All in order

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After the “Munich Collusion” with one of the centers of power in Europe, Great Britain, Germany, the Sudetenland with all defensive installations, populated by 90% ethnic Germans, are transferred. Poland does not want to miss Soviet aircraft to help the Czech Republic. Further, on March 14, 1939, Hitler summoned the Czechoslovak president Emile Gahu to Berlin and proposed a protectorate. The president has to agree
Resistance is rendered only by one garrison, with the commander of which the higher authorities did not manage to contact in time: twenty-four German soldiers were killed and wounded during a forty-minute battle. In the photo — Czech soldiers patrol the German quarter (prior to the famous agreement)
In addition to 3.5 million ethnic Germans, Germany receives “Skoda” factories and six hundred fully ready-to-use tanks, not bad at that time, 38 (t). England returns to the occupied country (hence, already Germany), taken out before that for storage of gold reserves — 1.4 billion marks. Slovakia becomes an independent state after it transfers southern territories to Germany’s ally, Hungary, 87% inhabited by the Hungarians.
Parade of the German fascist troops in Prague, 1939.
Ethnic Germans of ex-Czechoslovakia in national costumes meet German troops
The trophy tanks of Czechoslovak production LT vz.35 before shipment to Germany. Weight 10.5 tons, the forehead of the body, the tower 25 mm., Lateral booking 16 mm. The gun is 37 mm., two machine-guns. Total for 1939 produced 424 cars
The Czech tank T-38, 25-mm. armor, 37 mm. gun, suspension is close to the system “Christy”. More than 600 units were produced. A fairly successful armored vehicle is used in all subsequent Wehrmacht campaigns, until 1942.
Hungarian wets of Italian production “Ansaldo” are part of the Czech city of Khust, 1938.
At the height of the Sudeten crisis, Poland enters its troops in the Teshin region, which belongs to Czechoslovakia. These territories have long been inhabited by Czechs. The plentiful influx of Polish guest workers and already entrenched immigrants from Galicia changes the ethnic composition of the region, although it does not equalize it: 80,000 Poles, 120,000 Czechs, 27,000 inhabitants of other nationalities. Poland can capture the Teshin region — and therefore does so. In the photo — a Polish tank of English production Vickers Mk. E Type B in the Czech city. The weight of the armored vehicle is 7.2 tons, armor is 13 mm., 37 or 45 mm. a gun
Since October 1, 1938, Czech troops have withdrawn from the border. Poland receives 227 thousand inhabitants, usually speaking a mixed dialect and 805 sq. Km. km. territory. In the photo — ethnic Poles of Teshinskaya Oblast in festive costumes meet Polish troops
The territories of Poland, acquired by Germany at the expense of Germany under the Treaty of Versailles (Western Prussia and part of Silesia, see the map above), prevent the Reich from uniting with East Prussia, the “cradle of German militarism”, its sacred center. After negotiations on the creation of a land corridor, or at least the transit of goods through Poland without bureaucratic obstacles, September 1, 1939, the invasion begins simultaneously from Germany, Slovakia and Prussia. The Polish Air Force, having existed for three days, shoots down 130 Luftwaffe aircraft. From September 22, the bombing of Warsaw begins: 1,150 aircraft drop 4,500 tons of bombs, and on September 28 the Polish military command (the civil government takes refuge in France) signs an act of surrender. Photo — view from the cockpit of the German bunker “Junkers-88” to the Polish city (possibly the suburbs of Warsaw)
German troops in Poland, 1939. In modern historical literature, the thesis of the weak mechanization of the infantry units of the Wehrmacht is being discussed. However, this is not quite true
A significant part of ethnic Poles consider themselves to be a branch of an ancient German race, or descendants of Iranian-speaking Sarmatians, but not Slavs. For some unknown reason, the unification of forces that has increased since 1938, 90 million Germany, and 35 million Poland, for their march to the East, will not take place. Otherwise, the USSR and its Anglo-Saxon allies could hardly count on winning the war. A production photograph — a German soldier, probably treats something, a guarded Polish girl
Since September 17, Soviet troops have entered Poland. Their goal is to return the Western Belorussia and Western Ukraine, captured during the Russian-Polish war of 1920, to protect the Belarusians, Ukrainians and Jews who are there, respectively. The main idea: if Poland shows enough courage in confronting Hitler, it is actively assisted by France and England, the Wehrmacht meets with a worthy rebuff, the status quo is observed on the part of the USSR. The obvious victory of the Germans, inclined, of course, to occupy the entire territory, means the entry into the game of the Red Army. Part of Poland — the Vilna (Vilnius) region with 490 thousand inhabitants are transferred to Lithuania. Some territories pass to the satellite of Germany — Slovakia. Refused to accept Soviet citizenship 78,000 refugees (including Jews) from Germany occupied by Poland, are deported back, or receive 20 years of camps. Losses of the parties: Poland — irretrievably 63 000 soldiers and officers in the battles with the Wehrmacht, 420 000 in German captivity, 230 000 in the USSR (ordinary and non-commissioned officers are dismissed at home, in 1942 most of them, in agreement with England, bypassing Iran, joins the British forces, forming the army of General Anders or Sikorsky), as well as 357 aircraft of different types. Germany — 15 000 killed, as well as 319 armored cars and 285 aircraft (as a result of air crashes, air defense and fighter operations). Soviet troops (RKKA) — 2,000 dead, 17 tanks and 10 aircraft. Poland: irretrievable losses in battles with the Red Army — 3000. Slovak army: 18 people. In the photo — the Soviet tank BT-7 in the Polish city, 1939.
Soviet troops in Western Belorussia. The Republic reunites and gets rid of violent polonization, it’s true. But, at the same time, about 100,000 wealthy (hard-working) peasants, entrepreneurs and landowners, according to Stalin’s decision, are sent “for reforging” to the Gulag. Approximately the same statistics for Western Ukraine. In the center of the photo is the Soviet armored vehicle BA-10. Weight 5 tons, crew 4 people, armor 10 mm., Gun 45 mm., Two machine guns. In subsequent battles with the Wehrmacht, this machine will prove to be quite mediocre. Manufactured 3,400 items
Lithuanian tanks, probably of their own production, on the border with the Polish Republic. The servicemen are waiting for the order to start the occupation. The prize for this campaign, with the permission of the Germans — the Vilnius region, as well as the payment for former humiliations and ultimatums from Poland

Ideas of Great Finland, uniting the peoples of the Finnish-Ugric group; Finns, Karelians, Estonians, from the Gulf of Bothnia to the Ural Mountains, are spreading with the separation of Finland proper from Russia in 1918. The Government of Suomi sends a petition to the warring Germany; conclude a Brest peace with the condition of joining Finland (an ally of the Austro-German Empire), East Karelia.

In the course of their own civil war, on April 29, 1918, the White Finns capture Vyborg, arrange the genocide of all people who do not speak Finnish (retired military, schoolboys in Russian uniforms, even Poles). Three thousand people die.

