для читателей старше 18 лет
25 May 2015, Monday
I wrote about one of the most important and greatest rivers in Central Asia — the Amu Darya River, maybe, today it is the time to write about another big river, the second biggest river in Central Asia, and it is the Syr Darya River. Well, this river also is very long, its length amounts to about two thousand and two hundred kilometres, well, of course, it is the second biggest river in Central Asia region after Amu Darya whose length amounts to about two thousand and four hundred kilometres (2 400 km). Well, the Syr Darya River, like the Amu Darya River, also is crossing the territories of four Central Asian countries, such as Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan; and they are, of course, not the same territories of countries where Amy Darya flows, and they, you know, are Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Well, as quite often I need to write, the Syr Darya River also starts in the Tian Shan Mountains area which is located in the Kyrgyz Republic, and elevation of their highest point is about six hundred metres, therefore, this mountainous area has almost the same elevation as the Pamir Mountains which lies north of the Tian Shan Mountains. The Tian Shan Mountains occupy a part of Kyrgyzstan, China, Mongolia and the Republic of Uzbekistan. So, looking at geographical maps of the Central Asia Region one can see that the Syr Darya River starts from the top of the Tian Shan Mountains area in the central part of the Kyrgyz Republic, then runs to the western part of the Central Asia, through Kyrgyzstan territory, after that turning south and crossing some northern areas of Tajikistan, namely, the Sughd Region, and especially near Khujand town which is located near the Uzbekistan border, thus, in the Northwest part of the Republic of Tajikistan. After that the Syr Darya River changes its direction, and turns to the Northwest part of the Central Asia and flows through the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan, from southeast to northwest where it flows into the Aral Sea. So, this river covers a large part of Central Asia region where especially cotton is cultivated which is, of course, the most valuable agricultural crop in Central Asia, and, of course, it refers to Uzbekistan, and, of course, there are vast areas occupied by cotton cultivated fields. So, as usual it can be, the Syr Darya River flows with a higher speed in the Kyrgyz Republic, especially near the Tian Shan Mountains where the river starts, and then goes to the north-western parts of Central Asia region, to the Aral Sea where the Syr Darya runs into; and speed of Syr Darya waters is no so fast there. So, as you know, the river length amounts to two thousand and two hundred kilometres (2 200) km, and, together with the Amu Darya River it is one of the biggest rivers in Central Asia region. So, of course, Syr Darya plays the same important role as Amu Darya in every respect of life in this region including economic, social, cultural, historical and maybe also demographic sphere. Well, but if you want to know, the Syr Darya River, of course, also flows not on a large area of the Republic of Tajikistan, and is the boundary river between Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, it touches the Sughd Region of the Republic of Tajikistan, runs through Khujand town, the administrative capital of that province. But it is also quite necessary to write something about main river sources of Syr Darya. Well, one of them is the Naryn River which crosses Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan having a length of about eight hundred kilometres (807 km), to be precise, and flows into Syr Darya. But another river which also flows into Syr Darya is the Kara Darya River which, of course, is not so big, having a length of only about one hundred and seventy seven kilometres (177 km). Well, of course, Kara Darya is not so big as, for example, other source rivers of Amu Darya (2 400 km) are: the Panj River of Vaksh River (790 km) or the main source river of Syr Darya (2 220 km), such as the Naryn River whose length is about 807 km, because of that the Kara Darya River can’t be considered as a bug river. Kara Darya runs through the territory of Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan and flows into the Syr Darya River. Well, there are also some pictures of that river, Kara Darya, and looking at some views of the rover, one can say that it is not a mountain river as other rivers in Central Asia are, it has a slow speed and its waters are calm, and one can say that it is something unbelievable in the Central Asia region.
* * *
The length of the Amu Darya River is about 2 400 km; it flows through for Central Asian countries — Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Its source is in the Pamir Mountains, near Zorkul Lake and Concord Peak. It runs along the border of two countries- Tajikistan and Afghanistan. In the area near Afghanistan and Turkmenistan border it turns north, and crosses the Eastern desert part of Turkmenistan, crosses the border with Uzbekistan, goes into Uzbekistan territory and flows into the Aral Sea (Lake). The main source rives of Amy Darya are Panj river flowing south From Amu Darya near the Afghanistan and Tajikistan border, and Vakhsh river which flows from the north near Tajikistan.
