Intelligent transport systems development

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In the Transport Strategy of the Russian Federation until 2030, the development of intelligent transport systems (ITS) is one of the directions for the formation of a unified transport space of Russia based on the balanced development of transport infrastructure. This is due to the fact that over the past decades, the rapid development of technology has led to the development of various automated systems that have become a reliable working tool for railway transport management. Extensive experience has been accumulated in the development and implementation of various information systems, a powerful potential has been created for the development and implementation of full-fledged production process management systems. Today, the latest achievements in the field of information and telecommunication technologies make it possible to realize the accumulated potential and switch to the information management system of production processes of JSC «Russian Railways», i.e. the creation of a Unified intelligent control system and automation of production processes in the railway transport industry. It is the main automated control system based on the use of the latest scientific developments aimed at improving the quality of transport services and optimizing the interaction of all production units of JSC «Russian Railways». This approach will allow automating with the use of artificial intelligence a number of tasks: the implementation of coordinated integrated operational work management based on the use by all participants of a single information model describing end-to-end production processes covering the activities of operational personnel of all directorates and all levels of management using an integration platform; the possibility of implementing operational automated legally significant information technology interaction of the parties involved in the Unified Technological Process (ETP) within the framework of a single shift-daily and current planning, execution and control of the execution of agreed and approved operational plans; efficiency of fixing physical operational events by ensuring the interaction of system components with floor-mounted devices of railway automation, devices for monitoring the technical condition of rolling stock on the train, identification systems of rolling stock and traction stock using radio frequency identification devices and GLONAS; personification of the responsibility of operational and dispatching personnel when processing documents of technological workflow, fixing operational events in the system, for account of the use of electronic subsystems; the possibility of implementing end-to-end automated control of the modes of execution of technological processes by the operational personnel of the directorates; the possibility of automated end-to-end control of exceeding the maximum permissible (regulatory, budgetary) elements of the costs of technological processes; operational forecasting and cost estimation of non-production losses of technological processes. This intelligent system will provide a high economic effect, provided that the volumes of freight and passenger traffic are carried out in a high-quality and timely manner, the rhythmicity of traffic is observed and the loading is evenly distributed, while social and national transportation is mandatory and traffic safety is ensured.

The methods, models and decision support systems described in the textbook, aimed at creating intelligent technologies in operational work, will serve to more reasonably set and solve complexes of tasks for the creation of intelligent transport.


In conditions of a shortage of organizations’ own funds, as well as limited state support, domestic organizations are forced to use a significant part of their resources to finance the current needs of existing production and, in rare cases, to develop new technologies and knowledge–intensive competitive products. The innovation space remains unattractive for domestic capital, foreign investors and private capital. An active innovation policy requires the adoption of extraordinary measures, including the improvement of the system of public investment, credit and tax policy, and extra-budgetary financing.

Before the reforms, the role of the regulatory and financial regulator of innovation in Russia was performed by the state planning and distribution system. Large-scale investments were carried out by the state, the introduction of innovations was ensured by the centralization and concentration of various kinds of resources on priority and most important areas of science and technology development. The specifics of the current situation lies in the fact that the country has significant fundamental and technological reserves, a unique scientific and production base and highly qualified personnel. At the same time, the orientation of this innovative potential to the implementation of scientific achievements in production and other fields of activity is extremely weak. The main difficulties in realizing the innovative potential are associated with the lack of organizations’ own funds, limited budgetary and extra-budgetary financing, including borrowed and borrowed funds.

The decline in production in almost all sectors of the economy, the constant shortage of funds from organizations do not leave resources for innovation. In recent years, innovation activity in the country as a whole has fallen sharply. In the near future, no significant growth in the innovative activity of organizations in various sectors of the economy is predicted. The industries focused on meeting the needs of the domestic market are distinguished by a particularly low level of innovation activity: the light and food industries, the construction materials industry. In conditions of low competitiveness of domestic consumer goods, accompanied by intensive import intervention, the decline in production volumes in these industries continues to be significant. The reversal of the current trend is possible only on the basis of the activation of innovative activities in the relevant sectors of the country’s economy. The composition of innovatively active organizations for the most part remains constant: more than 70% of organizations planning technological innovations in the near future have implemented them in previous years.

The shortage of funds is the main, but not the only factor in the decline of innovation activity. In the conditions of a transitional economy, the scientific and technical sphere was unable to function in the new economic conditions. Scientific and technical developments do not always become an innovative product ready for production and effective implementation. There are problems of legal and organizational order in the protection and transfer of intellectual property, certification of innovative products. The investment mechanism of innovation activity deserves increased attention and significant improvement. Attempts to support all sectors of the country’s economy without taking into account the specifics of their innovation activities and the allocation of priorities do not allow market structures to develop successfully in this area. A special regime for innovations, risk insurance, venture funds, innovative infrastructure are the necessary conditions without which it is impossible to ensure an innovative breakthrough of both a state organization and organizations of other forms of ownership.