On May 15, 1918, the Finnish government declared war on Soviet Russia. Its troops occupy, in particular, the Russian, from the 16th century, Pechenga, rename the name of this village in “Petsamo”. Later, large deposits of nickel ore will be explored here, since 1935 their industrial development by Anglo-American corporations will begin.

The Finnish military partially block Petrograd, contributing to the first great famine in this city (according to averaged data, one hundred and fifty thousand people become victims of it, as well as “red” terror). At the rate of Mannerheim, a plan for “national uprisings” is being developed, Finnish instructors are being allocated to create centers of insurgency. However, the plans of the Field Marshal to conquer East Karelia, the Kola Peninsula, the offensive against Petrograd, Germany does not support. After the Vyborg tragedy, any joint operations to overthrow the Bolshevik government along with the Finns, the White Army refuses to conduct either.

By May 1920, parts of the Red Army were eliminating the puppet North-Karelian state. In October of the same year, Finland and the USSR signed the Tartous Peace Treaty, according to which Russia was losing part of its territories. However, in 1921 Helsinki unleashed the second Soviet-Finnish war, by forces of “forest partisans” committing acts of sabotage and killing of supporters of Soviet power. The fighting ends in March 1922, a document is signed to ensure the inviolability of the Soviet-Finnish border. About 30,000 people dissatisfied with the new order go to Finland and, up to the end of the 1920s, armed groups formed from them, make raids on Soviet territory.

Whatever it was, the mood in Finland does not seem friendly to the Soviet government. His proposal – the removal of the border from Leningrad at the expense of Finland, in exchange for twice the size of the areas of East Karelia. Rent of the island of Hanko to create a Soviet military base. Disarmament and demolition of the “Mannerheim Line” on the Karelian Isthmus. Finland rejects these conditions. On the map – the state of things before and after the Soviet-Finnish war

“Freedom to the oppressed” — such a slogan was put on board the I-16 fighter during the Soviet-Finnish war. Many citizens, soldiers of the Soviet Union really consider the Finnish workers and peasants an oppressed class. Otherwise, they would hardly have been able to fight against the Finns and under the threat of severe reprisals. It seems that even Stalin himself, who, it must be supposed, suffers from a complex split of consciousness, thinks that in the USSR, under his personal rule, the people of Suomi would live much better. A reconnaissance network, adjusted to the needs of I. Dzhugashvili, is helpful in confirming such a distorted picture of what is happening. A more plausible option is that the dictator, as it is customary for all dictators, simply collects more and more new territories
Dot line Mannerheim 2nd generation, “millionaire” (name of the amount in the Finnish stamps expended for the erection). The thickness of reinforced concrete walls is 2 m, the length of the structure is 30—40 m. Conventional armament is two 76 mm. guns, antitank 37 mm. guns, machine guns. Addition — ditch, mines, barbed wire, concrete bungs. In total, the second generation of bunkers was built 7. Probably, the spring of 1940
Military operations begin after the delivery of an ultimatum, on November 30, 1939, from shelling (ships of the Baltic Fleet) and bombing of Helsinki. The Soviet Union is excluded from the League of Nations. European countries supply Suomi with weapons, including free of charge (350 aircraft, 500 guns) and volunteers. For two months the columns of Soviet troops advancing along the forest roads are being cut by Finnish skiers, surrounded and destroyed. This is no longer the Halkin Gol. Photo — the Soviet armored convoy, defeated in the Karelian forests. Finnish soldiers inspect the frozen Soviet tanks T-26. Probably, December 1939
In February, having saturated the troops with heavy artillery and tanks, having increased the norms of food allowance, the USSR is making progress in the breakthrough of the Mannerheim Line; On March 13, Soviet troops enter Vyborg. The world lies. Irrevocable, severe losses of the USSR — 130 000 people, 650 tanks, 640 aircraft; Finns — 26 000 people, with 450 000 refugees, 62 aircraft. From the Finnish captivity, 4,354 people return, and are being filtered by the NKGB GUGB. 450 of them are released, the rest receive from 5 to 8 years of camps. In the photo there is a Soviet armored column, cut by Finnish skiers into several parts, and destroyed. In the foreground is a truck with an anti-aircraft installation. December 1939
This military operation could have a special meaning if the USSR kept Petsamo (Pechenga) with nickel ore stocks, much needed by Germany’s military industry. However, the international community, including, above all, the UK, is strongly opposed. The area Petsamo returns to the Finns, and they organize a large-scale supply of nickel to the Axis countries. Pechenga will join the Russian Federation only in 1944. The photo shows the Soviet howitzer B-4. The caliber is 203 mm. (although it seems that much more). The main hero of the Finnish war. The surname “Stalin’s Sledgehammer”, or “Karelian Sculptor”, for the fact that this instrument turns Finnish dots into a kind of avant-garde statues. The result of action B-4 — if not the penetration of the walls, then the psychological impact on the defenders of the DOTs. Many of them, after a long bombardment of the B-4 went crazy. Karelian Isthmus, February 1940
Among the advantages in the combat training of troops, after such a harsh school, is the abolition of the institution of political commissars, the experience of breaking through long-term fortifications, the winter war as a whole, and the return to production of a submachine gun (PAP). Cons, in addition to the hardest losses — the German government understands that, in principle, is able to achieve all-round success in the war against the “colossus on clay feet.” … A view of the surviving Soviet soldier in the camera. On the ruins of the Finnish pillbox, the spring of 1940.
