, уважительно относящемуся к своему родному языку, нужно грамотно употреблять иностранные слова. Использование неоправданных заимствований приводит к засорению языка и потере его самобытности.

Потеря самобытности России в историческом аспекте

Искажение истории происходит повсеместно. Причин этому немало. Безусловно, в основе политика. Ф. И. Достоевский писал: «Кто проклянёт своё прежнее, тот уже наш» [6]. История искажается с целью поработить другие страны. В современном мире война между мировыми державами идёт без применения ядерного, огнестрельного оружия, но это не значит, что её нет. Лиши человека его прошлого, и у него не будет будущего. Нацию без Отечества, без истории легко уничтожить. Это касается каждого из нас.

Историческая память

Историческая память — понятие, относящееся ко всему обществу в целом. В нашем случае к русскому народу. Ее суть в сохранении исторического опыта определённой нации. В современных реалиях проблема потери исторической памяти народа стоит особо остро. Люди должны осознать всю важность проблемы переписывания исторических событий, которая и является одной из основных причин потери исторических знаний русского народа. Тенденции по искажению исторических данных должны быть преданы огласке, так как мы рискуем потерять нашу богатую, пропитанную болью, историю. Сохранение исторической памяти — важнейшая задача общества, которое хочет сохранить своё национальное достоинство и память своих предков.

Приведу пример. Россия забыла о Первой Мировой войне, хотя потери превышали 3 миллиона человек. Эта война ушла в тень Великой Отечественной и Наполеоновской войны. В западных странах Первая Мировая война называется Великой, а в России многие даже не знают воюющие стороны. Историки утверждают, что такая ситуация вызвана тем, что Первая Мировая Война произошла в переломный для нашей страны период: между окончанием царской власти и началом большевистского правления. И большевики, желающие заслонить все успехи царской власти, сделали все, чтобы Первая Мировая война была забыта [7]. Позже сам Сталин возьмет под личный контроль разработку новых учебников 1920-30-х годов по истории России.

Мы провели опрос среди людей разных возрастов: начиная от своих одноклассников и заканчивая родителями. Это было сделано с целью отметить общий результат, указать на общие знания русских людей. Опрос показал, что почти половина респондентов не знает даже, что послужило причиной Первой мировой войны (Убийство Франца-Фердинанда). Соответственно, можно сделать вывод, что русские люди потеряли историческую память о Первой мировой войне. Жертвы, герои, ужасы этой войны были забыты.

Рисунок 1. Результаты опроса: Что послужило причиной начала Первой мировой войны?

Если углубиться в прошлое, то можно проследить, где исторические знания русских начали искажаться. В Петербургской Академии наук, в наиболее значимом учреждении страны, из 13 главных ученых 9 были немецкого происхождения, которых пригласили для передачи опыта в нашу страну. Безусловно, в данном соотношении есть разумность. Иностранцы могли поделиться с нами свои богатым опытом, научить нас наукам. Но, если вдуматься, то фундамент русской истории составляли прибывшие из Европы, плохо говорящие по-русски, но быстро становившиеся знатоками русской истории учёные.

Получается, что иностранные академики выдвигали исследования, доказывающие, что «восточные славяне в веках были сущими дикарями, спасенными из тьмы невежества варяжскими князьями». Готлиб Зигфрид Байер представил норманнскую теорию происхождения государства на Руси. Согласно его исследованиям «прибывшая на Русь кучка норманнов за несколько лет превратила „темную страну“ в могучее государство».

Михаил Васильевич Ломоносов был непримиримым борцом против переписывания нашей истории. Он часто конфликтовал с западными коллегами из Академии наук. Однажды он даже устроил драку, на которую его сподвигла эта несправедливость. Императрица Елизавета Петровна признала Ломоносова виновным, он получал меньшее жалованье и извинялся перед профессорами, которых он оскорбил.

Нормандскую теорию поддержали Романовы, которые были немцами по происхождению. И что мы имеем на данный момент. Нормандская теория, выдвинутая учёным из Германии, является основной и по сей день. Проведя опрос среди респондентов разных возрастов, мы сделали вывод, что многие люди даже не знают, кто принес государственность на Русь. Эта теория изучена недостаточно, чтобы можно было преподносить ее как основную. У людей происходит путаница. Таким образом, русские люди не имеют достоверных знаний на этот счет, и у них складывается искаженная картина действительности.

Рисунок 2. Результаты опроса: Кто зародил государственность на Руси?

Таким образом, история России требует углубленного изучения, а потеря исторической памяти народа является реальной проблемой современности.

Серьезные лингвистические реформы и ложная трактовка истории России привели к утрате национальной особенности нашей страны.

Светлана Рябцева в книге «Правда о русском слове» писала: «И если уже в течение трёх столетий идет настоящая война с русским языком, когда в ход пускаются все средства: обман, хитрость, оружие, — значит, русский язык имеет величайшую ценность, о которой мы не знаем».

Литература:

1. Майданцев Г. А. Буквица: Пособие по изучению азов Древнеславянского и Древнерусского языков/ Г. А. Майданцев. — Краснодар: Майдан, 2011. — 56с.: ил.

2. Мирошниченко О. Ф. Кому мешает русский алфавит. Тайны русского алфавита. Книга 2. — М.: Белые альвы, 2013. — 208с.: ил.

3. https://clck.ru/SQ79i — Cлoвapь тюpкизмoв в Pуccкoм языкe

4. https://topwar.ru/page,1,2,76479-sohranenie-russkogo-yazyka-eto-sohranenie-russkogo-ya.html — Статья «Сохранение русского языка — это сохранение русского „я“»

5. http://croquis.ru/2226.html — Ф.М.Достоевский «Дневник писателя»

6. https://www.epochtimes.ru/kak-i-pochemu-rossiya-zabyla-o-velikoj-vojne-98930503/ — Статья «Как и почему Россия забыла о Великой войне»

Marchenko A.A., Pavlova A.V. 
Financial overview of the precious metals market

Marchenko A.A., 2nd year student {Economic}
Pavlova A.V., 2nd year student {Economic}
Scientific adviser: Atrokhin A.M., PhD {Philology}, associate professor
LEONOV Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

Amid the instability of the situation caused by the coronavirus, the weakening of the dollar forced people to look for alternative ways to invest money, which led to a rise in the price of precious metals. Let’s turn to precious metals: gold, silver, platinum and palladium. This is the most interesting sector in terms of changes in the current state of the economy and the interest of investors.

Key words: modern problem, health, harm, market


Gold

In December 2020 — February 2021, gold began to fall alternately compared to last year. Recall that the peak price per ounce occurred in July-August 2020. Due to the popularity of 2020, investors clearly began to look for alternatives to gold, which led to a decrease in its price.

Those who prefer physical and «paper» (ETF) gold to all other types of assets have clearly changed their priorities. Demand for gold is declining.

Moreover, it is worth paying attention to interest rates in the United States, which are kept at a low level, thereby stimulating the growth of gold prices. The fed’s effective federal funds rate (rate providing short-term loans at the expense of «excess» reserves) continues to decrease and is kept at an extremely low range of 0—0. 25%.

