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Revolutionary

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565 стр.
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12+
ISBN:
978-5-4496-7536-1
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Revolutionary

Pre-revolutionary Russia in color. Presented are photographs of Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorsky, a Russian chemist, a student of Dmitry Mendeleev, an inventor and an innovator and photographer. Of the three black and white images drawn through the image filter, one is assembled, colorfully displaying the reality of the picture. This book presents reference images and text for which we, dear reader, are restoring a voluminous History. The undated photo shows a girl from a village in Central Russia. All in color. Help yourself to the berries. Presumably 1903
Peasant children on a hill in front of a snow-white temple. If the theory of reincarnation is correct, maybe they are you and me. Tver Province, 1909
Part of the Russian Empire, Uzbekistan. The beginning of the twentieth century. From the second half of the nineteenth century, Asian peoples, very poorly adapted to European life, constitute 40% of the population of Russia. They are certainly good, but other people
The Hinduкush Hydroelectric Power Station (present-day Turkmenistan), 1911. The hydroelectric power station was commissioned in the distant 1909, many years before the Bolsheviks declared it their own invention of the “electrification plan of Russia”. The machine room still looks impressive, like a shot from a science fiction film. The capacity of the power plant operating to date (2019) is 1.2 MW.
Employees of one of the river shipping companies of pre-revolutionary Russia. In the photo (1904) the phenotype, and even the imprint of the soul of the Russian person of the given time, is fairly fully represented. We see the conqueror, the suppressor of the proud and the leading philosopher of them. In less than 15 years, this ethnic group will be mowed out by another passionate, biblical nation. The main idea of the Russians is unity for the sake of something indefinitely great. In fact, the centralization of power, without feedback from the people entails many unpleasant excesses. These include, for example, the occupation of state command posts by representatives of alien nationality. Now Russian nobles are alien in Russia. These people communicate with each other in French, go to church as if for a colorful theatrical production, and consider 90% of the population a “mob”
Photo — Emperor Alexander II (1818—1881) on vacation. The Tsar is known for the conclusion of the Parisian Peace that is beneficial for Russia (1856) as a result of the Crimean War, the liquidation of military settlements from the gendarme count Arakcheev, reforms in the field of self-government, the judicial system and education. The most famous actions — the liberation of the peasants from serfdom (1961) and the sale of Alaska. The Asian territories were annexed, the Polish uprising was suppressed (1863), the Caucasian War was completed (1867). The war with Turkey (1877–1878) brings freedom to the Christian peoples of the Balkans, but does not benefit Russia itself (at least as a moral satisfaction from gratitude). Alexander the Second dies in 1881, from a bomb by a terrorist of the Earth and Will organization. The tragic death causes catharsis in Russian society. The moral cleansing, the general rejection of terrorism, and not the “tightening the screws” by Alexander the Third, ensures a subsequent long peace. Alexander the Second points out that the need for the abolition of serfdom has matured, and “it is much better for this to happen from above rather than from below.” The emperor is offered a solution. Two thirds of the landowner’s possessions are pledged under the security of loans taken from the state. It is necessary to pay a small difference in order to buy them, to transfer the peasants attached to the estates of the state, and then release them altogether. But, such a brilliant plan of the state property manager official V. Kiselev, the tsar and nobility is rejected. It would be too much for ordinary people to be magical and clear. Get freedom in one moment, and even the estates of former feudalists to boot? Yes, so you can avoid a revolution, and the physical elimination of the nobility. The answer is no. The Manifesto of the 17 Acts “On the Most Gracious Gift of the Rights of the Condition of Free Rural Citizens to the Serf People”, which is difficult to understand, was made public on March 5, 1861 in Moscow. The main provisions: the peasants are freed, they are transferred their movable property, personal homes and buildings. From this point on, the master does not have the right to sell people, to relocate them, to force them to perform marriages at his own discretion. The landowner allocates field allotment to the rural society of the world (a kind of Soviet collective economy). The council of the community distributes land among the peasants at its discretion. Next, carefully. A person does not have the right to refuse a site taken within nine years, even if he could fully redeem it immediately. As long as the drawn up deed of sale has not occurred, the farmer is obliged to work off the serfdom or pay the rent. He is in a temporary state. For arrears, a house, movable property, but not a means of production — land and cattle — can be taken away. The peasant has the right to immediately give up the right to purchase the land. Then he gets a quarter of the established minimum put on and becomes free, even if without means of subsistence. If after nine years the head of the family refuses the land (5 dessiatinas for a peasant’s soul), he is released from obligations to the landowner and the state. When (no less than nine years later) the peasant feels ready to bear an increased financial burden, and wants to leave the plot, he turns to a government agency that pays the landowner a ransom. Down payment — 20% directly to the owner of the land. Since then, a person, on the one hand, has been tearing up legal relations with a landowner, buying himself and his family, on the other, he is in debt bondage. The borrowed amount has to be paid for 49 years, from 6% per annum. Have you understood anything here, dear reader? The general meaning is that the peasants give two and a half times the market price for their native land. Note: “official tithe” is a rectangle with sides approximately 160 by 60 meters, with an area of a little more than a hectare. Payments stretch until 1905, the time of the only up to now positive Russian revolution.