At the same time, not only large firms, consortia and associations, but also small organizations require the development of innovative activities. In developed countries, the latter provide about half of all innovations. According to the US National Science Foundation, the number of innovations in small firms per unit of costs is usually greater than in medium and large firms. In addition, small firms are almost a third ahead of large ones in the speed of innovation development. Thus, small innovative organizations are an important factor in the state innovation policy.

Of great importance in the formation of innovation policy is not only the development of a clear strategy and its focus on the formation of a progressive technological order, but also the ability to use the entire arsenal of tools of direct and indirect state regulation for investment in innovation.

The policy of public investment in innovation should be aimed at forming an effective structure of public spending, the level of which should not be less than a certain share of gross domestic product. Measures to increase the efficiency of budget spending should include: financing on an irrevocable basis only innovative projects that have a nationwide character and affect the improvement of the economic security of the country; expansion of the practice of competitive allocation of budgetary funds for the implementation of innovative projects submitted to organizations of any form of ownership. In this case, public and attracted private investments are allocated on a parity basis. First of all, this concerns extra-budgetary funds to support research and development work, part of which will be used to finance domestic and foreign patenting and the maintenance of international patents used in national projects.

Investment activities related to improving the quality of transport services should be based on the following basic principles, focused on compliance with the requirements of a systematic approach, universal values and taking into account the conditions of market relations:

The principle of priority of social and environmental effects, which means that when evaluating the effectiveness of transport projects, it is necessary to take into account, first of all, social and environmental effects, while simultaneously checking them according to safety and environmental criteria.

The principle of an integrated approach, which determines the need to take into account when determining the effectiveness of all possible costs and resources in system quality management, as well as all the emerging results (consequences) of the creation and use of products and transport services provided (results of the organization’s activities) at all levels of management, both in transport and beyond.

The principle of ensuring the minimum impact of incompleteness and unreliability of available information, which means reducing its negative impact on quality management decisions and the results of the entire socio-economic system to the possible minimum.

The principle of comparability of results, which means the need to ensure comparability of the achieved social, environmental and economic effects due to the functioning of the quality management system according to the following criteria:

— social consequences;

— environmental consequences;

— the volume of meeting the needs of developers and transport companies;

— volumes and ranges (interchangeability) to meet the needs of cargo owners;

— a time factor, bringing the effects of different times to the conditions of their commensurability and value by a certain time;

— uncertainty of risks associated with the achievement of effects.

Assessment of the effectiveness of transport and logistics service management should be carried out by comparing data with and without measures taken and implemented.

The principle of mandatory accounting and analysis of costs for quality assurance and management. Without the implementation of this principle, it is almost impossible to determine the economic efficiency of a transport project.

In addition to these rules for determining effectiveness, a number of other principles should be taken into account:

— progressiveness and maximum effect, i.e. when justifying the effectiveness of an event, preference should be given to the one that allows you to get the greatest value of a positive effect;

— the time factor, which makes it mandatory to take into account changes in effects over time, the cost of multi-time results and costs with a preference for faster results and later costs;

— the effects obtained only from the measures under consideration, that is, past or present, but unrelated results and costs should not be taken into account;

— multi-stage determination of the effectiveness of quality management, which means the need to calculate (with different depths) at each stage of development, implementation and implementation of measures to improve the system of transport and logistics services;

— quantitative accounting of the impact of uncertainties and risks of the implementation of quality management measures.


2.1 The main development directions

The following priority directions for the development of intelligent railway transport are outlined in the ITS of JSC «Russian Railways»: the creation of an intelligent train, an intelligent locomotive, an intelligent freight station, an intelligent train dispatching control system. The agenda also includes the tasks of creating intelligent railway stations and situational centers of JSC «Russian Railways» as a system-organizing component of preparation and management decision-making. At the same time, the main attention is paid to improving the efficiency of solving the tasks of the production activities of JSC «Russian Railways» with strict compliance with safety requirements.

The implementation of these priority areas is carried out in the context of the creation of the most important infrastructure components of intelligent rail transport, which include:

■ unified information space of railway transport with the mandatory presence of a single high-precision coordinate system and digital geo-base, built using global satellite navigation systems GLONASS/GPS and providing information protection;

■ digital radio communication systems with all rolling stock and railway transport infrastructure facilities;

■ systems for monitoring the location of wagons, locomotives and operating personnel with their automatic identification, built on the principles of integrating RFID (Radio-frequency identification) ground systems and satellite positioning based on GLONASS/GPS;

■ diagnostic and predictive monitoring systems for the condition of wagons and locomotives on the train;

■ systems of situational control and forecasting of critical situations as part of the situation centers of JSC «Russian Railways»;

■ Intelligent operational management systems.