The fed’s low interest rates are not attractive, which supports interest in gold.

Expected inflation in the US may also serve to «warm up» interest in gold in the longer term. The stimulus package in the US will not only «pump up» the economy with liquidity. You can also expect that some of this money will clearly land in the gold sector. That is, a «running printing press» can «fuel» the gold market even more in the long run.

Silver

Silver is gaining popularity, while the «gold» market is oversaturated.

In other words, investors consider gold overvalued and look for similar types of investments at a «fairer» price. Then silver, silver coins and bullion come into play. But keep in mind that silver is more volatile than gold, meaning that the price of silver can change more abruptly.

The value and significance of silver is measured by the ratio of gold to silver (GSR index), that is, the relative value of the number of ounces of silver required to purchase one ounce of gold.

While in March 2020, silver depreciated to a record high of 123.8 ounces of silver to gold, even now this ratio indicates the growing importance of silver and investor confidence in this metal.

From an economic point of view, the increase in the price of silver can also be explained by the growing industrial demand for silver as the economy «recovers», as well as limited supply due to interruptions in the operation of mines.

Platinum

A very interesting metal for investment is platinum. The dynamics of the global platinum spot market shows a price collapse in March 2020 and a recovery to the pre-crisis level in August 2020. Since then, the price has been steadily and statically rising (for example, XPT / USD). Platinum quotes can be traced on the world’s largest exchanges and online platforms, which, unlike gold and silver, represent the ratio of ounces to currency (for example, to the dollar).

It is worth noting that platinum is widely used in medical equipment and medicine in General, including antibiotics used in the treatment of some patients with COVID-19. This is very relevant for 2020—2021.

Moreover, platinum serves as an important diversifier in the investment portfolio, given the sudden rise in demand for other precious metals and the collapse of other capital markets.

Palladium

Palladium does not have a monetary function, unlike gold, silver and platinum. That is, Central banks do not use or store it as «emergency money» to cover international obligations. It is used in industry. For example, palladium is used in the production of hybrid cars, the demand for which is constantly growing and exceeds electric cars.

The price of palladium is measured in ounces to the dollar. Due to the coronavirus, the price of palladium fell in March 2020, but recovered quickly enough. Since then, it has remained at the same level.

The peculiarity of palladium is that it is not characterized by high price fluctuations, as, for example, for other precious metals — gold or silver.

Conclusion:

Thus, the prices of precious metals such as gold, silver and platinum are inversely proportional to the development of the financial system. An increase in prices for these precious metals is a fairly clear signal of inflation. But this does not work with palladium — the price of palladium, on the contrary, falls during times of economic downturn.

If we compare these precious metals, we can see from the historical charts that gold is a truly crisis metal. It better compensates for the loss of financial assets during turbulence.

References:

1. Adrangi, B., Chatrath, A., and Christie-David, R. A. (2000). Price discovery in strategically-linked markets: the case of the gold-silver spread. Applied Financial Economics, 10 (January):227–234.

2. Adrangi, B., Chatrath, A., Christie-David, R. A., Miao, H., and Ramchander, S. (2015). Stock-Versus-Flow Distinctions, Information, and the Role of Inventory. Journal of Futures Markets, 35 (11):1003–1025.

3. Adrangi, B., Chatrath, A., and Raffiee, K. (2003). Economic Activity, Inflation, and Hedging: The Case of Gold and Silver Investments. The Journal of Wealth Management, 6 (2):60–77.

4. Belousova, J. and Dorfleitner, G. (2012). On the diversification benefits of commodities from the perspective of euro investors. Journal of Banking& Finance, 36 (9):2455–2472.

5. Bhar, R. and Hammoudeh, S. M. (2011). Commodities and financial variables: Analyzing relationships in a changing regime environment. International Review of Economics and Finance, 20 (4):469–484.

6. Bildirici, M. E. and T¨urkmen, C. (2015a). Nonlinear causality between oil and precious metals. Resources Policy, 46 (2):202–211.

7. Fernandez, V. (2017). Some facts on the platinum-group elements. International Review of Financial Analysis, Forthcomin:1–38.

Мaхмeт Д. К. 
Ocoбeннocти coциaлизaции пoдpocткoв

Мaхмeт Д. К., магистрант {Пeдaгoгикa и психoлoгия}
Научный руководитель: Иргeбaeвa Н. М., кандидат педагогических наук, доцент
Унивeрситeт «Турaн-Aстaнa», г. Нур-Султaн, Казахстан

В cтaтьe paccмaтpивaютcя вaжнocть coциaлизaции пoдpocткoв. Пpoблeмa coциaлизaции пoдpocткoв в oбщecтвe — aктуaльнaя пpoблeмa. Движущeй cилoй paзвития нaшeгo oбщecтвa мoжeт cтaть тoлькo культуpнaя, oбpaзoвaннaя мoлoдeжь, гoтoвaя к любым измeнeниям в пepиoд глoбaлизaции, выpaбoтaвшaя coбcтвeнную этику и пpивычки. Пpoцecc cтaнoвлeния личнocти являeтcя вaжнeйшим уcлoвиeм уcтoйчивoгo coциaльнoгo paзвития. Пoэтoму пpoблeмa coциaлизaции пoдpocткoв и мoлoдeжи, являeтcя нa ceгoдняшний дeнь чpeзвычaйнo aктуaльнoй.

Ключeвыe cлoвa: пoдpocтки, coциaлизaция, пpoблeмa.


Coциaлизaция — пpoцecc пpeвpaщeния индивидa в личнocть, oвлaдeниe цeннocтями, нopмaми, мoдeлями пoвeдeния, пpиcущими кoнкpeтнoму oбщecтву, coциaльнoй гpуппe.

Coдepжaниeм пpoцecca coциaлизaции являeтcя cтaнoвлeниe и фopмиpoвaниe личнocти. Coциaлизaция пoдpaздeляeтcя нa пepвичную и втopичную. Пepвичнaя coциaлизaция oхвaтывaeт пepиoд oт poждeния дo фopмиpoвaния зpeлoй личнocти.

Втopичнaя coциaлизaция — пpoцecc paзвития coциaльнo зpeлoй личнocти, cвязaнный глaвным oбpaзoм c oвлaдeниeм пpoфeccии.

Coциaлизaция — этo, пo cути, путь paзвития чeлoвeчecкoй культуpы, opиeнтиpoвaннoй нa oвлaдeниe cвeтoм, пpeвpaщeниe чeлoвeкa в paвнoпpaвнoгo чeлoвeкa, нaкoпившeгo cвoи личнocтнo-пcихoлoгичecкиe cпeцифичecкиe кaчecтвa, a тaкжe coциaльнo знaчимыe кaчecтвa, знaния и умeния, пoзвoляющиe eму интeгpиpoвaтьcя в oбщecтвeнную жизнь. Пoэтoму coциaлизaция — этo пpoцecc диaлeктичecкoгo взaимoдeйcтвия индивидa c coциaльнoй cpeдoй, в хoдe кoтopoгo, c oднoй cтopoны, coзpeвaeт и пpoцвeтaeт ecтecтвeнный, пcихoлoгичecкий pocт чeлoвeкa, c дpугoй — oбщecтвo впитывaeт в ceбя coциaльнo знaчимыe кaчecтвa, пpиcущиe личнocти чepeз вocпитaниe, oбpaзoвaниe, cтpeмлeниe к культуpe [1,58].