The photograph of the first Russian military correspondent A. Ivanov is the Guards Artillery Brigade of the period of the Russian-Turkish war of 1877–78. One of the officers seems strangely familiar to you. Is reincarnation a reality? … In this sharp confrontation Russia loses 45 thousand fighters, Turkey 100 thousand. The territorial acquisitions of the Russian Empire proper are minimal (part of Southern Bessarabia, Karsk region, part of present-day Armenia). At the end of the war, the battles of recent allies — Russia and Romania — will almost never take place. Alexander II, an ethnic German by the way, leads rather sluggish negotiations at the Berlin Congress (1878). As a result, huge chunks of the Asia Minor Empire are inherited, not directly related to this military conflict, by Austria-Hungary.
Photography — Alexander the First Bulgarian. The prince of the German dynasty Battenberg, and the general of the Russian army, with the suggestion of Alexander the Second, became the ruler of Bulgaria in 1879. In November 1885, under the new Russian emperor, Serbia, instigated by Austria-Hungary, declared war on Bulgaria. Two weeks later, Serbia is defeated. All this time in the territory of the Balkan Slavic countries liberated from the Ottomans, the special services have been fighting. The idea of Alexander the Third — of course, the inclusion of Bulgaria into the composition of his own Empire. The interests of the Bulgarian people themselves are not in the first place. Theoretically, the material release fee can be included in some open “payroll”. But this is done unpleasantly in secret, indirectly, without disclosing intentions. Of course, direct financial contributions in favor of the Russian wounded and the families of the soldiers-liberators could have been accepted by the Bulgarians. But, ascended to the throne, Alexander the Third seeks to entangle the entire national Bank of a sovereign country with enslaving conditions. The king makes the Bulgarians perform status, as now say the projects. This is not a completely effective railway to Russia, and all that. In August 1886, a group of pro-Russian (or, more precisely, it was Russian) officers organized the overthrow of Alexander Bulgarian. Further action is a mixture of terrorist, nationalist, and even openly criminal speeches. All movements of the Russian monarch can be seen through. They cause quite appropriate national reaction. After everything passed under Turkey, the Bulgarians want to take a sip of at least some real freedom. In the end, Alexander the Third, and at the same time, and, alas, Russia, is losing credibility in the once so friendly Bulgaria. The monarch’s mania leads, a quarter of a century later, to the fact that Bulgaria without any hesitation takes the side of the Fourth Union in the war against Russia
An expressive picture is the assault of the Dagestan aul Gimry by Russian troops during the Caucasian War. Winning this, lasting almost a hundred (or even two hundred) years of confrontation, succeeds only in settling out several hundred thousand incorrigible enemies of Russia from the Black Sea coast to the Ottoman Empire. Almost all wars with Turkey lead to the fact that Russia receives only hostile to it (and indeed, nevertheless, striving for the coziness of civilization, the Ottomans) the territories of the Caucasus and Transcaucasia populated by militant highlanders
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электронная
от 90
печатная A5
от 610