From the standpoint of conceptual technical solutions being developed at JSC «Russian Railways», an intelligent train is a train with an integrated system of auto guidance and self — diagnosis, the creation of which is inextricably linked: with the development of automated control centers and the expansion of the functions of dispatch centralization, especially for high-speed and high-speed traffic lines; the introduction of computer control systems at stations in conjunction with a digital radio channel; the introduction of interval train control systems using satellite navigation and digital radio channel; implementation of complex diagnostic devices at the borders of routes; ensuring compliance of control systems and security systems with international standards.

An intelligent locomotive is a locomotive whose hardware and software must ensure: interoperability due to the compatibility of commands transmitted from the control center, from another locomotive or control car via a radio communication system; obtaining information about the introduction or cancellation of speed limits, the correct position of switches along the route, the freedom of the way, the freedom of crossings; the possibility of transmitting to technical services in real time information about the actual condition of the locomotive equipment and train cars during its movement on the basis of data from remote monitoring and on-board diagnostics with the preservation of all parameters in standard memory blocks.

An intelligent station is a station whose control and safety systems meet the requirements of international standards. The hardware and software of the control systems of the intelligent station must ensure: traffic safety during shunting work at the station; labor safety of station employees; high-speed mode of shunting work; maneuvering movements.

An intelligent train station is a train station, the combination of hardware and software management tools of which allows maximizing the efficiency of the building and the adjacent infrastructure, while all technical, technological and organizational processes take place with minimal human participation. The creation of intelligent train stations is aimed at ensuring comprehensive security, achieving maximum resource-saving effect, improving the environmental situation on the territory of the building and around it, providing maximum comfort for passengers, including those with disabilities. The complex of automated intelligent station systems should include the following functional components:

■ automated life support process control systems (air conditioning, ventilation, heating, electricity, water supply and sewerage), combining management and dispatching of engineering equipment;

■ integrated security system that provides information collection and processing in the station situation center, video surveillance, engineering and technical protection of the station complex, fire extinguishing, environmental monitoring and solving a number of other tasks;

■ communication and telecommunications system, which includes all types of communication, including broadband access \Wi-Fi and \WiMAX, with the provision of information services for station staff and passengers;

■ a system for monitoring the condition of buildings and structures.

An important practical step towards the creation of ITS in JSC «Russian Railways» was the introduction of an intelligent train traffic control system on the high-speed route St. Petersburg — Moscow. In this system, for the first time in practice, such intelligent subsystems as «Auto Dispatcher» and «AutoDriver» were implemented, in which analytical information processing (situational and diagnostic) procedures are implemented, linked to modeling and forecasting the development of events.

A distinctive feature of this system is its structuring into the following systemically linked key blocks:

■ a train traffic control unit that performs the functions of an «Auto dispatcher» and «Automachinist» using satellite navigation technologies and digital communication systems;

■ a traffic safety unit with the expansion of the functions of the CLUB-U integrated locomotive safety system, which includes GLONASS/GPS satellite receivers, as well as electronic maps of the stages and track development of stations, formed on the basis of a single coordinate database. The hardware and software of the unit provide guaranteed delivery of warnings on board the locomotive and the possibility of forced stopping of the train by the train dispatcher in emergency situations;

■ infrastructure condition monitoring and rolling stock diagnostics unit;

■ backbone and technological communication networks and data transmission systems;

■ situational management center with analytical and control systems.

The decision-making scheme in this system is based on an object-oriented model (the operational state of the direction), the construction of an up-to-date train schedule based on the analysis of the regulatory schedule and planned restrictions, taking into account the work carried out by infrastructure facilities of JSC «Russian Railways», monitoring the actual execution of the schedule at the moment, taking into account satellite positioning data. Train driving with the help of the system under consideration is based on a set of hardware and software and functional applications of intelligent car driving, using data on the actual train position, data from the automatic route preparation system, forecast graphs, information from the GID «URAL» system, data on speed limits on sections. The considered components of the intelligent dispatching control system were successfully tested in the organization of high-speed train traffic «Sapsan».

The developed hardware and software tools and technical solutions in the field of creating intelligent railway transport make it possible to organize centralized automated control of train traffic on the railways of JSC «Russian Railways» at a qualitatively new level with the provision of functional, informational, environmental and fire safety. The scientific and technical potential accumulated in this field will contribute to the creation of a new generation of locomotive safety devices, the practical use of GLONASS/SRB satellite navigation technologies and a digital radio channel for complex multi-level traffic safety systems. The development of ITS will make it possible in the near future to ensure the quality of transport services and the safety of transportation on the railways of Russia and in general in the «1520 railway track» at the level of the best world standards.

2.2 Current issues of ITS development

Intelligent transport systems (ITS) are the result of the system integration of modern navigation, information and communication technologies, automation, transport infrastructure, user facilities, focused on ensuring the safety and efficiency of the transport process, logistics, and improving comfort for drivers and passengers.