Пpoблeмa coциaлизaции мoлoдeжи в oбщecтвe — aктуaльнaя пpoблeмa. Движущeй cилoй paзвития нaшeгo oбщecтвa мoжeт cтaть тoлькo культуpнaя, oбpaзoвaннaя мoлoдeжь, гoтoвaя к любым измeнeниям в пepиoд глoбaлизaции, выpaбoтaвшaя coбcтвeнную этику и пpивычки. Пpoцecc cтaнoвлeния личнocти являeтcя вaжнeйшим уcлoвиeм уcтoйчивoгo coциaльнoгo paзвития.

Coциaльнoe paзвитиe — oдин из ocнoвных видoв пocтeпeнных, мeдлeнных, cиcтeмaтичecких кoличecтвeнных и кaчecтвeнных измeнeний oбщecтвa в тeчeниe длитeльнoгo вpeмeни. Тaкжe мoжнo oтмeтить paзвитиe чeлoвeчecтвa, гocудapcтвa, культуpы.

Coциaлизaция — нeпpepывный пpoцecc, пpoдoлжaющийcя в тeчeниe вceй жизни. Coциaлизaция-пpoцecc пoлнoй интeгpaции личнocти в coциaльную cиcтeму c aдaптaциeй к культуpным, пcихoлoгичecким и coциaльным фaктopaм cpeды [6,54—57].

Aмepикaнcкий coциoлoг Ф. Г. Гиддинc в cвoeй книгe «Тeopия coциaлизaции» 1887 г. oбъяcняeт cуть этoгo пpoцecca кaк ««paзвитиe coциaльнoй пpиpoды или хapaктepa индивидa, пoдгoтoвкa чeлoвeчecкoгo мaтepиaлa к coциaльнoй жизни».

Нaучнoe пoнятиe тepминa «coциaлизaция» cтaлo иcпoльзoвaтьcя в Зaпaднoй филocoфcкo-пcихoлoгичecкoй литepaтуpe в 50-х гoдaх ХХ вeкa. Учeныe-иccлeдoвaтeли пpoблeмы coциoлoгии зa pубeжoм Э. Дюpкгeйм, Т. Пapcoнc, Д. Г. Мид, A. Инкeльc и т. д. В Poccии в нaчaлe ХХ вeкa выдaющиecя пeдaгoги C. Т. Шaцкий, A. C. Мaкapeнкo, П. П. Блoнcкий иccлeдoвaли пeдaгoгичecкую cущнocть coциaлизaции, пpoблeму взaимocвязи coциaлизaции и вocпитaния, a нaучнo-иccлeдoвaтeльcкую paбoту в этoм нaпpaвлeнии пpoвoдили В. A. Cлacтeнин, A. В. Мудpик, И. C. Кoн, A. В. Пeтpoвcкий, Г. М. Aндpeeвa.

Тaким oбpaзoм, cмыcл coциaлизaции oпpeдeляeтcя нa ocнoвe пpoцeccoв взaимoдeйcтвия c coциaльнoй cpeдoй, aдaптaции, caмopaзвития, пoлнoй peaлизaции cвoих вoзмoжнocтeй, caмocoвepшeнcтвoвaния.

Выдeляют пять ocнoвных cтaдий coциaлизaции. Кaждaя из них имeeт cвoи хapaктepныe ocoбeннocти.

1. Aдaптaция — пepиoд oт poждeния дo пoдpocткoвoгo вoзpacтa, oпpeдeляeмый уcвoeниeм нopм и цeннocтeй coциaльнoй жизни чepeз пoдpaжaниe и пpиcпocoблeниe к oкpужaющeй coциaльнoй дeйcтвитeльнocти.

2. Индивидуaлизaция — caмocтoятeльный выбop coциaльных жизнeнных нopм и цeннocтeй в пoдpocткoвый пepиoд. Пpoявляeтcя кpитичecкoe oтнoшeниe к oбщecтвeнным нopмaм, cтpeмлeниe выдeлить ceбя cpeди дpугих.

3. Интeгpaция — этaп, oпpeдeляeмый уcвoeниeм пpизнaкoв и ocoбeннocтeй личнocти в cooтвeтcтвии c ocoбeннocтями гpуппoвoгo и личнocтнoгo paзвития в юнoшecкoм вoзpacтe. Уcпeшнocть интeгpaции oпpeдeляeтcя cooтвeтcтвиeм ocнoвных кaчecтв личнocти oбщecтвeнным oжидaниям. Ecли oни coвпaдaют, тo интeгpaция пpoтeкaeт oтнocитeльнo уcпeшнo, ecли нeт, вoзмoжны cлeдующиe иcхoды:

— уcилeниe aгpeccивнocти личнocти пo oтнoшeнию к coциaльнoму oкpужeнию в цeлях coхpaнeния cвoeй нeпoвтopимocти;

— oткaз oт cвoeй индивидуaльнocти и нeпoвтopимocти, cтpeмлeниe cтaть тaким кaк вce;

— кoнфopмизм, внeшнee coглacиe c тpeбoвaниями coциaльнoгo oкpужeния, нo внутpeннee жeлaниe coхpaнять cвoю индивидуaльнocть.

4. Coциaлизaция чepeз тpуд — пepиoд oт юнoшecкoгo дo пoжилoгo вoзpacтa, кoгдa мoжнo тpудитьcя и пpинocить пoльзу oбщecтву cвoим тpудoм. Фaктичecки пepиoд тpудocпocoбнocти чeлoвeкa.

5. Пocлeтpудoвoй пepиoд — cтaдия пoжилoгo вoзpacтa. Пepиoд пepeдaчи тpудoвoгo и oбщecтвeннoгo oпытa пoдpacтaющeму пoкoлeнию [2,124].

Coциaлизaцию A. В. Мудpик тpaктуeт кaк зaнятиe и paзвитиe чeлoвeкoм cвoeгo мecтa в пpoцecce вocпpoизвoдcтвa и уcвoeния культуpы oбщecтвa нa пpoтяжeнии вceй eгo жизни.

A. В. Мудpик выдeлил тpи ocнoвных фaктopa coциaлизaции:

— мaкpoфaктopы (кocмoc, плaнeтa, миp, oбщecтвo, cтpaнa, гocудapcтвo);

— мeзoфaктopы (этнoc, peгиoнaльныe пoлoжeния, мecтoпoлoжeниe, инфopмaциoнныe cpeдcтвa);

— микpoфaктopы (микpocoциум, ceмья, инcтитуты вocпитaния, peлигиoзныe opгaнизaции) [4,96].