Soviet officers are posing against the backdrop of “Karelian sculpture”. March-April 1940
…Denmark and Norway are threatened with the capture of two centers of power: England and Germany. Denmark tends to the protectorate of Germany, the leaders of the country (ethnic Germans, as a rule) give the order not to resist the invasion; which took place in March 1940, and cost the life of thirteen Danish and two German soldiers. The Reich acquires a good supplier of agricultural products, a dozen of warships, as well as a 6,000-strong voluntary corps, which fought on the Eastern Front until its disbandment in 1943. Photo — German tanks T-2 on the streets of Copenhagen (Denmark)
In April 1940, German warships attacked the British-assisted Norway and, by June 16 of the same year, with the support of airborne assault forces, seized it. The irrevocable human losses of the opponents are approximately equal: the Norwegians have 1,400 men, and also 60,000 prisoners, the British 1800, French and Polish 500, Germans about 4000. Allied forces are deprived of a total of 15 warships, including the aircraft carrier, Germany — 34 large and 10 small; these losses make the landing operation in the UK questionable. As a result of the submarine war, England is losing 485 ships, which is one third of the merchant fleet: Germany exchanges them for its 9 submarines.Photo – German paratroopers on the rocks of Norway
The harbor of the Norwegian city of Narvik, after a battle with the German fleet
The French tanks “Renault”, delivered to the Norwegian allies, despite their generally good tactical and technical characteristics, still seem somewhat frivolous. Narvik, 1940
On May 10, 1940, Belgium and Holland receive an ultimatum from the German command with reproaches in violation of neutrality — the unhindered passage of British aircraft over their territory, as well as the construction of long-term fortifications facing Germany. The note calls on Holland not to prevent the German troops entering the country, not as enemies. which, however, by this time already are on the land of the Netherlands. The government of the country of dams and cheese requests assistance from the British and French, their expeditionary corps is being put forward to establish contact with the Dutch. German paratroopers seize the strategically important bridge from Rotterdam, which allows German tanks to block all large Dutch infantry units. Under the threat of bombardment of Rotterdam, a demand is demanded for full surrender of the state. The ultimatum is accepted, however, as a result of a mistake, or deliberate action of 60 Heinkel 111 bombers, 97 tons of bombs are dropped on the city. Holland surrenders five days after the outbreak of the war. Losses of the Dutch side: 2,330 soldiers and officers, 70 aircraft, (68 Typhoons lost by the British Air Force), as well as 2,000 civilians, German — about 3,000 military, 275 aircraft. In the photo — the ruins of the suburbs of Dutch Rotterdam after the German bombing
The idea of an ambitious German officer, Erich von Manstein, is to attack the Anglo-French army, superior in number (4 million to 3 million Wehrmacht fighters), through the mountain (Belgian) Ardennes, from the north, through the forces of a few but unified tank units, the Fuhrer.In the photo – German soldiers inspect the British tank “Matilda”, killed during the Ardennes operation
The battle continues to unfold in neighboring Belgium, where the combined French, English, Belgian troops, and Wehrmacht forces converge on May 10—11. The first, truly grandiose operation of the Germans begins almost a failure: in the vicinity of Luxembourg, a motorized column of 41,000 units of equipment, a bumper to the bumper, stands in a 250-kilometer traffic jam. However, the confused allies and do not subject this light, desired goal to the bombing. Finally, 1,100 tanks break away from the concentration of infantry and break through the mountain serpentines to Belgium. Three days later, steel cars, with carriages filled with primitin, almost unimpededly cross the borders of France.Photo – German motorcycle scouts are advancing along the street of a dilapidated French city
Of the battles of this period, one should note the first major tank battle at Ann, where 623 German (mainly Panzer 1—2) and 415 French (Renault, Gochkis, practically the same) tanks came together. The shortcomings of German armored vehicles were revealed — thin, 14.5 mm. armor and weak 20 mm. gun, against 45mm. armor and 37 mm. Guns tanks, Gochkis, whose crews, incidentally, consist of only two people. The tactics of the Panzerwaffe — beating with a single steel fist, with clear coordination over the radio and the clear purpose of the operation being conducted, shows superiority over the manner of the opponents to place the non-radiofected tanks in a shaky line. Belgium surrenders on May 28, its armed forces are getting out of the fight.In the photo – the dead French tankman near the broken tank Renault, France 1940.
During the offensive operations of the Wehrmacht in the Benelux countries, and in France, in addition to parachute assault, airplane-piloted planes are actively used (see photo). This way of landing is often associated with the loss of a valuable aircraft, but allows the soldiers to stay in the group, along with the cargo. It seems that for these German soldiers the war is just such an interesting adventure
German fighter “Messerschmitt Focke-Wulf 190”, the basis of German achievement of domination in the air of the first half of the war. Takeoff weight 2200 kg., The maximum speed after the replacement of the engine in 1938 — 570—580 km. h. Armament — four 7.92 mm. machine gun, or two machine guns and 20 mm. a gun. During the war years, 33,000 units were manufactured (the most massive combat aircraft in history)
Places of battle are moving to French Dunkirk. The movement of the German panzerwaffe is hampered by the rugged terrain; They also do not aspire to enter the zone of action of the large-caliber naval artillery of the British. Surrounded by Anglo-French troops, taking advantage of the bad weather, interferes with the actions of aviation, they are evacuated by the sea, leaving all their heavy equipment to the enemy. The idea to create here a springboard, a splinter in the body of fascist Continental Europe, is not considered. Photo — the evacuation of British soldiers on ships that came almost right to the shore. Dunkirk, June 1940
Italy enters the war on the side of Germany; although its 300,000-strong army does not have much success, it completely demoralizes the French, and, on June 21, in the Compiegne Forest, where the Treaty of Versailles was signed 20 years ago, France’s surrender is announced. The loss of Belgium: 6,000 people irrevocably, 202,000 prisoners, as well as 112 aircraft, France 84,000 killed, 1.8 million prisoners (the majority are sent to forced labor in Germany), 50 aircraft. Great Britain — 68,000 people, about 1,000 aircraft, 64,000 vehicles, Germany — 18,000 soldiers and officers on German data and 45,000 according to estimates of English historians, 432 aircraft. In addition to the developed French economy, Germany receives 2,000 combat tanks (used against guerrillas or converted into ACS), 1,400 aircraft and a 7,000-strong French volunteer legion. Photo — the rescued British “Tommy” are moving to the shores of the Foggy Albion, the Strait of Pas-de-Calais, June 1940
Burning oil storage Dunkirk. On the right — patrol British plane
Dunkirk through a German camera
The car in Compiegne Forest (France), the very one in which the Treaty of Versailles, humiliating for Germany, was signed 22 years ago. The capitulation of France, or, more precisely, of its northern half, is taken once by the glorious Marshal Petain, the hero of the First World War (right in the center)
The occupation of half of France, Germany and Italy, 1940. In Toulon, the main part, maintaining a high degree of combat capability, is based on the French fleet. The resort city of Vichy becomes the capital of the new government
German children and soldiers welcome the success of Nazi Germany, 1940.
On the night of July 3, 1940, British divisions seized the French warships stationed in British ports. It does not do without bloody incidents, several people die on both sides. The meaning of this operation is not to allow the French, if they so suddenly wish, to transfer their fleet to the Germans (or, even more so, to go over to their side). Similar actions are also being taken in all the bases of the Mediterranean Sea, where the ships controlled by the Vichy government are located. In the Egyptian port of Alexandria, the initiative of the British captain-negotiator allows us to arrive at a reasonable compromise. In July 1943, the battleship, four cruisers and several destroyers join the Anglo-American allies. But, in other places everything is much, much more complicated. Photo — Mers-el-Kebir Harbor, June 1940.