Many countries already have experience in creating intelligent transport systems. Thus, since the early 1980s, the United States, European countries and the Asia-Pacific region have been implementing programs focused on information technology for high-speed highways. Currently, the global ITS market continues to develop dynamically.

The creation of a unified information infrastructure of the transport complex is especially important for the Russian Federation, located in nine time zones and actively using all types of transport.

Already today, GLONASS satellite navigation technologies are used in almost all areas of human activity. These are law enforcement, security and search systems, coordinate and time support, monitoring of complex engineering structures, dangerous goods and various types of transport, people and animals, geodesy and cartography, agriculture, construction, synchronization of telecommunications and energy networks, hydrometeorology, etc.

Developing the concept of ITS of Russia, it is necessary to take into account the possibilities and prospects of modernization of the domestic global navigation satellite system GLONASS. Satellite navigation is the technological basis of intelligent transport systems. This is a unique Russian satellite navigation system in terms of coverage and significance.

Due to the peculiarities of the ballistic construction of orbital groupings, the GLONASS system surpasses GPS in high latitudes in terms of availability and is somewhat inferior in the equatorial zone. Currently, a new generation Glonass-K satellite with additional navigation signals at the L3 frequency and code separation is undergoing flight tests as part of the GLONASS orbital constellation, which will improve the accuracy of navigation definitions by using more broadband signals in the frequency ranges allocated for the GLONASS system. At the same time, within the framework of international cooperation, code separation can ensure the compatibility and complementarity of existing and emerging global and regional satellite navigation systems.

To improve the quality of navigation services provided to consumers, a set of functional additions to the GLONASS system is designed, which is an element of the general system. It provides consumers with information about the integrity of the navigation field, updated ephemeris-time information, corrective information for navigation measurements, as well as information about the quality of the functioning of GLONASS and GPS.

Complexes of functional additions by the size of the territory of action can be classified into local (150 km), regional (1000 km), wide-band (up to 5000 km).

An example of a wide-band system of functional additions is the system of differential correction and monitoring of radio navigation fields (SDCM). The Russian SDCM is a functional addition to the GLONASS and GPS satellite navigation systems, which improves their characteristics for solving tasks requiring high accuracy and reliability.

The SDCM includes a measurement collection complex, including measurement collection stations on the territory of the Russian Federation and abroad, a SDCM center and a complex for delivering information to consumers.

The primary measurement information is sent to the SDCM center, where it is processed in order to clarify ephemeris-time information, determine the integrity parameters of the navigation-time field and form a message for the consumer.

SDCM messages will be delivered to consumers via satellite and terrestrial data transmission channels. The basis of the orbital grouping (OG) SDKM will be the spacecraft of the multifunctional space relay system «Luch» in geostationary orbit.

The SDCM orbital grouping will ensure guaranteed delivery of corrective information to consumers almost throughout the Earth, with the exception of the polar regions and the North American continent.

Simultaneously with the creation of space channels for the delivery of SDCM information, a website providing operational and a posteriori data for monitoring the state of GLONASS and GPS navigation and time fields was put into trial operation. The SDCM information transmission system is being tested over ground communication channels. This will allow you to work out, check and confirm the characteristics of the information generated by the SDCM, without waiting for the launch of the Luch spacecraft.

The commissioning of the SDCM significantly increases the accuracy of navigation definitions. So, if the accuracy of determining the coordinates by the consumer in units of meters is provided in offline mode, then when using information about the SDCM, the accuracy reaches a centimeter level.

In addition, the SDKM will allow solving the tasks of monitoring road transport, drivers’ compliance with traffic rules, boarding and disembarking passengers of a public transport port in designated places. With the help of SDCM, the tasks of monitoring the location of railway trains on adjacent tracks, optimizing the management of shunting locomotives in the areas of marshalling yards and railway junctions will also be solved at a new qualitative level.

For water transport, the SDCM will simplify the solution of the tasks of pilotage of ships, accurate and prompt installation of signs of the navigable situation. With the help of SDCM, the tasks of automating the landing of air transport will be solved. SDCM information will also be in demand for monitoring the processing of the roadway, accurate and operational linking of construction sites in absolute coordinate systems, monitoring and control of the condition of complex engineering structures.

The combine use of information systems and navigation technologies will make it possible to effectively solve the tasks of monitoring facilities and resources to improve the quality of life of the population, ensure high rates of economic growth and competitiveness of the national economy, create potential for future development, increase the level of defense capability and security of the state.

One of the most popular areas of satellite positioning is the monitoring of mobile objects, such as vehicles, people with physical and age disabilities, children.

Being important elements of ITS, vehicle monitoring systems can improve the quality of public transport services, the safety of passenger and cargo transportation, the efficiency of transport management, control fuel consumption, technical parameters of special equipment, cargo safety, etc. Practice shows that the use of such systems at the enterprise increases the efficiency of using vehicles by 10—40%.