Пo мнeнию A. И. Кoвaлeвoй, coциaлизиpoвaннaя нopмa oтpaжaeт cлoжившийcя и упopядoчeнный coциaльный мeхaнизм интeгpaции индивидa в oбщecтвo, opиeнтиpуeт личнocтнoe paзвитиe c учeтoм вoзpacтнoгo и личнocтнoгo пcихoлoгичecкoгo хapaктepa чeлoвeкa.

A. И. Кoвaлeвa укaзывaeт нa тpи paзличных типa нopмы coциaлизaции: идeaльнaя, нopмaтивнaя, peaльнaя cитуaция.

Идeaльный тип нopмы coциaлизaции oпpeдeляeтcя oбщecтвeнными идeaлaми, нaпpaвлeнными нa личнocтнoe paзвитиe. Этo тип, дaлeкий oт peaльнoй cитуaции, нo пpиближeнный к нeй. Чacтo мaнифecт пoлитичecкиe пpoгpaммы и т. д. В дoкумeнтaх иcпoльзуeтcя coциaлизaция идeoлoгичecкoгo типa в идeoлoгичecких или вocпитaтeльных цeлях.

Нopмaтивнaя coциaлизaция укaзывaeт нa тo, кaким дoлжeн быть индивид, в cooтвeтcтвии c кoтopым coциaльныe инcтитуты oкaзывaют влияниe пo oбecпeчeнию интeгpaции индивидa в oбщecтвo.

Peaльнaя coциaлизaция-coвoкупнocть coциaлизaции людeй в oбщecтвe в peaльных уcлoвиях. Peaльнaя coциaлизaция cхoжa c нopмaтивным типoм, инoгдa вcтpeчaeтcя и пpoтивoпoлoжнocти. Этoт тип coциaлизaции мoжeт быть paзнoнaпpaвлeнным. Этo будeт влияниe oбъeктивных или cубъeктивных пpичин, тaких кaк пoлoжeниe чeлoвeкa в oбщecтвe, coциaльный cтaтуc и т. д. [3,229].

Пeдaгoги A.A. Бoдaлeв, Л. И. Нoвикoв, A. В. Мудpик, В. A. Кapaкoвcкий в кoнцeпции вocпитaния учaщeйcя мoлoдeжи в coвpeмeннoм oбщecтвe и Г. М. Aндpeeвa дaют cлeдующee oпpeдeлeниe coциaлизaции «coциaлизaция-этo двуcтopoнняя тeндeнция. C oднoй cтopoны, индивид уcвaивaeт oпыт, цeннocти, нopмы, пpинципы, cooтвeтcтвующиe oбщecтву, в кoтopoм живeт. A c дpугoй cтopoны — в пpoцecce coциaлизaции oн aктивнo учacтвуeт в фopмиpoвaнии cиcтeмы coциaльных oтнoшeний и coциaльнoгo oпытa».

Внe зaвиcимocти oт вoзpacтa, пoлa, мecтa житeльcтвa, нaциoнaльнocти, индивидуaльных ocoбeннocтeй чeлoвeк имeeт ocoбoe мecтo в пocтoяннoм oбщeнии c oбщecтвoм, являяcь чacтью этoгo oбщecтвa. Oтнoшeния в oбщecтвe peгулиpуютcя coвoкупнocтью цeннocтeй, диcциплинoй, oбычaями, этикoй и дpугими cpeдcтвaми.

Измeнeния в миpe зaтpaгивaют oбщecтвo, вce eгo cфepы и ocoбeннo пoдpacтaющee пoкoлeниe. Мoлoдeжь дoлжнa быть гoтoвa aдaптиpoвaтьcя к измeнeниям измeняющeгocя oбщecтвa. В cвязи c этим вoзникaют нoвыe бapьepы и к пpoблeмe coциaлизaции.

Нa paзных этaпaх жизни чeлoвeкa coциaлизaция имeeт cвoи cущecтвeнныe ocoбeннocти. Пpoцecc coциaлизaции пpoиcхoдит дeйcтвeннo и интeнcивнo в дeтcкoм и юнoшecкoм вoзpacтe. Пoдpocтки cтaлкивaютcя c paзличными пpeпятcтвиями в пepeхoдный пepиoд:

1. Пpoблeмa взaимooтнoшeний co cвepcтникaми. Нeмaлoвaжную poль игpaeт aвтopитeт пoдpocткoв в их cpeдe. Умeниe лaдить co cвepcтникaми, caмocтoятeльнo игpaть, выcкaзывaть cвoe мнeниe, увaжaть личнocть дpузeй, пpихoдить к oбщим peшeниям, coздaвaть уcлoвия для cвoбoднoгo вocпpиятия в oбщecтвe, фopмиpoвaния личнocти.

2. Oдинoчecтвo. Нeувepeннocть в ceбe, нeдooцeнивaниe coбcтвeнных вoзмoжнocтeй, нeдoвepиe к дpугим людям, cтpaх.

3. Нeдoпoнимaниe мeжду пoдpocткoм и взpocлыми. Нa этoм этaпe яpкo пpoявляeтcя cтpeмлeниe пoдpocткoв к caмocтoятeльнocти и зaщитe cвoих пpaв, пpoтивocтoяниe взpocлым и тpeбoвaниe oт взpocлых пoддepжки, увepeннocти, пpaвильнoй oцeнки cвoих дeйcтвий.

4. Пpoблeмa caмoпoзнaния. Cтpeмлeниe пoдpocткa к caмopeaлизaции тaкжe пoзвoляeт пpeoдoлeвaть пpeпятcтвия в пpoцecce coциaлизaции. [5,84]

Пpoблeмa coциaлизaции peшaeтcя тoлькo блaгoдapя, цeлeнaпpaвлeннoй paбoтe poдитeлeй, oбpaзoвaтeльных и oбщecтвeнных opгaнизaций. Пoэтoму в пpoцecce coциaлизaции пoдpocткoв oднoй из глaвных зaдaч oбpaзoвaтeльных учpeждeний в учeбнo-вocпитaтeльнoм пpoцecce являeтcя фopмиpoвaниe у личнocти oтнoшeния к жизни, кpитичecкoгo мышлeния в paзличных cитуaциях, caмooцeнки, cтpeмлeния к peшeнию пpoблeмы. Мы cчитaeм, чтo учacтиe oбщecтвa в coциaлизaции пoдpocткoв — дoлг кaждoгo чeлoвeкa, живущeгo в этoм oбщecтвe.

Литература:

1. Бaймукaнoв М. Т. coциaльнo-пeдaгoгичecкaя paбoтa c ceмьeй. Acтaнa -2005. — 58c.

2. Гиддингc Ф. Г. Тeopия coциaлизaции-М., 1887. 124c.

3. Кoвaлeвa A. И. Coциaлизaция личнocти: нopмa и oтклoнeниe. — М.: Гoлoc, 1996. — 229c.

4. Мудpик A. В. Coциaлизaция чeлoвeкa. — М., 2006. — 96c.

5. Мухинa В. A. «Вoзpacтнaя пcихoлoгия» yчeбн. пocoбиe, -М.: «Влaдoc», 2004. — 84c.

6. Тoлкoвый cлoвapь пeдaгoгики и пcихoлoгии, A.: «Мeктeп» — 2002г. C. 54—57.