To neutralize part of the French fleet, which is in the harbor of Mers-el-Kebir (Algeria), the British are equipped with a squadron of three battleships, two cruisers, an aircraft carrier and eleven destroyers. In the ultimatum, the French demanded: go to the ports of the West Indies, or flood their own ships. The British commander orders to open fire at 16.45, without waiting for the expiration date of the note presented to him. Shells cover the bored, anchored battleships, cruisers, destroyers, navigational vessels and submarines. Three battleships receive hard-to-repair damage and are stranded. Survivors finish off torpedo bombers from the aircraft carrier “Ark Royal”. One battleship, the newest “Strasbourg”, taking advantage of the short-lived lull and the help of a destroyer who removed some of the minefields, leaves for Toulon. On the way this serious ship meets almost board to board, almost defenseless now, the British “Ark Royal”, but the captain orders the fire not to open. The English do not appreciate such a nice gift and send six “Swordfish” to Strasbourg. Anti-aircraft guns left without damage to the battleship knocked down two aircraft
Similar battles will also take place in Dakar (French North Africa, now Sinegal). Attack on a group of ships in the West Indies, the island of Guadalupe, prevents the intervention personally of the US President, Franklin Roosevelt. For two days “Catapults” France loses 1,400 people, England -2 pilots and 6 aircraft. In addition, tens or hundreds of thousands of French with an easy heart become collaborators. Photo — French ships breaking from the harbor of Mers-el-Kebir
The Richelieu battleship (displacement 27,000 tons), which was seriously damaged in the port of Dakar, is subsequently bought from France by the US government. Powerful 380 mm. guns are drilled to the appropriate American standard, and, after this war they are firing off the coast of Burma. But the most interesting is contained in the holds of this elegant, aureole-covered secrets of the ship. It was the gold of the French National Bank, and also of Poland, Belgium, and the Netherlands, only $ 2.5 billion of that time. What happens to the precious metal further, and by what agreement it falls into the hands of the Americans, we just do not know. It is believed that in 1945 its monetary equivalent was transferred to the countries of Europe, under the Marshall Plan, as a loan for exclusively American goods
From July 10 to October 30, 1940, Britain and Germany are engaged in a fierce battle in the air. As a result, England loses a little more than a thousand aircraft, its opponent — 1800 combat vehicles. In Western historical literature, this result is considered to be the greatest battle of its time, which will be remembered for thousands of years. The air battle for the Kuban (RSFSR, 1943) is characterized by similar numbers of downed aircraft, but, for some reason, remains in the shadows. Actually, in the Soviet and Russian historiography, the air battle for Britain is also a relatively insignificant episode, among the really epic land battles on the territory of the Soviet Union. Be that as it may, Germany loses interest in the UK and focuses entirely on preparing an invasion of the USSR. Photo — raid of Luftwaffe bombers to ships in the English port of Dover, 1940.
The Government of the USSR sends an ultimatum to the Romanian government demanding the return of Bessarabia (the former Russian province that was rejected by Romania in 1920) and Northern Bukovina as compensation for the exploitation of the population of Bessarabia (June 27, 1940). A few hours before the start of the Soviet invasion, the Romanian king accepts all conditions. The received lands are divided between the Soviet Ukraine and Moldova. In total, the USSR receives 3.7 million people and 50 thousand square meters. km. territory. About 28,000 heads of the most well-to-do families are deported to Siberia (relatively few)
The population of Bessarabia, indeed, undergone many humiliations and terror from the Romanian authorities, as a whole is loyal to the Soviet government. Ethnic Romanians and Ukrainians (85%) Bukovina, 0.8 million people who did not feel this kind of attitude, are annexed without much enthusiasm. In the photo there is a parade of Soviet troops and a festive folk demonstration in Chisinau, July 3, 1940.
Representatives of the young generation of Bessarabia (Moldavia) present flowers to the Red Army soldiers
In October 1940 the Soviet Union invites Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, under a mutual assistance agreement, to deploy a military contingent of 25,000 troops on their territory to defend themselves against Hitlerite Germany. It is already clear that the Red Army is inclined to achieve its goals, regardless of any losses. Two weeks later, the governments of these countries are accused of collusion with Germany (which is partly true), repressions against foreigners (Poles, etc.) and are shifting. In the summer of 1940, following the results of nationwide voting, the republics are formed by communist governments and adopt declarations of entry into the Soviet Union; which are immediately approved by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. According to documents of the NKVD of June 17, 1941, in Lithuania — 5663 persons, mainly employees of the secret police and “classical capitalists” were subjected to confinement — 10186, Latvia, respectively, 5624 and 9547, Estonia — 3179 and 5979. Lithuanian President Antanas Smyatona wisely emigrates to Germany, then to Switzerland and the USA. His Estonian counterpart Konstantin Päts is deported with his family to Siberia, receives 25 years of camps, since 1942 is kept in a prison psychiatric clinic, he died there in 1956. The head of Latvia, Karlis Ulmanis convinces the people that “friends have come”, actively cooperates with the new, pro-Soviet government, and in particular, publishes the “Law on the Fight Against Wrecking”. Somewhat later he begins to understand the situation, asks the Kremlin for permission to travel to Switzerland, but eventually ends up in the NKVD camp near Krasnovodsk (Turkmenistan), where, in 1942, he dies. Photo — a demonstration of the population of Latvia for joining the Soviet Union. May-June 1940
Karlis Ulmanis, Head of Latvia
Anastastus Smyatona, prudent leader of Lithuania
Konstantin Päts, Head of Estonia
Parade, or at least a demonstration of Soviet troops in Riga, summer 1940.
Soviet (Russian) soldiers in Riga, 1940. I believe that none of them wishes evil to any of the inhabitants of the three Baltic countries. Every person in this column considers himself, if possible, a bearer of good and a hero — a liberator. Evil is only a general idea in the all-powerful ruler, which in this case is (non-Russian) Joseph Stalin and his, formed on 90% of the representatives of Jewish nationality, a repressive apparatus… It’s not me
Since July 1940, the battle for the Atlantic has become extremely acute. Germany receives new naval bases. France withdraws from the war, and fascist Italy, on the contrary, enters it. The photo shows the death of the British heavy cruiser Hood, the morning of May 24, 1941. Before that, the ship is marked by the conduct of Atlantic convoys and, notice, the flooding of the battleship Brittany, during Operation Catapult. With life more than a thousand French sailors are forgiven. Now, “Hood”, as part of a group of battleship and 6 destroyers, goes to intercept the German battleship Bismarck and the heavy cruiser Prince Eugen. The British cruiser opens fire from 24 km. and at full speed moves closer with its opponents. A volley of one of the German ships covers the unfolding “Hood” from a distance of 15–18 km. The cruiser for a while follows the same course and, a kilometer from the “Prince Eugen” (probably there and made this picture) as a result of a powerful explosion breaks in half. A hail of debris falls on the German cruiser. 1415 people are dying. Only 3 sailors survive
The German battleship Bismarck, the world’s largest ship of its time. Displacement fully equipped — 50 000 tons (twice as high as the average aircraft carrier), length 251 m, width 36 m, draft 10 m. Speed maximum 55 km. h, the range of autonomous navigation is 17,000 km. The main armament is eight 380 mm. guns in four towers.