According to statistics, more than 1 million people per year die as a result of road accidents in the world. In this regard, JSC «Russian Space Systems» submitted to the Commission for Modernization and Technological Development of the Economy under the President of the Russian Federation the project Emergency Response System in case of accidents «ERA-GLONASS», aimed at reducing the severity of the consequences of road accidents. A similar system is already being developed and implemented in the European Union. Thanks to the equipment of the vehicle with automated navigation terminals of domestic production, transmitting emergency response services information about the accident, including the coordinates of the vehicle, the time interval between the incident and the provision of assistance to victims is reduced.

Systems where the objects of monitoring are technical means should also include monitoring systems for small aircraft. Their use will make it possible to obtain a significant economic effect, but most importantly, it will contribute to saving human lives and radically reducing financial costs in the aftermath of plane crashes.

To determine the displacements of structural elements, high-precision monitoring of the displacements of engineering structures (HMDES) using GLONASS signals is used. The HMDES program allows you to determine offsets with millimeter accuracy. Based on the data obtained, an analysis is carried out and, if necessary, a decision is made on emergency measures to prevent an emergency situation or evacuation of the population. In addition, the system of high-precision monitoring of displacements of engineering structures can be used to monitor displacements of the Earth’s crust and tectonic processes.

There are many examples of using satellite navigation technologies to improve the efficiency of almost all modes of transport, each of which develops its own corporate information systems aimed at solving internal problems. Unfortunately, the lack of unification during their creation and implementation made these systems autonomous, excluding intersystem interaction and centralized management.

In our opinion, the most expedient way to solve the unification problem is to develop a system of standards that, on the one hand, would allow each application to have its own optimal solutions and communication channels, and on the other — unified network protocols. This would make it possible to serve various modes of transport and ensure efficient intermodal transportation within a single information infrastructure.

In addition, today there is a need to create a unified transport system of a new generation. Regional navigation and information systems (RNIS) based on GLONASS technologies should be used as its basis. For the first time the concept of RNIS was introduced by JSC «Russian Space Systems» in 2003 when creating a Regional navigation and Information System of the Yaroslavl region.

The priority areas of the ITS concept in Russia include:

■ consolidation of resources, technologies and qualified personnel in the field of navigation and transport telematics;

■ introduction of ITS in large cities, development of the federal road network and construction of toll roads with mandatory deployment of modern ITS components;

■ formation of international transport corridors harmonized with European ITS standards.

Integration into international intelligent transport systems will allow creating a unified, highly needed harmonized global ITS for consumers, which will increase the competitiveness and economic efficiency of the Russian transport sector, the safety of freight and passenger transportation.

2.3 Development of intelligent train operation management technologies

The national transport policy of many developed countries is currently based on the development and promotion of intelligent transport systems (ITS). They are considered as an effective means of solving urgent problems of the transport industry, such as an unacceptable level of human losses as a result of transport accidents, delays in the turnover of passengers and cargo, insufficiently high productivity of the transport system, increased energy consumption, negative impact on the environment, etc. In addition, ITS is an incentive for the development of a number of industries and new innovative technologies. The latter include technologies for the creation of intelligent control and monitoring systems, the creation of new transport systems and their management, the production of nanomaterials, the creation of energy-saving systems for transportation, distribution and consumption of heat and electricity in the field of railway transport, processing, storage, transmission and protection of information, software production, risk reduction and reduction of the consequences of natural and man-made disasters, etc.

A nationwide ITS program is being developed in Russia, which can become an effective tool for implementing the Transport Strategy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030. In particular, the Federal Law «Intelligent Transport System of the Russian Federation» is currently being discussed. In the draft of this law, the intelligent transport system is defined as an integral part of the infrastructure of the transport complex, implementing the functions of automated management, information, accounting and control to ensure the legal, financial, technological and information needs of participants in the transport process, as well as meeting the requirements of transport, information and economic security of society. As follows from this definition, it is assumed that the system integration of modern information and communication technologies and automation tools into the transport infrastructure, vehicles in order to improve the safety and efficiency of transport processes. In relation to railway transport, the development of ITS is defined by such a directive document as the Strategy for the Development of Railway Transport in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030.

2.4 Goals and objectives of ITS creating in railway transport

The goals of creating intelligent railway transport systems are to reduce the transport losses of the population and transport costs in the sphere of economy, business and services, to intensify economic and social processes, to improve traffic safety, to improve the environmental situation, to reduce the negative impact of the human factor on the quality of management, to increase the attractiveness of railway transport for passengers and cargo owners. Achieving these goals involves solving a large number of tasks. These, in particular, include:

■ improving the efficiency of using the existing railway network by more evenly distributing railway rolling stock in time and space;

■ improvement of technological, informational and social components of traffic safety;

■ providing managers at all levels with the necessary information to make operational and strategic decisions based on modeling and assessing the impact on the transport system of new and modernized transport facilities;

■ formation of a rapid response scheme of transport services, which allows to quickly take measures in case of emergencies, adverse weather conditions, etc.;

■ creation of monitoring systems for transport infrastructure and traffic conditions, allowing to assess the state of the transport system in real time and predict its changes.