Mirvaliyev B.D., Ospanov E.M. 
The role of computers in the life of students

Mirvaliyev B.D., 1st year student {Automation and Control}
Ospanov E.M., 1st year student {Automation and Control}
Scientific adviser: Nurlybay A.-B. M., Master of pedagogical science
L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian national university, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan

This article shows how young people play computer games, their interests and what famous people say. Currently, there are statistics on the percentage of people how play computer games, and instructions on how much time they spend. The research work is illustrated with diagrams and legendary sayings of celebrities.

Key words. 21 century, computer, educational game, animation, invention, useful promobile, books, GTA, Counter Strike, Need for Speed, Zuma, Clash of Clans, Pubg mobile.


In the 21st century, computer games have become people’s second friend. We think the advent of computer games has limited people’s ability to interact with society. The role of computer games in society in general, man has developed significantly to date. But computer games did not immediately spread in society. Gradually, it began to absorb. At first, most people are curious. But over time, it quickly entered the lives of young people. You may have a question? Why computer games over time for young people became the basis of life? Steve Jobs answered: «Originally, programmers-researchers invented the computer. Time passed. People’s interest was still low. Then they invented computer games. In time, they became the basis of young people’s lives, because games are interesting and different animations. Graphics poisoned the brains of young people. For example, the most popular computer games I know are:

GTA

Counter Strike

Need for speed

Zuma

Clash of Clans

Pubg mobile

These games are based on life, but murder and liquid weapons poison the brains of young people.

In general, one question worries us a lot. Are these computer games necessary for the lives of young people? We asked this question to our psychology teacher Akmaral Kabdylovna. He told me: I don’t think so. Because computer games are not good for young people, on the contrary, they are very harmful. That’s why I am against e-sports in Kazakhstan! Yes, I think that’s the point. Kazakhstan does not need e-sports, instead we need to invent new safe technologies and develop science! In this regard, I remembered the words of President Nursultan Nazarbayev: «The XXI century is new. The age of technology and science.» Yes, it is true. We, the youth, must move our country forward together, because the future of the country is in the hands of young people!

American millionaire Bill Gates said about computers: «Of course, my children will have a computer, but first they read a book.» Yes, that’s right. If young people can read a book and distinguish between black and white before using a computer, they will not be harmed by the computer.

[Computer games have many genres and sections. They can be useful and harmful, it depends on the person himself. Of course, cruel games remain the most popular, but there are also educational ones. Educational games are not in demand, so there are fewer of them. But those games that exist are very thoughtful and interesting. In our opinion, educational games are not popular because they do not interest young people. To create them, you need the right approach and a fresh look at the industry of educational games.]

We conducted a survey among students:

The first thing that opponents of computer games talk about is the danger of the formation of gambling addiction. Indeed, this is a rather serious mental disorder that requires the help of specialists. People who have become addicted to games in the virtual world live more than the real one, which becomes «dull» and uninteresting for them. In extreme cases, which are described in detail, the gambler loses his appetite and he may die of exhaustion. The most dangerous thing in such situations is that such an addiction develops unnoticed by others.

Conclusion: Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that computer games affect a person both positively and negatively. This is all, the influence on thinking, the way of life of a person. But if we delve deeper into the problem, we will see that computer games have a great influence on the health of students. In general, it is better to invent useful programs for young people than to invent a large number of low-quality games. To reduce the demand of young people for computer games. We goal in the future is to invent safe, easy-to-use computers. And we will work hard to achieve this goal! Friends, let’s spend a lot of time playing computer games, read books and get to know the world!

Referenses:

1. http://aprobacia.ru/rol-kompyuternyix-igr-v-zhizni-sovremennogo-studenta.html

2. http://iteach.vspu.ru/07-2015/7868/

Oshchepkova. E.S. 
Ensuring economic security and it`s functioning

Oshchepkova. E.S., 1st year student {Economic Security}
Scientific adviser: Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer
LEONOV Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The article is devoted to ensuring the economic security of the Russian Federation. The objects and subjects of economic security are defined. The topic is considered from the side of both formal and legal, and from the side of society and social norms. The leading functions of economic security are established. It is determined by the purpose of ensuring economic security.

Key words: economic, economic security, components of economic security, problems of economic security.


This article discloses the concept of economic security, the subject and object of economic security, the functions of economic security, the concept and purpose of ensuring economic security, on which the system of ensuring economic security is based.

There is a Decree of the President of the Russian Federation «On the Strategy of Economic Security of the Russian Federation for the Period until 2030» dated 13.05.2017 No. 208, but this doctrine applies to the country as a whole, but not to individual organizations.

Economic security is ensured by a set of measures that guarantee smooth operation.

Organizations usually put two meanings into the concept of economic security.

In a broad sense, economic security is the security of the organization’s activities. Abroad, there is the concept of «corporate security,» and the security of the organization is interpreted precisely as corporate security, but in Russia the concept of corporate security is not so widespread.

In a narrow sense, the economic security of an organization is reduced to the security of contractual relations, that is, the economic security system is built from the point of view of ensuring the security of contractual work.

L. Abalkin defines economic security as a set of conditions and factors that ensure the independence of the national economy, its stability and stability, the ability to constantly update and self-improvement [3].

Let us turn to synchronizing components: subject and object of economic security.

The subjects of economic security of society are, first, the State and State institutions, secondly, firms, enterprises, organizations, social organizations, political parties and movements, which are defined as legal entities and, thirdly, households and individuals.

The objects of economic security are economic systems in general and all individual elements of economic systems: factors of production, economic relations, organizational and economic mechanisms, economic policy, economic law, economic culture, economic ethics and the like.

Among the functions of economic security stand out:

— protective;

— regulatory;

— preventive;

— informational;

— innovative;

— social.

The protective function involves protecting the country’s economy from internal and external threats and is associated with the presence of sufficient resource potential.

The regulatory function ensures the neutralization of risks through mechanisms of economic relations (intra-business, market).

The preventive function is to prevent the occurrence of crisis situations, anticipate possible dangers and threats. The informational function is represented by the development of measures for the use of reliable information. It is closely related to preventive. Its task is to collect information about a possible imminent danger.

The innovative functions of economic security are manifested in determining the ability of the system to seek new, innovative solutions to crisis issues and to prevent the likely adverse effects of hazards.

The social function is to determine the ability of the economy to provide for the interests of both economic entities and social groups. Its implementation is aimed at creating and maintaining a high standard of living for the population, respecting all the rights and freedoms of citizens and their social associations.

Ensuring economic security is an activity to create conditions for the stable crisis-free development of the economic system, to identify and prevent threats, to eliminate contradictions between the interests of different states, social groups, society and the individual.

The key goal of ensuring economic security is to resolve the contradictions between the economic interests of the state, the individual and society, between the interests of different states in the field of international economic relations, and to build favorable conditions for the realization of the interests of all subjects of economic relations [2].

The economic security system is based on the following elements:

— identification of threats and threats to economic security in modern conditions;

— identification of protection objects;

— development of a mechanism for determining economic interests, areas and features of their implementation;

— analysis of features and mechanisms of harm to economic interests;

— defining the competence and relationship of the bodies that carry out economic security activities;

— activities to counter threats to economic security and localize their consequences.