In the evening, the same May 24, 1941, “Bismarck” receives a torpedo on board from one of the seven torpedo bombers “Swordfish”, taking off from the deck of an approaching aircraft carrier. The British are extremely sensitive to the death of the cruiser “Hood” and intend to at all costs get rid of the German battleship. The torpedo hits the main armored belt (145—320 mm.) And does not produce any special action. One sailor perishes. The attack from the air is repeated on May 25, and more successfully. One of two or three torpedoes damages the steering, so the ship begins to describe the circulation (to move forward in a spiral). In this state, “Bismarck” has to take a fight with two battleships, a heavy cruiser and several destroyers. German submarines to help him come do not have time. In the photo — the last minutes of the flaming superlinkor
The roll negatively affects the accuracy of the firing of the Bismarck guns. British shells destroy the main range-post and damage the gun turrets. Then the English heavy cruiser hits the super-ship with three torpedoes. The ship is turned upside down with a keel. Of the 2220 people, 114 are being saved (three are taken by a German submarine coming up). Since then, the German command hides the strike forces of the surface fleet, primarily in the winding Norwegian fjords, and does not give them the opportunity to once again face off against the British. German Kriegsmarines are moving to the tactics of unlimited submarine warfare. If before that, before the ship was flooded, the crew of the submarine was obliged to give the appropriate signals, and to wait for the sailors to transfer to the boats, now such tenderness is no longer there. Photo — the surviving sailors of the Bismarck board aboard the British ship
The Prime Minister of Yugoslavia signs a protocol on the accession of his country to the Tripartite Pact, March 25, 1941. On the same day, in Belgrade, an 80,000-strong demonstration against the alliance with Germany is taking place, marking, among other things, the defeat of the German Information Bureau. A new government is being formed, on April 5 the USSR and Yugoslavia are signing a treaty of friendship and non-aggression. These events Hitler views as an excuse for an invasion. And, on April 6, the armed forces of Germany, Italy, Hungary enter Yugoslavia. Stalin does not hasten to render assistance, in accordance with the concluded agreement. On Belgrade, 2,000 tons of bombs fall, and on April 16 the Yugoslav army surrenders. About 344 000 people are taken prisoner (Croatians, Hungarians and Germans — Volksdeutsche are later released). Irreversible losses: Germany 165 people, 40 aircraft, 3 tanks. Italy 3300 people, 13 aircraft, 11 tankettes. Hungary 130 people, 1 airplane. Yugoslavia: 5,000 military, 57 downed, 150 aircraft destroyed on the ground. In the photo, the Yugoslavs are celebrating the signing of an agreement on friendship with the USSR, April 5, 1941.
talian bersaliers (arrows of elite units) on the street of the Serbian city, April 1941.
For some political reasons, the seizure of Yugoslavia prompts Hitler to render more effective assistance to his Italian allies. And, on April 6, 1941, from the territory of Bulgaria, German troops invade Greece. Athens is captured on April 27, after another three days Greece will capitulate. A month later, the Wehrmacht invaded the island of Crete, considered primarily as an airfield for control of the Luftwaffe in the Mediterranean. In the photo — coastal Greek city after shelling with artillery of the Wehrmacht. April 1941
The brave but poorly armed Greek soldiers are preparing to meet the German troops. April 1941, Greece
The large losses of paratroopers do not allow further operations to be carried out to capture Cyprus and the Suez Canal immediately. Losses of Greece: 14,000 killed, allies 900, with 14,000 prisoners, the Wehrmacht 1,450 killed, Italy — about 20,000 people. It is believed that the need to seize Yugoslavia, as well as the stubborn resistance of Greece, delayed the beginning of the invasion of the USSR from May 15, 1941 to June 22, and these five weeks had a decisive effect on the course of the entire war. It seems that Serbia has returned the debt of Russia, since 1914. In the photo — German soldiers deploy a Nazi flag near the Athenian Acropolis. April-May 1941
In the Battle of Crete (May 20—31, 1941) the decisive force is the German paratroopers. On both sides perish about 5 thousand people. More than 5 thousand Greeks and 12 thousand allies (Englishmen, New Zealanders, Australians) are taken prisoner. The operation as a whole is successful, but since then the German command has refused to practice large parachute assault forces. Such a decision by Hitler allows Britain to retain the strategically important island of Malta
Count the forces of the warring parties. The population of the Soviet Union according to the results of the 1939 census is 170 million. It should be borne in mind that the leaders of the 1937 census, who showed the result of “only” 162 million for “undercounting” of the population, were shot. In 1940, territories with a population of 18 million people were annexed to the USSR, though not always loyal to the new system, having a different mentality. We assume that the results of the “shot” population census are the only correct ones, then by 1941 the population of the colossal state was 180 million people. The Third Reich, 1941, ie, Germany, Austria, the Sudetenland and some other territories inhabited by ethnic Germans subject to conscription — 90 million people. Hungary — 9.3 million (there were 800,000 Hungarians killed on the Eastern Front), Romania — 20 million (453,000 people died). These two countries are the unconditional allies of Germany, whose human reserves it could dispose of as its own. The contingent of volunteers in 64 thousand was allocated by 44 million Italy (during the war years the corps was renewed several times, 374 thousand were killed), and 25 million Spain — 18 thousand hours (irretrievable losses of 15 thousand). Slovakia — 36 thousand hours, 3 thousand people died, Croatia 2,200 people, the number of dead is unknown, Finland — about 300,000 people, losses of 70,000 (against 108,000 Soviet losses on this front, including 18,000 people killed in captivity)Wehrmacht also owned resources, the industry of France, Norway, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Poland, Greece, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and the Czech Republic. German soldiers on the border with the Soviet Union conduct reconnaissance, June 21, 1941 Left – 20 mm. automatic anti-aircraft gun 2 cm FlaK 30, to the right – an early-release T-4 tank, with short-barreled 75 mm. tool
The only ally of the USSR at the time is the 47 millionth Great Britain with 1.2 million (including parts located in the colonies), battered after the Dunkirk army. Her war with Germany until 1944 is similar to a ritual battle, a knight tournament, where, according to established rules, knights with knuckled gloves and all sorts of ammunition seize. England had fifteen thousand aircraft, a dozen aircraft carriers, many cruisers, destroyers and submarines. After Dunkirk, the British did not have more than 100 tanks, but thanks to the developed industry, their number constantly increased. Fought here rather, the technique, not people. The interest of Germany, whose people’s spirit is now ruled by the ancient German gods, lies in the Northeast. According to the plans of the Hitlerite command, German colonies on the territory of the USSR should be organized on the model of Ancient Sparta, with an autochthonous population reduced to 50 million, turned into slave-helots, respectively. In the photo — Soviet pilots before the fighters I-15 or I-16
Since June 22, 1941, Germany and Romania have joined the war with the USSR. The basis of military operations for Bucharest is understandable — the year-earlier exclusion of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. A day later, Slovakia entered the war. On 26 June, Kosice, which was Slovakia three years earlier, was bombed by unmarked aircraft, but, at that time, Hungary. 27 tons of bombs were dropped. It is still unclear whether this was the Soviet air force, bombed the city because of the confusion and obsolete maps, Germanic or even Romanian (to push the opposing ally to active action), but on June 27, Hungary declared the USSR a war. Almost at the same time, on June 25, Soviet aviation strikes at several settlements and 18 Finnish airfields. On some of them, German planes were actually based, formally, Finland was one of the Axis countries. On the same day, Suomi declares war, and by the end of the year he occupies a large part of Karelia, including its capital, Petrozavodsk (which has become Einislinna). About 70,000 civilians (from non-Finn-related peoples, according to racial anthropological surveys) are taken to Finnish concentration camps. Later, one third of them will die from malnutrition, disease and ill-treatment. Photography — and failed to take off (or made a forced landing) Soviet fighter I-16. The mass of the equipped aircraft is 1300 kg., The speed is 450 km. h, flight range of 480 km., armament — two rapid-fire machine gun 7.62 mm. Produced about 10,000 units. The second half of June 1941, the USSR
The Soviet fighter I-16, shot down on take-off, June 22, 1941.