To date, there is no unified understanding of what intelligent transport systems are. In many publications and speeches, they are more or less identified with conventional automated transport systems. An important feature of ITS, which makes it possible to distinguish such systems into a separate class and even into a separate area of research in railway science, is the formal logical and mathematical tools used to solve problems from the standpoint of a system-wide approach to the analysis and management of all systems and processes in railway transport.

It should be emphasized that modern railway transport belongs to the category of extremely complex technical and organizational systems, the management of which is currently practically impossible within the framework of previously established traditional approaches. The complexity of the transport infrastructure and its facilities (railway junctions, stations, transport corridors, etc.) fundamentally excludes the possibility of working in a fully automatic mode. In other words, it is impossible to effectively manage such a system only with the involvement of classical methods for solving complex mathematical modeling problems, search and development of new approaches are required. At the same time, great hopes are placed on intelligent systems that, along with accurate mathematical models, use data and knowledge accumulated in the course of their activities. The work of such systems can, and sometimes should, be based on the formalized experience of highly qualified specialists. Proceeding from this, JSC «Russian Railways» now needs to develop the fundamental foundations for the creation of intelligent railway systems using complex interdisciplinary approaches that can find practical application in a short time.

Special attention should be paid to the fact that railway transport management systems, as well as complex systems in general, are characterized by fundamental inaccuracy and uncertainty in both data and management decisions. This makes it possible to attribute such systems from a mathematical point of view to the class of incorrect tasks and makes it possible to evaluate the quality of technical and managerial decisions in a different way. In this case, the promptness of the decisions taken plays a greater role than their optimality, understood in a strict mathematical sense. This quality is an important property of intelligent systems [14,15,16].

In recent decades, there has been an active development and research of formal methods of working with uncertain data. Until recently, probability theory was the main instrument for accounting for uncertainty. However, the axiomatic limitations associated with it do not allow us to adequately apply probabilistic approaches to solving many important problems in which uncertainty has a different nature or properties. For example, the uncertainty of the events under consideration does not always have a frequency character, objective difficulties often arise with the formalization of a specific probability space, in many cases assumptions about the additive nature of a probability measure are difficult to explain, and sometimes simply unacceptable. For these reasons, at present, along with probability theory with its developed mathematical apparatus, new theoretical approaches to the description of uncertainty and incompleteness of information are actively being investigated. Here, first of all, we should mention the Dempster — Shafer theories, possibilities, interval averages, monotone measures. These theories have less rigid axiomatics, which allows, along with the frequency interpretation of events, to describe events whose uncertainty may be subjective (for example, the probability is determined by a number reflecting the subjective degree of confidence in the event), or in which the number of observed realizations does not allow obtaining reliable conclusions in a statistical sense.

An important area that can have real practical application in the railway industry when creating ITS is the development of expert systems, i.e. computer programs that can fully or partially replace a specialist expert in some, as a rule, rather narrow problem area. Expert systems began to be developed by artificial intelligence researchers in the 1970s, and already in the 1980s they found their commercial applications. Expert systems function mainly together with knowledge bases, which are a set of facts and rules of logical inference in the chosen subject area of activity. This allows, in general, to model the behavior of experienced specialists in a certain field of knowledge using logical inference and decision-making procedures.

A person, unlike a computer, has fuzzy thinking, effectively operates with variables not only quantitative, but also qualitative. Therefore, expert systems that model the style of human reasoning are especially successfully used in solving complex problems associated with the use of hard-to-formalize knowledge. It is important to understand that the creation of a specific expert system is a long and expensive process that requires the involvement of specialists in various fields — programmers, knowledge engineers, experts in the field of application under consideration. One of the main problems in this case is the formation of knowledge, which is transmitted during numerous interviews of a knowledge engineer and an expert in the subject area. The stage of knowledge acquisition is one of the main bottlenecks in the technology of creating expert systems due to the low rate of filling the system’s knowledge base. It should be added to this that there are subject areas for which it is often difficult to find an experienced expert person, and sometimes there simply does not exist one. In addition, it has long been noticed that not all experts are ready and able to share their knowledge [2,8.10].

An important quality of technical systems that allows them to be classified as intelligent is the presence of such properties as:

■ learnability — the ability to generate new knowledge and data (models, decision rules) based on inductive inference mechanisms, generalization of statistical data, etc.;

■ classification ability — the ability of the system to independently differentiate control objects, environmental influences, control signals, automatically structure data;

■ adaptation — the ability of the system to adapt to the changing conditions of the operating environment, correctly take into account the non-stationarity of control data, etc

One of the promising approaches to the creation of intelligent systems may be to attract the ideas of situational management as a system — wide approach based on formal methods of theoretical artificial intelligence — logical-linguistic models, models of learning technical systems in the construction of management procedures for current situations, deductive systems for building multistep solutions, etc. In this important area of research, as well as in the development of general methodology, theoretical foundations and specific applications, priority undoubtedly belongs to Russian scientists.