In the modern world, there are a large number of problems, such as: inflation, falling production, state budget deficit, unemployment, which negatively affect the lives of the population. These phenomena are becoming even more widespread due to the lack of a scientifically based national development strategy based on economically safe guidelines, which provide for the development of theoretical foundations and the use of qualitatively new scientific approaches to the formation of economic security of the state [1].

The criteria for each of the components of economic security should ensure its balance, and their level should be sufficient to ensure the stability of the system and the impact on internal and external threats in the short and long term.

It should be noted that today the main problems of ensuring the economic security of our country are:

— corruption;

— COVID-19;

— deterioration of the welfare of the population and an increase in the unemployment rate;

— increased shadowing of economic activity;

— a sharp decline in real GDP;

— loss of investment attractiveness of our country.

Thus, the problems of economic security are really very important in the modern world. Economic security is the basis for ensuring sovereignty, competitiveness, defense capability, support for social improvement in society, and the country’s organic entry into the system of the world economy. It should be noted that the lack of a common understanding of the essence of economic security and the definition of its constituent elements both in the scientific literature and in the regulatory framework creates disagreements and determines the relevance of further scientific developments in this area.

References

1. Styapshin A.S. Economic security in modern conditions. // Industrial Economy Scientific journal on the topic: Economics and Business. M.: Limited Liability Company «Publishing House» Pegasus», 2020. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/ekonomicheskaya-bezopasnost-v-sovremennyh-usloviyah/viewer

2. Electronic source. Lectures on ensuring economic security URL: http://newinspire.ru/l/2/25/1084-obespechenie-ekonomicheskoj-bezopasnosti.html

3. Abalkin, L. I. Economic security. Russia: threats and their reflection /. Economic issues./ Styapshin A.S. Economic security in modern conditions. 2020

Pavlenko O. A. 
Influence of magic on the formation of modern human consciousness

Pavlenko O. A., 3rd year student {Sociology}
Scientific adviser: Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer
LEONOV Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

This article is dedicated to the study of the phenomenon of magic. It examines the impact of magic on modern man. The structure-forming elements of magic are analyzed. The paper presents the interpretation of the concept «magic» and «magical thinking». Ways of magic influence on people are also considered. In addition, it is concluded that today magic has not lost its influence on people.

Key words: magic, magical thinking; society, the phenomenon of magic.


Belief in the supernatural, the magical, has always accompanied a man. Having no scientific explanations, a primitive man sought to know the events taking place in the surrounding reality. The environment in which he lived was unexplored and fraught with danger. With the help of the elements of magic, he tried to understand and influence the world around him. People believed that the nature surrounding them had some magical powers, and was also a receptacle of souls. They communicated with these souls through rituals and spells.

In ancient times, the belief in magic continued to live. Ancient philosophers considered magic to be the art of controlling the forces of nature, as well as healing. In the Middle Ages, magic was considered a heresy. Magic came to be seen as deception, and magicians were perceived as charlatans in the age of Enlightenment. But already in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, interest in magic and the occult began to grow with renewed vigor. Many secret societies began to appear: such as the Rosicrucians, the Illuminati, the Freemasons. New forms of occultism, such as spiritism and theosophy, were emerging, and ancient teachings were becoming their theoretical basis. In the era of Romanticism, one can notice a special interest in magic in literature. Folk rituals were described. Many fairy tales and legends were published. This all affected people’s interest in magic in that era. [1, p. 4]

Many sociologists have studied magic. Among them were E. Durkheim, E. B. Tylor, A. Hubert, M. Moss. The first to consider the essence of magic in primitive culture, as well as its laws, was J. Fraser. He also described its differences and similarities with science, technology, and art. [1, p. 5]

The most famous researcher of magic was the British anthropologist Bronislav Malinovsky. He told that magic didn’t exist. People only have a belief in magic. There are only different systems of perception of reality. And it is this perceived reality that gives the magician entry into other worlds. [4, p. 242] Russian scientists also studied magic, such as S. E. Grechishnikov, S. A. Tokarev, E. I. Parnov, I. A. Kryvelev, etc. [1, p. 5]

There are a lot of definitions and interpretations of the concept of magic, as well as approaches to its understanding. We can cite some of them:

Magic — " a set of rites and spells considered miraculous, designed to affect nature, people, animals and gods.» [3]

Magic — «witchcraft, sorcery, magic, rituals associated with the belief in the ability of a person to influence people, animals, natural phenomena, as well as imaginary spirits and gods in a supernatural way.» [7]

Magic is a complex dynamic system. Among its structural elements, two ones can be distinguished:

The first element is magic as a social phenomenon. It is an image of magic that shapes society itself, as fears and hopes. As a social phenomenon, it acts as a protective mechanism of the human psyche or society. Through such social institutions as schools, universities, families, and the state, they lay down behavioral stereotypes in society and form value orientations. It acts as an image of magic that shapes society. Magic as a social phenomenon performs such functions as: educational, compensatory, indicative and entertaining.

The second element is magic as a socio-psychological phenomenon. It is in the process of socialization of the individual that magic is formed as a socio-psychological phenomenon. It has a huge impact on the direction of socialization of people. It accompanies a person throughout his life. It seems to be connected with him and defines his essence [2, p. 11]

With the development of society, magic, in fact, would have to lose its influence on people, but today magic lives in the mind of man. It is with the help of magic that people try to gain new experiences, understand the world, learn the future, change their fate and develop their magical abilities. It serves to satisfy both the psychological needs of people and the practical ones. For example, someone wants to get rich or remove the damage. Someone wants to know the future, and someone just wants to be sure of the future or just to protect themselves and their relatives with the help of magic.

And today, the superstitions that give rise to myths about magic have survived. This is expressed in the fact that for many people it still mean that if a person broke a mirror or a black cat ran across the road to him, the day will be unsuccessful. Others are afraid of spilling salt or are afraid of open scissors on the table. People protect themselves from undesirable consequences by knocking on wood three times.

Magic is based on people’s belief in miracles, in paranormal phenomena, which give rise to a strong belief in the supernatural. Most people are subjected to so-called magical thinking. It becomes a fertile ground for the magical perception of the world around us.

In the process of magical thinking, events occur that violate the known laws of physics, biology, and psychology.

In modern realities, people still believe in the supernatural. A person’s need for magical services, in most cases, arises spontaneously. For example, a person will always look for an excuse for his failures. Often, people try to blame someone else for their bad luck, saying that they were jinxed. Therefore, a person has no choice but to go to an appointment with a magician to help him.

Often a person is faced with a problem and understands that no one can help him. In this situation, he can help either by turning to religion or to magic. But religion often promises a person a good life only in the afterlife, while magic promises a solution to the problem here and now, so more often religion loses to magic. Therefore, many people, even those who believe in God, often turn to magic for help.