The “Decree of Military Jurisdiction of the Barbarossa Plan” of 13 May 1941 states: “For actions that Wehrmacht servicemen and allies commit against the enemy civilian population, there is no prosecution, even if this action is simultaneously military crime or misdemeanor… I release you from the chimera, called conscience. “Further on this topic: “I reject Christianity, because it is the product of Judaism, because it is internationalistic and because it preaches peace on earth.” (Adolf Gitler). In general, we can say that the entire people of the USSR, the Soviet Army (RKKA), are moving towards God during the war, and Germany (the Axis countries), on the contrary, step by step, move away from it. “Got mit uns”, i.e. “God is with us,” the inscription engraved on buckles of belts becomes an empty formality. In the second half of the war, the funeral rites of SS men are most often conducted, according to the pagan custom of the Vikings, with the Lebens rune (the rune of life, something like an arrow pointing downwards, or a trident, or Toten-Rune, or Tyr-Rune) on the grave, instead of a cross. In the prewar picture — the military pilots of the USSR near the I-15 fighter. These people have to understand what total war is, and make almost impossible
Since June 23, 1941, the battle starts for Dubno-Lutsk-Brody (320 km west of Kiev). The General of the Army G. Zhukov, who came to the scene, rejects the idea of the Chief of Staff of the South-Western Front to withdraw troops and create a solid defense line. The new plan was an immediate strike by five mechanized corps in 2,800 (later 3,100) tanks for four (subsequently — five) German tank divisions of 720 tanks and 70 assault guns. Photo — German soldiers visiting the abandoned Soviet heavy tank T-35. Weight 50 tons, 11 crew, reservation — forehead 30 mm., Board 20 mm., All towers 20 mm. The real speed for rough terrain is 10—12 km. h. Armament — one 76.2 mm, two 45 mm. guns and six to seven machine guns. Made 59 units. Until June, tanks in military operations do not participate, confining themselves to demonstrating the power of the Soviet Union in military parades
Wehrmacht connections, in addition to combat vehicles, include large units of infantry, artillery, and also highly skilled repair brigades. Bulky (about 400 tanks) mechanized corps of the Red Army make marches of 300 km, losing at least only a mechanical breakdown of at least a third of the machines. The Soviet system of production of military equipment allegedly does not provide for the release, delivery, not even worth a half-word, of “small things” for repair, for example, gaskets or spare trains. Guidelines for driving and servicing the newest tanks, at this time — are classified even from potential mechanics. Sometimes, so carefully stored from the crews of the car, at the decisive moment refuel not with diesel fuel, but with gasoline. Approximately the same situation in the Air Force. In order to avoid any breakdown of equipment, getting accusations of wrecking, the most unfortunate consequences, the lower command is gradually sabotaging real military training. To realize how this or that thing works, one must at least break it down — it’s a simple, but an immutable truth. The fact that in the German educational units is punishable with salty jokes or a reprimand to a newcomer, the Red Army may end in execution. In the photo — the Soviet tanks BT-7 damaged and abandoned by crews. Weight 14 tons, crew 3 people, reservation 15—20 mm., Gun 45 mm., 1—3 machine guns. Speed, according to the design of the designers — the main advantage of the “high-speed” tank — on the tracks, on the highway 52 km. h, on wheels-72 km. h.
Perhaps, it can be argued that in a society of formal equality and the “territorial organization of the community”, any sign of distinction is qualified, no less than an accessory to a special caste. The Commander of the Red Army at all costs aspires to secede from the soldiers’ masses, although of course this does not go as far as in the Tsarist army. These maxims completely agree with the author’s observations during his time in the army of the Soviet, and then Russian. The German army from the middle of the nineteenth century implies, with (paradoxically) the strict observance of subordination, the attitude of the officer to the soldier as an equal to himself. Cohesion, a trusting relationship to each other, even, as it is said there, on the basis of blood ties, determines the high level of command and control. The photo shows the T-34-76 tank as part of a broken Soviet convoy. June-July, 1941 Weight 26 tons, crew 4 people, armor anti-ballistic 45 mm, in all directions in the horizontal plane (feed 40 mm.) Gun 76 mm., Course and paired with a gun machine gun. Speed along the highway 54 km. h, cross-country — 36 km. h (if you can turn on the desired gear)
So, there are counter tank fights near Kiev, sometimes successful, more often — no, massive frontal offensives on the positions of German anti-tank guns, maneuvering without communications and normal maps, separation from supply and repair lines. The result: by 30 June the Red Army loses 2,600 tanks, the Wehrmacht — 180 (irretrievably). The entire South-Western Front is crashing down. Stalin realizes the reality of such a picture: he is confronted with a group of German generals, with Hitler, compelled to answer their questions, unimaginably small and pitiful. This Dzhugashvili does not like, and he, even if not immediately, begins to make more or less correct decisions. The principle of eliminating problems, before — to see only the good, to discard all that is not part of smart plans. If someone talks about dying of hunger — they should be made to confess to espionage to Britain, and the question is solved. Twenty years after the Revolution, the people live worse than in 1914 — let’s say that this is not true, and the end is the matter. In Moscow (supply in a special category), after the cards have been canceled, thousands of queues are snapping around the stores — comrades from the NKGB warn the townsfolk without proper registration, that their next visit to the capital will be punished by article for speculation — and the crowds quickly disappear. Why bother with the actual development of the production of this boring consumer goods? The Scout believes that the Finns will not take the bread and salt of the Red Army — he should be summoned to Moscow and eliminated. It is the same with reports of the situation with the preparation of troops, or Hitler’s plans for an invasion. Those who express unpleasant, should be removed — and everything becomes pleasantly quiet.Photo – a German soldier examines a damaged tank T-34-76 on the roadside. Probably, the neighborhood of Kiev, July 1941..