The problem of industrial implementation of intelligent information systems capable of processing data with their inherent a priori uncertainty in railway transport is becoming more and more urgent. In many cases, the data is not only inaccurate and uncertain, but also incomplete, and sometimes unreliable. The development of methods that allow obtaining reliable conclusions based on such data is another direction for fundamental research.


Currently, the development of various automated control systems in railway transport is increasingly taking place in the direction of their intellectualization. As a rule, intelligent railway systems are created to control individual processes.

World experience shows that the greatest effect is achieved when developing and implementing an integrated interconnected complex of intelligent systems. In this case, a unified information support is created, the mutual influence of managed processes is taken into account.

General integration principles

An illustrative example of the need to create an integrated complex of intelligent systems is the existing network (TCC) and regional (RTCC) automated dispatch control centers. There are dozens of automated workstations (AWSs) in various areas of organization of the transportation process, maintenance and repair of infrastructure and rolling stock devices, as well as security. Each AWS as a human-machine system performs a specific target function. However, a full-fledged interconnection of these functions can be carried out only with the integrated construction of a complex of intelligent dispatch systems. In principle, we can talk about a unified intelligent system in automated dispatch control centers. Let’s consider this provision in relation to regional (road) control centers — RTCC.

In each RTCC, a hierarchical dispatching structure solves tasks of three main types:

1) ensuring loading in accordance with the daily and current loading plans;

2) ensuring the passage of trains (including those performing local work) in accordance with the traffic schedule, the formation plan and the plan for the transfer of wagons along internal and external joints with unconditional compliance with traffic safety;

3) performing various kinds of special transportation and tasks.

There are obvious direct relationships in the work of various dispatchers when implementing these types of tasks. Close relationships also occur when solving tasks of various types, so delays in the passage of trains (task type 2) may entail non-fulfillment of tasks for tasks of types 1 and 3. Untimely completion of a special task (task type 3, for example, the promotion of a train with oversized cargo) may cause disruption of the transfer of trains and wagons at the joints (task type 3) and loading plan (task type 1), etc.

Therefore, synchronous integrated intellectualization of the AWSs of the entire control unit of the RTCC is advisable.

The main provisions are defined, the implementation of which is a necessary condition for the intellectualization of management processes in regional dispatch centers. These include:

■ the use of principles for the development of automated process control systems (TP ACS);

■ ensuring efficiency in solving various types of tasks and resolving emerging conflict situations;

taking into account market conditions in the work of control centers;

■ saving all kinds of resources.

When building management processes, it is necessary that the developed algorithms for solving specific tasks (for RTCC dispatchers these are operational tasks) make it possible to obtain rational, and if possible, optimal solutions. For this condition, it is necessary to have a sufficient amount of information about the processes, take into account the influence of various factors, including disturbing influences, as well as constantly monitor the situation on the basis of special feedback subsystems.

It is these requirements that are taken into account when building TP ACS as closed control systems with feedback.

Each dispatcher constantly accumulates experience, which is used when making decisions. Therefore, when developing intelligent systems, it is important to use the principle of their self-learning.

At the present stage of development of intelligent RTCC systems, the control solutions developed should be used in the «adviser» mode. With the accumulation of experience in the operation of such systems, the refinement of the complex of factors and algorithms taken into account, the transition to the automatic mode of their operation will be carried out.

The dispatcher’s work proceeds in the constant adoption of operational decisions. The degree of efficiency depends on the needs and capabilities of forecasting specific situations.

The need for an operational forecast can extend over a very long period. Let’s imagine the situation in a RTCC, the scope of which includes a large seaport, and the cargo comes from loading stations located at distances of several thousand kilometers. Linking the approach of wagons with the approach of ships, especially taking into account weather conditions, requires a forecast of the operational situation for 10—15 days ahead.

A multi-day forecast is also required to solve the problem of organizing the turnover of locomotives and locomotive crews. At the same time, a forecast for 20—30 minutes may be sufficient for the train dispatcher to solve a specific conflict situation of train traffic on the section.

Therefore, for each task performed in the RTCC, the developer of an intelligent management system determines the required forecast period and the real possibilities of obtaining it based on relevant information, including those available in existing databases (APOMS-2, etc.).

In the classical formulation, the well-known problem of the distribution of empty wagons is considered as a transport problem of linear or dynamic programming with cost optimization at a minimum of wagon-kilometers. If the «just in time» condition is met, it is necessary to take into account the additional condition of dynamics in terms of the time of receipt and the time of «consumption» (feeding for loading) of empty wagons. Developers of intelligent systems should take this into account.