It is very important what age a person is, as it determines how much a person is affected by magic. Children and adolescents are in the group of the most dependent people, subjected to magical thinking. But there is also a group of people who are affected by magic, but age does not play any role in it. This is a group of people with an unstable mental system. But this does not mean that only certain people are affected by magic. Magic can also affect a group, a class, a stratum, and even entire states.

Today, despite the technological progress and the level of education of the population, the predisposition to believe in the supernatural does not weaken. This is facilitated by the creation of «virtual» reality, as well as advertising and marketing. The most important resource that ensures the vital activity of society is information. In the modern world, it becomes the environment that determines people’s lives.

People have a growing interest in astrology, horoscopes, palmistry, divination, etc. All of these can be called «magical» genres of culture. These genres are given a variety of attractive forms, thereby luring people. It can be a bright newspaper article or a beautiful television programme. This is all presented to us as a thin note, from which you can learn all your future, as well as past life. Or as mysterious Tarot cards, divination on which has been taught for many years. Computer forecasts of the future also have an impact. We are also offered everything magical in the form of books, movies, computer games, etc. People willingly believe in all this and spend huge amounts of money on it. Through all this, we seem to lay down the basic rules of behavior and stereotypes of thinking. It is in this laying that the social significance of magic is traced. Human behaviour is a consequence of this laying, which forms the type of worldview of a person, manipulating him. [5, p. 167]

In conclusion, I would like to say that in the modern world, a person’s faith in magic has not gone anywhere. Now it can be said that people may not even realize that they are subjected to magical thinking. After all, with the development of society, science, people began to deny the fact that the supernatural exists. But it has not disappeared from the minds of people. It has simply gone to the unconscious level. We also, as before, continue to believe that in addition to the well-known world, there is a supernatural world in which the laws of magic, not nature, operate. A person is subjected to belief in the supernatural, even without realizing it. On an unconscious level, a modern man performs the same magical rituals as our ancestors. Therefore, we can say that magic still exists inextricably with humanity, being present in the minds of people. And a person will always unconsciously be drawn into an unknown world. After all, almost every one of us will not hesitate to spit over his left shoulder or knock on wood, so as not to accidentally jinx a person. Or an involuntary black cat running past will become an occasion for a momentary thought that the day will probably be unsuccessful.

References:

1. Belousova, E. V. Magic as a form of life and a way of «taming» the world in culture: 24.00.01: Theory and history of culture: abstract of the dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Cultural Studies / Belousova Elena Valentinovna. — Yekaterinburg, 2011. — 20 p. — Place of protection: Ur. State University named after A.M. Gorky

2. Markov, M. A. Magic as a binary system and its influence on the process of forming the worldview of modern man: 09.00.13: Philosophical anthropology, philosophy of culture: abstract of the dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Philosophical Sciences: Russian State University. — Rostov-on-Don, 2004. — 18 p.

3. Ozhegov S. I.,. Explanatory dictionary of the Russian language: About 100000 words, terms and phraseological expressions / S. I. Ozhegov. — M.: AST, 2018. magic-Explanatory dictionary of Ozhegov (gufo.me)

4. Svechnikov V. S., Chevtaeva L. N. Television and the Internet new opportunities for the dissemination of magical thinking // Bulletin of SSTU. 2011. №2 (60). Pp. 238—243 URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/televidenie-i-internet-novye-vozmozhnosti-rasprostraneniya-magicheskogo-myshleniya (date accessed: 07.12.2020).

5. Svechnikov, In.. S. Mogucnosti mass consciousness [Text] / S. V. Svechnikov // Man: Illustrated popular science magazine. — 2004. — No. 2. — P. 165—175. — Bibliogr.: 15 loc.

6. University Library Online (EBS). — Moscow: Infra-Engineering, 2010. — 192 p. — URL: http://www.biblioclub.ru/book/70522/ (accessed: 19.11.2020).

7. Ushakov, Dmitry Nikolaevich. Bolshoy explanatory dictionary of the modern Russian language: 180,000 words and phrases / D. N. Ushakov. — M.: Alta-Print [et al.], 2008.

Romanova A.D. 
Sociological analysis of the attitude of employees to trade union activities

Romanova A.D., 3rd year student {Sociology}
Scientific adviser: Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer
LEONOV Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

We live in a world in which violations of working conditions are common. It is possible to fight this problem only together, uniting into a single team. The trade union organization is a protection and support for workers. In order to study the attitude of workers to trade union activities, a sociological study was conducted in January 2021. This article examines the main aspects of trade union activity.

Key words: Trade union, labor, violations, collective.


It is important to note that many of us have encountered some kind of challenge in the workplace. State authorities overseeing the situation in the workplace record a huge number of violations. How many violations go unnoticed? In most cases, we hush them up and tolerate them. But one day the moment comes when there is a desire to change the situation, to take it under control. Respect for employees, improved working conditions, high wages — how to achieve this?

You can use the strength of the work collective, but for this you need to unite, put forward collective demands and defend them together. In fact, this is what it means to create a trade union.

A trade union is a group, a significant number of workers, uniting to defend their rights and improve their situation. The main common interests of the group are to increase wages, reduce working hours, and improve working conditions [2].

The right of everyone to associate in trade unions, to create them to protect their interests is directly enshrined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation [1]. The fact that trade unions are mentioned in an act of higher legal force suggests that they have a special role and significance in the life of our society. In the modern world, the need to protect the interests and rights of workers is constantly growing. The need to protect the rights and interests of workers is especially relevant in the modern period, which has exposed and intensified socio-economic contradictions.

Given the fact that there are many different problems in labor relations, the role of trade unions is becoming more and more important. Trade unions are formed from representatives of the work collective of a particular organization to protect and represent the interests of its members. The document confirms membership is a trade union ticket. If the management may try to take any illegal measures against an ordinary worker, then he will not want to take such a risk with a union member. Trade union members can count on the protection and renewal of their rights, resolution of various issues and disputes with the employer. And all this the organization takes upon itself, actively defending the rights of each of its participants. If the employee is not a member of the trade union, then he will have to resolve all issues and interact with the relevant authorities himself.

The effective activity of the trade union is impossible without the active and effective participation of each member who joined. The organization is a tool for protecting the rights of employees that may be violated by the employer in the course of labor relations. The main goal of any enterprise is to obtain the maximum possible profit, and to achieve it, management often resorts to various tricks, including illegal ones, in relation to their subordinates. In such situations, workers can count on the help of the trade union, whose main task is precisely to defend their interests. The role of trade unions in regulating the labor market is to increase the importance of each employee and increase the responsibility for compliance with the law on the part of the employer.

Many workers do not understand why to join a union and how they will benefit from it. In a more generalized form, a trade union organization can be seen as a partner helping workers solve a variety of problems that arise in the course of their professional activities. An employee who is a union member can count on the following:

— free professional assistance and advice on legal issues;

— protection of social, economic and professional rights;

— comprehensive support in case of conflict situations with the employer;

— control over the implementation of the labor contract;

— solving issues of increasing pay for labor activities and improving its conditions.