* * *
Well, one river of the two main rivers of Central Asia is Syr Darya whose length amounts to about two thousand and two hundred kilometres, and it runs through for main Central Asian countries, such as Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. Well, Syr Darya begins in the central part of the Kyrgyz Republic, and, in particular, from the Tian Shan Mountains area whose altitude above sea level is about five thousand and five hundred meters. Well, Syr Darya runs through the Kyrgyzstan territory; then it becomes a boundary river with the Republic of Tajikistan, further it flows through the territory of Sughd Region of the Republic of Tajikistan, after that it turns north and separates the south-east part of Uzbekistan flowing to northwest parts of the Republic of Kazakhstan territory into the Aral Sea, as also the Amu Darya river — the first biggest river in Central Asia does.
Well, this river (Syr Darya) has two source rivers, such as Naryn River whose length is about 806 km and which flows through the territories of Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan into the Syr Darya River. There is also another main source river of Syr Darya, and it is Kara Darya which is, of course, smaller than other main rivers of Central Asia, its length amounts to about one hundred and eighty kilometres, it flows into Syr Darya and also is crossing two countries of Central Asia, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. So, that was, of course, very interesting to know about Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers and their source rivers.
Syr Darya (2 200 km) from the Tian Shan Mountains; its source rivers are Naryn River and Kara Darya.
26 May 2015, Tuesday
Well, you know that yesterday you wrote about two main rivers of the Central Asia region — Amu Darya and Syr Darya, but why not to write about some other rivers or water resources which the Republic of Tajikistan has. Of course, these rivers about which you wrote yesterday are flowing not only through the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan, but also through the territories of other Central Asian countries; for example, Amu Darya runs through the countries such as Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, and other great river of Central Asia — Syr Darya — runs through the territory of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. Well, both of these rivers flow into the Aral Sea or lake. Well, according to information, the Republic of Tajikistan has about nine hundred rivers having mountain specificity, or simply said, they are heading from the top of Pamir Mountains. Well, maybe it’s worth to write about one river which runs from in southwest part of the Republic of Tajikistan, that is, in the Khatlon Region area. It is the Kyzylsy River whose length amounts to two hundred and thirty kilometres, and, as a matter of fact, this river runs from the northwest part of Khatlon Province in the Republic of Tajikistan to south-west of the region where near the Afghanistan border it flows into the Panj River. So, in my opinion, the Kyzylsu river, maybe, has not a fast water speed, because the southwest areas of the Republic of Tajikistan are rather flat-bottomed lands, only those places located near the Afghanistan border are more elevated, than place where the Kyzylsu River flows into the Panj River. Well, there are also some other important rivers it the Republic of Tajikistan, such as Muksu River which flows through the northern-central part of Tajikistan, i.e. in the Gorno — Badakshan Autonomous Region, and this Muksu river is a tributary or source river of the Vaksh River which flows through the western areas of Tajikistan, from north, the border with Kyrgyzstan, to southwest part of Tajikistan where near the Afghanistan border it flows into the Amy Darya river. So, the Muksu River is a tributary of the Vaksh river. So, there is also one another river — and its name is the Zeravshan River which starts also, of course, in the Republic of Tajikistan territory, in the Pamir Mountains, and flows to western parts of the country towards the border with Uzbekistan. The Zeravshan River crosses the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan turning to northwest part of the country, and then flows into the Amy Darya River in Uzbekistan. So, maybe, it is worth to mention again, that Amy Darya is the most important and the main river in Central Asian Region, with the length of about two thousand and five hundred kilometres, and this river flows into the Aral Sea in Uzbekistan territory. So, probably, today you wrote about some rivers flowing through the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan, such as the Kyzylsu River, Muksu River, Zeravshan River. So, these rivers are tributaries, and two of them, one can say officially, are the source rivers of Amu Darya, the only difference is that the Muksu River flows into the Vaksh River which, of course, is a source river of Amy Darya and flows from north, while another river — the Zeravshan River, also a tributary of Amu Darya, flows or enters into Amu Darya, but only in the Republic of Uzbekistan territory, near the Aral Sea. So, only one of those three rivers you wrote about today, i.e., the Kyzylsu River flows into the Panj River near the Afghanistan border in the western part of the Republic of Tajikistan, and it is, of course, the Khatlon Province. Looking at some pictures of areas where the Zeravshan River flows, for example, in Ayni District which officially belongs to the Sughd Province of Tajikistan, thus in areas of the north part of Tajikistan, one can say that the Zeravshan River area or, maybe one must say, its basin is not so large, so it can be assumed or understood that this river is not so big and its water system area is not quite large. So, there was very interesting to know that Ayni District which officially belongs to the Sughd Region has administrative divisions officially called as jamoats, and this Ayni District consists of eight jamoats.