In market conditions, guaranteed delivery of goods is one of the main tasks of JSC «Russian Railways». This is the most important indicator of the quality of the company’s products, its competitiveness.

It is required to develop an intelligent system with the objective function of minimizing fines paid by JSC «Russian Railways» due to late delivery of goods. The methodology for solving this problem within the framework of the RTCC should be based on the ranking of wagons arriving at the railway (in the region) with varying degrees of delay in relation to the delivery dates, determining regulatory measures to accelerate the promotion of such wagons, taking into account the degree of their delay, developing proactive measures for wagons with possible violations of the delivery time of goods.

Some of the stated provisions have already found practical implementation.

The Oktyabrskaya railway experience

On the Oktyabrskaya mainline, a specialized dispatch center for a high-speed traffic polygon (SRTCC) has been created, in which the general principles and basic provisions of the integrated intelligent transportation process management system are implemented. Particular importance is attached to ensuring traffic safety.

The approved technical means, including innovative solutions for monitoring the position of mobile objects (trains) based on the GLONASS system, were used in the creation of the SRTCC. As an information base, the systems of AWS train dispatcher, AWS of the energy dispatcher, automated system for analysis of planning and execution of intermissions, Warning systems — v.2 and automated rolling stock control system, monitoring the condition of rolling stock), сomplex automated system of accounting, control of elimination of failures of technical means and analysis of their reliability, «GID -URAL» (traffic schedule) are used) and others. Information exchange is organized with specialized infrastructure systems — paths, automation and telemechanics, etc.

The system-wide part of the hardware package is implemented within the Oracle Windows Cluster Server DBMS. At the same time, regional — level application complexes are implemented within the framework of the high-speed traffic control center, and the network level — in the form of operational reporting forms. The main decisions are formed by the central management complex of SRTCC «Intellect».

Five automated workstations of train dispatchers and a workplace of a senior train dispatcher are equipped in the central hall of the SRTCC. Currently, the SRTCC has organized the management of train traffic in the direction of St. Petersburg — Moscow, as well as the control of the dislocation and execution of the schedule of high-speed trains «Sapsan» on the lines Moscow — Nizhny Novgorod and St. Petersburg — Buslovskaya.

The Intellect complex provides control solutions for driving trains, performing energy-optimal schedules, automatically controlling the preparation of train routes at stations and some other processes. In fact, the «AutoDispatcher» system has already been created. At the same time, the list of tasks to be solved, i.e. the functionality of the system, is constantly expanding.

According to the prediction of train traffic, the « AutoDispatcher» system interacts with the GID-URAL system. The agreed forecast of changes in the schedules of the daily schedule is «pumped» from the GID-URAL system to the « AutoDispatcher» system for operational control of train traffic. The adjustment of schedules stops when trains enter the standard daily schedule or when a train with a modified schedule arrives at the terminal station of the high-speed direction.

The «AutoDispatcher» system fully uses the principles of issuing information to the train dispatcher in the «active user interface» mode. Important information for dispatchers is displayed on the collective use scoreboard, including monitoring the movement of all trains with a special allocation of «Sapsan» trains, color signaling of a violation of the technology of high-speed trains (actual speed, deviations from the schedule). Possible interference on the route of «Sapsan» trains in the so-called «High Beam» mode, a special color signal about the emergency braking of «Sapsan» trains and a special indication of stations operating in the automatic control mode of the «AutoDispatcher» system are displayed.

All this allows train dispatchers to respond in a timely manner to deviations from the standard situation and take the necessary measures to accurately fulfill the train schedule.

A fundamentally new stage was the creation of a special experimental test site for the development and development of the «AutoDispatcher» system operating in JSC «NIIAS». It works out various technical and technological solutions for the development of the system, including modeling of conflict situations and their resolution. There are various modes for viewing the progress of train work — pause, accelerated viewing, switching to the desired event, etc. The decisions taken are being tested with the issuance of conclusions on their operability.

The experience of functioning of the intelligent integrated system «AutoDispatcher», which provides for the optimization of control processes and ensuring the safety of train traffic, has confirmed its effectiveness. The traffic schedule at the high-speed range is 98—99%, the deviation of trains from the standard schedules, as a rule, does not exceed 1—3 minutes. Energy savings when using energy-optimal train trajectories is approximately 4.2% and amounts to tens of millions of rubles. The working conditions of the dispatching apparatus and machinists have been improved. Without reducing the level of security, voice conversations between them are reduced by 7—10 times. The length of dispatching sections has been increased and the number of dispatchers has been reduced accordingly.

The high-speed traffic polygon on the Russian Railways network is expanding. The innovative solutions developed for SRTCC will undoubtedly be used on new high-speed lines. This approach will reduce the payback period of investments, increase the efficiency of investments in research and development.



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