But, this time, if we do not see the armored columns of the Wehrmacht, they do not cease to exist, and the mental image: Stalin before the smiling German military is becoming more real. The first orders are to “shoot”. It does not get better from that. Earlier, it was possible to establish ubiquitous deathly silence. Now the clanking of the caterpillars of German tanks is becoming more and more distinct. The commanders are getting cold hands, blood is pouring from the brain, resentment is rising in the chest — nothing more. Stalin must abandon executions, empty slogans, and work with the problem, now delving into the essence of what is happening. The control system is reconstructed into a real solution of the problems. This works from the second half of 1942, to May 45th, and, for two and a half years, allows you to get away from almost complete collapse to victory.Photo – burning T-34-76. At this stage of the war, “steel monsters” still do not impress the higher officers of the Wehrmacht. The Red Army had by this time only 60 trained crews, for these tanks. The Battle of Dubno-Lutsk-Brody, summer 1941
Kiev strategic defensive operation, summer 1941. Retreating and somewhat demoralized Soviet soldiers
German cars and armored vehicles follow the T-38 tank with four towers demolished from the hull (there was only one). Ukraine, August 1941
The Soviet tank KV-1, smashed by dozens of hits. July 1941, the south of the USSR. Armament: 76 mm. gun, 90—114 shells, three 7.62 DT machine guns (course, paired with a gun, aft). Booking: the forehead, the side of the hull is 75 mm., The forehead, the side of the tower is 75 mm. (protection from an armor-piercing shell of a 50-mm German cannon further 200 meters). Crew of 5 people. Weight 48 tons. Common problems with the transmission. Speed on the highway 34 km. h, the reserve for cross-country terrain is 120 km. Specific power 11.6 hp, ground pressure 0.77 kg. see From 1939 to 1942 produced 2770 machines.
German soldiers, the occupied territory of the USSR, summer 1941
Captured Soviet soldiers
Captured in the Kiev Kettle Soviet soldiers
Neighborhoods of Kiev, 1941…
After the battle in the Kiev Kettle. In the background, for the dead Soviet soldiers — the Soviet tank BT-7
German armored column and burning T-34-76, Ukraine, 1941
August 13, 1941 Odessa leaves the last railway train. The defense of a large Black Sea city is quite successful, but the Stavka makes a decision to evacuate troops to the Crimea. The losses of the Soviet and Allied German-Romanian troops are approximately equal — 18,000 men each side
The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran (operation “Consent”) will take place on August 25, 1941. Without declaration of war, the forces of the British Empire attack the Shah army from the Persian Gulf, the Soviet units from the Transcaucasus. The main strike force of the Red Army is about a thousand T-26 tanks, the Caspian Flotilla, the British — the fire of ship artillery and the Air Force. Many large cities, including Tehran, are bombed. Hundreds of civilians die. In the time of peace, the Iranian army is densely packed with money, but it is even more corrupt. The Iranian divisions soon lose control (the higher officers try to leave the battlefields), crumble, surrender to more or less honorable captivity. Some parts intend to fight to the end, however, on August 29 the shah gives the order to lay down their arms. In the photo — the Soviet military column enters the Iranian city of Tauris
Already on September 17, the Red Army and British units are in Tehran. A month later, having formed a loyal government (of course, now no one connected with the Germans) the allies withdraw their forces from the capital. The country is divided into Soviet and British zones of influence. According to the peace treaty, Iran is declared an ally of Britain and the USSR. The parties undertake to withdraw all troops within six months after the cessation of all hostilities. This operation has a prehistory — the occupation of Iraq by Great Britain. Action: May, 1941, landing of the expeditionary force in Basra, air force strikes against airfields, railway and other facilities. The Germans are trying to come to the aid of their allies, but, why not without due enthusiasm and scope. As a result, the British establish control over Iraq’s oil fields, and in the future — they are given the opportunity to conduct a stable corridor for military supplies to the USSR. Photo — Soviet and British officers (in characteristic shorts and cork helmets) communicate near the armored car BA-10. Iran, August 1941.
Losses of the parties in the Anglo-Iraq war. Britain — 1200 people, 30 aircraft, Iraqis — 8,500 troops, as well as 20 German, 4 Italian aircraft. Losses during the occupation of Iran: the USSR — 50 people irretrievably, 3 aircraft. Britain — 25 people, 8 aircraft. Iran — 800 troops and 300 civilians. The outcome of the operation “Consent” is the almost unimpeded delivery of more than 5 million tons of military cargo to the belligerent USSR. A small additional bonus to the Union — a significant part of the grain harvest of Northern Iran is spent on subsistence for the army. But now, in the autumn of 1941, the seizure of a considerable country of the East seems to be only a small drop of honey in a huge barrel of tar.Photo – British correspondent Alan Michi talks to the wounded in the course of the battle with the Iranians, a Soviet officer
The defense near Smolensk, 1941, July 10 — September 10. In the background — tanks T-26
The offensive of the German fascist troops near Smolensk, autumn 1941. Infantry with all the equipment, mortar men and T-4 tank of the first releases
Soviet gunners with 45 mm. gun. Surroundings of Smolensk, autumn 1941
German military inspect the Soviet tank KV-2 with a broken chassis. Even without enemy shells, the heavily loaded chassis of the KV-1 and KV-2 tanks often fail
Broken, probably by hitting an air bomb, the KV-1 tank. The main advantage of the Wehrmacht at this stage of the war is the high coordination between the various kinds of troops. In the composition of infantry, tank, and other combat units, there are necessarily airmen directing the Luftwaffe to the target, without additional negotiations with the commanders of the flight units
Vyazemskaya defensive operation, October 2—13, 1941 To the west of Vyazma the forces of Army Group Center are surrounded by four Soviet armies. Irrevocable losses of the Red Army — 250 thousand people, and 600 thousand prisoners. The losses of the Wehrmacht are unknown. Before Moscow there are now only scattered small groups of Red Army
Transported in freight cars, captured in Vyazma boiler Soviet soldiers. Photo on the cover of the German newspaper
Prisoners of Vyazma boiler
Soldiers of the Army Group “North” in the suburbs of Leningrad. The offensive is somewhat delayed and the inhabitants of the city manage to create the necessary fortifications. Also, the heavy tanks KV-1 and KV-2, produced by the Kirov plant
Since September 8, 1941, Leningrad, the second largest city in importance and importance of the USSR, as well as the adjacent territories are surrounded
The norms for issuing bread, the main or only food product, during the first two months of the blockade are reduced by five times. Since November 20, the minimum rate of bread delivery (employees, children and dependents) is 125 grams. Workers engaged in manual labor receive 250 grams of bread a day. In the photo — probably close relatives. It is believed that men suffer hunger worse than women
Some of the workers, not engaged in military production, go to the front. In this photo are workers of the Kirov plant. The fortification line is sometimes only 5 kilometers from important industrial sites, 16 kilometers away. from the Winter Palace
On the ice of the Ladoga Lake, in the circumvention of the positions of the Wehrmacht, the “Road of Life” is laid. Under the attacks of German aircraft, grain is imported into the city. Return flights are evacuating children. Since December 25, 1941, the rates of bread distribution have increased somewhat
Evacuation of Leningrad residents not engaged in defense and production
Finnish soldiers posing with torture Soviet prisoners of war, 1942. During the summer and autumn of 1941 Finland returns the territory lost in the Winter War. Further, the German-Finnish Karelian army continues the offensive, seizes Petrozavodsk and blocks Leningrad from the North. In the occupied territories, the Finns segregate the population on a national basis. Also, all responsible Soviet employees, enterprise managers, newspaper editors, policemen, etc., are sent to concentration camps. Justified hatred Bolshevik regime Finns mixed with longstanding own national aspirations. In a sense, Finland is hardly much better than fascist Germany. Ambitions of this sparsely populated country are constrained not by spiritual ideals, but perhaps only by its technical capabilities. July 30—31, an ally of the USSR, Britain, without declaration of war, inflicts air strikes on Petsamo and Kirkenes. One ship is damaged, two go to the bottom. The Air Force of England is losing 16 aircraft.December 6, 1941 Great Britain declares war on Finland.After the first defeat of the Wehrmacht, in the Battle of Moscow, Finland refuses to conduct active hostilities
German soldiers on the outskirts of Moscow. According to Hitler’s directive, the assault is conducted from September 30, 1941.