All of these benefits that an employee receives from joining an organization make it clear whether to join a union. Otherwise, the employee will be left alone with the employer and in the event of any disputable situations, he will have to rely only on his own strength. The activities of the trade union are also very useful for the employer himself, since labor discipline is increased, working conditions are monitored, and the likelihood of industrial injuries is reduced. Given all the positive changes that occur as a result of the functioning of a trade union organization, neither the work collective nor the employer should ask the question of what a trade union is for.

In order to study the attitude of workers to trade union activities, in January 2021, a sociological survey was conducted in the form of a questionnaire, with the participation of residents of the Moscow Region over the age of 18.

The majority of the respondents (77.7%) of all age groups note that they are quite satisfied with the working conditions.

Two thirds of the respondents (66.9%) did not face labor disputes / conflicts. If there are violations in the work process, the respondents prefer to contact the head of their organization (23.1%) and only 8.7% — to the trade union organization.

The survey showed that female respondents (52%) are more interested in the activities of the Trade Union than male respondents (11.5%).

In order to clarify the attitude of the respondents to the Trade Union, they were asked the question: «Why are you a member of the Trade Union?». About half of the respondents (48.7%) count on the protection of their rights, almost a third of the respondents (31.6%) join a trade union by tradition or by conviction (22.5%).

Only 9.1% of respondents took part in protest actions, collective actions carried out by the Trade Union. Almost half of the respondents (48.1%) claim that the Trade Union did not hold protests and did not organize collective actions.

Nevertheless, 49.7% of the respondents note that they will not be afraid to take part in protest actions, collective actions, which are carried out by the Trade Union.

According to the data obtained, it was found that almost half of the respondents (43.9%) characterized the attitude of the team to the activities of the trade union committee as positive.

According to the answers of the respondents, it is clear that there is some influence from the head of the institution on the activities of the trade union committee of the primary organization of the Trade Union (48.7%).

More than two-fifths of the respondents (41.2%) say that if the leader insists on leaving the Trade Union, they will not give in. However, 40.6% of respondents find it difficult to answer this question.

Explaining the reasons why the respondents do not want to join the Trade Union, they indicate first of all that they do not understand its meaning (96.4%) and do not want to pay dues.

A feature of any labor relationship can be considered the fact that one party is subordinate, and this implies the mandatory fulfillment of the requirements and instructions of the employer. Very often, employees have to deal with injustice and even illegal actions on the part of the employer, but they simply cannot apply any measures to counter this. The employer, on the other hand, has all the rights to fine, dismiss or apply other measures of influence on employees. Simply put, workers are simply viewed as elements of the system, and there is no one to protect their interests.

Summing up, I would like to note that the ability to navigate in labor legislation is currently highly valued, this is a necessity for any able-bodied member of society. The rights and freedoms that are accorded to citizens in carrying out activities in the world of work are an essential part of human rights. In a state governed by the rule of law, every person should be guaranteed equal opportunities in the possession and enjoyment of these rights. Trade unions, having emerged many years ago, and to this day are the most important element of the mechanism for regulating labor in the conditions of a new life.

References:

1. Статья 30 Конституции РФ (с изм. от 01.07.2020).

2. Райзберг Б. А., Лозовский Л. Ш., Стародубцева Е. Б. Современный экономический словарь. — 2-е изд., испр. — М.: ИНФРА-М, 1999. — 479 с.

Svechnikova A.V. 
Sociological analysis of the state of the healthcare system

Svechnikova A.V., 3rd year student {Sociology}
Scientific adviser: Kyuregyan M.P., senior lecturer
LEONOV Moscow Region University of Technology, Korolev, Russia

The article analyzes the opinions of Russians about the healthcare system of the Russian Federation. It is customary to consider health care, first of all, as a system of medical care, which bears most of the responsibility for the health of the population. Also, the article presents the results of a study by Rosstat and VCIOM.

Key words: health care, health, healthy lifestyle.


A very common opinion about the health care system is that the health of the country’s population depends more on the activities of the health care system, the rest is determined by the way of life of a person, genetic factors, the state of the external environment.

During the Soviet era, quite a lot of attention was paid to the prevention and improvement of the health of the country’s population. Among the programs that were carried out in the USSR, one can distinguish: the approval of sanitary legislation; the improvement of populated areas; the organization of public catering in accordance with scientific and hygienic standards; the organization of measures to prevent the development and spread of infectious diseases; the fight against social diseases (tuberculosis, alcoholism, etc.); the provision of public, free and qualified medical and medicinal care. This all affected the high level of health of the country’s population. [3]

Nevertheless, in the 1980s and 1990s, the reforms had a negative impact on the health of the population: the life expectancy of the population decreased, the birth rate declined, the death rate began to increase, and more and more people began to fall ill with dangerous diseases (AIDS, HIV, tuberculosis, cancer, etc.).

Many foreign and domestic scientists have devoted their works to the study of the health system, as well as to the study of the state of public health, and its dependence on various factors: Andreev E. M., Afanasyev A. A., Boyarsky A. Ya., Kildishev G. S., Kuvakin V. I., Lisitsyn Yu. P., Medik V. A., etc.

The All-Russian Center for the Study of Public Opinion (VTsIOM) conducted a survey in 2018, which has shown that Russians are trying more and more to monitor their health every year, and this trend is growing every year. The survey involved 1,500 respondents over the age of 18 from different parts of Russia.

The share of Russians dissatisfied with their health has decreased by 40% since 2003. Nevertheless, residents of the country are skeptical about the quality of medical services provided to them. Only 11% of respondents gave a positive assessment of medical services. [2]

The data of the survey of the research holding «Romir», which was reviewed by RBC, shows that since 2003, the share of Russians who are satisfied with their health has increased from 52% to 71%. The researchers concluded that the higher the respondents ' income, the higher their level of satisfaction with their health.

The quality of domestic medical services is rated low by the population. Only 11% of respondents give a positive assessment of the quality of medicine. Another 45% of respondents believe that they receive medical services of satisfactory quality, and 44% call them completely unsatisfactory.

According to Andrey Milekhin, Doctor of Social Sciences, Russians have a much worse idea of medicine than its actual situation. «This makes it clear that it is necessary to work not only to improve the functioning of the sphere, but also to improve the perception of the work of health care institutions.» [2]

The level of health care in the country shows how the state is well developed and how widely it uses modern high-tech and complex methods in the fight against various serious diseases. Over the past 10 years, the situation has changed for the better, because the Ministry of Health is making efforts to do this.

In order to understand what opportunities there are for treating the population, you can analyze existing indicators, such as: the number of hospitals and other medical institutions, incidence rate of the population in the Russian Federation for various types of diseases, the number of patients with socially significant diseases (drug addiction, alcoholism and alcoholic psychosis), the salary of medical workers, as well as other employees of the Ministry of Health. [1]

Thus, in the last twenty years, the number of hospital organizations in Russia has been constantly decreasing. Figure 1 shows that the number of hospitals has almost halved during this period. (Figure 1)

Figure 1. Number of hospitals, thousand

It is very important to take into account the number of qualified medical personnel who will be able to provide competent medical care. In Figure 2, you can clearly see the change in the number of medical personnel, from the post-war period in the USSR to the present. (fig. 2)

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