Sevastopol, 1941, the first assault, October 30 — November 21
Seamen of Sevastopol. On land, sailors form an elite infantry, fully aware of the value of combat brotherhood, and also accustomed to handling complex technology
Sevastopol, 1941
Sevastopol Air Defense Forces
Outskirts of Sevastopol, autumn 1941
Battleship “Sevastopol” is firing. The first and the second storm of the city of military glory are broken, first of all, thanks to the artillery support of the ships in the bays
Killed the KV-1 tank with dozens of shells, in the town of Venev, Tula region
The defense of Tula, November 1941. The important center of the Soviet defense industry is practically surrounded by German units, but it keeps the siege, and does not allow the Wehrmacht to strike Moscow from the south
December 28, 1941 RKKA and the fleet landed in Kerch, a day later — in Feodosia (Crimea). This operation is quite successful. Occupying Kerch, the German division is evacuated deep into the peninsula, throwing heavy equipme
Subsequent, poorly prepared and indecisive attacks on the fortified positions of the Wehrmacht are merely depleting the mechanized parts of the Red Army.
Killed the tank KV-1. District of the Old Crimea, the limit of advance of the Soviet marines
The erection of fortifications on the streets of the capital
Panic in Moscow, October 16, 1941
To overcome the fear of the Wehrmacht, an exhibition of disabled German military equipment is being organized in the center of Moscow
The battery is 85 mm. anti-aircraft guns in the Park of Culture and Rest. M. Gorky
Moscow, 1941. MiG-3 fighters. The capital is covered with impressive air defense forces, and Hitler’s plan to destroy the city from the air is not carried out
Two hundred thousand civilians and volunteers are mobilizing to help the Soviet Army in Moscow. Almost all of them die in the coming months
American poster in support of Lend-Lease
In November 1941, the first deliveries on lend-lease began. The country of the Soviets receives the first 670 aircraft, about 400 tanks and 3,000 other military cargoes from the United States and Great Britain. In the battle near Moscow, the armored vehicles “Valentine” and “Matilda II” account for approximately 35% of all tanks used by the Red Army. Lend-Lease aircraft, Tomahawks and Hurricanes form 16% of the air defense fleet of the capital of the capital
Moscow, November 1941. BT-7 tanks are sent to the front.
“Siberian”, in fact — the Far Eastern divisions, sent to Moscow after the assurances of scouts that there will not be any wars with Japan in the near future, represent the most prepared military formations
Moscow strategic offensive operation, November 1941
As a result of the Moscow battle, German troops were thrown 100—120 kilometers from the capital. Soviet soldiers for the first time see a significant amount of damaged and abandoned German equipment
The German motorcade, broken down near Moscow
German prisoners of war. Soviet troops take German soldiers for the first time in captivity groups, 10—15 people each
Pearl Harbor, the US Pacific military base
Harbor Pearl Harbor, modern photography. Approximately so, in color, almost 80 years ago, saw this all Japanese pilot
November 26, 1941, the US, seeing in the ambitions of the Pacific power threat to its security, declare Japan an ultimatum: to leave already almost conquered China, Indonesia and Korea. In response, on December 7, 1941, Japanese aircraft, with a belated declaration of war, strikes at the base of the US Navy in Hawaii (Pearl Harbor, Pearl Harbor, roughly in the middle of the Pacific Ocean). 2400 people are being killed, four battles of the First World War, four destroyers, 188 planes are sinking. Twenty-three submarines and, note, six aircraft carriers, the main strike force of the US Navy, which left shortly before the open ocean, remain intact. Losses of the Japanese side — 29 aircraft, 55 crew members, 9 submariners from five sunken ultra-small submarines. In the photo — the attack of “Zero” of the Imperial Air Force
Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941
Japan is accompanied by a major initial success. Since December 8, 1941 samurai stormed the dominion of Great Britain, Hong Kong. After 18 days of defense, the garrison surrenders. 9000 British and Canadian soldiers are captured. The irrevocable losses of Japan — 2 thousand people, the Anglo-Saxon allies — 4 thousand. Expansion of the Pacific Ocean and continental China acquires a scale previously unthinkable. In the photo there is a parade of Japanese troops in Hong Kong, January 1941.
Since June 1941, thousands of echelons with people and evacuated equipment
The new plants built in Siberia and beyond the Urals sometimes represent flat sites, almost without walls, without a roof, with rows of machine tools on which military products are manufactured. As a rule, only women and teenagers work here
A teenager is 12—13 years old at work. For adults, work shifts last for 15—16 hours
Issue of KV-1 tanks on the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant unimaginably expanded since 1941. A new huge tank-building combine is sometimes called “Tankograd”
After a fairly successful Moscow battle, Stalin cheers up and again ceases to listen to anyone’s advice. The Supreme Commander believes that 1942 is the year of “the final rout of the German fascist troops.” As a continuation of the battle near Moscow, on January 8, the Rzhev-Vyazma operation starts — the general offensive of Soviet troops on the enemy’s well-prepared positions, without concentration of forces and assets in certain directions
Soviet soldiers on the front line. Rzhev-Vyazma operation
The Vyazma landing operation is carried out by the Red Army in several stages, from January 18 to February 28, 1942. The main goal is the disabling of railways and highways. Paratroopers, with a total of 10 thousand, are usually dispersed over a large area, lose some of the equipment, but still gather, and begin to perform a combat mission. Later, the survivors of the fierce and, at least somehow, successful battles, fighters join forces with cavalrymen on the rear of the Wehrmacht. Further, they break through the front from within and exit into the location of the main forces of the Red Army

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