* * *
Well, the second great river in Central Asia is Syr Darya whose length is about 2 200 km flows through Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan territories, it starts in Tian Shan Mountains in central part of Kyrgyzstan, and it has two main source rivers which flow into Syr Darya, and they are: the Naryn River with the length of about 806 km, and its other source river is Kara Darya river which flowes into Syr Darya and its length is about 176 km.
Tian Shan Mountains area (Kyrgyzstan), the highest peak: 7 500 m.
Well, as regards to Tian Shan Mountains, they are located in the Kyrgyz Republic, and cover also some parts of China, Mongolia and Uzbekistan. The highest eleveation of these mountains is about 7 600 m above sea level.
* * *
Well, that is true that the Republic of Tajikistan has big water resources, such as lakes and rivers, that’s true that lakes cover two percent of the Tajikistan territory, and probably most of them are in the Pamir Mountains. But there are also some nine hundred rivers in the Republic of Tajikistan whose length exceeds ten kilometres. Well, it’s worth to say some words also about tributaries of the Panj River, Vaksh River and Amy Darya River. Well, there is one river, called Kyzylsu which is a source river of the Panj River. Kyzylsu River flows into the Panj River, in southwestern Tajikistan, near the Afghanistan border. Another source river — Muksu River flows into the Vaksh River, the river which flows after that into the Panj River. So that the third source river about which you read today is the Zeravshan River which flows through the northwest part of the Republic of Tajikistan, through the Sughd Region, Ayni District, then crosses the border with Uzbekistan, running through Uzbekistan territory north-westwards into the Amu Darya River near the Aral Sea.
Kyzylsu River — flows into the Panj River.
Muksu River — flows into the Vaksh River.
Zeravshan River — flows into the Amu Darya River.
27 May 2015, Wednesday
Now, there was one word mentioned, namely, jamoats, well, it is the third level administrative division in the Republic of Tajikistan, along with provinces and districts. Well, as you already know, this country which is situated in the Central Asia Region, includes for main regions or provinces, or also, as these divisions are called in Tajikistan — velayats. You also know that each province in the Republic consists of districts, and districts in the Republic of Tajikistan consist of jamoats. So, that administrative division of districts is of the same level as municipality, and, for example, as you wrote yesterday, one district located in Sughd Reagion and named Ayni District consists of eight jamoats. But you know, for me, of course, it is more interesting to read about those divisions, i.e. jamoats in some isolated places of the Republic of Tajikistan, maybe, for example, you need to take Murghob district of the Gorno-Badakshan Autonomous Region. So, that district which is located close to China has six jamoats, and maybe also it would be great to tell about Alichur jamoat which is situated in Murghob district, and its population amounts to about two thousand residents. Why I am interested in that jamoat or municipality, well, maybe, because it’s something close to you. For example, not densely populated places of that Tajikistan area, maybe, the poor looks of these settlements situated in Alichur jamoat. So, if you probably want to know about some facts, i.e. how many jamoats does the Republic of Tajikistan include, well, there will be some four hundred and six ones, namely 406 jamoats in Tajikistan. Well, there are not much information about the Republic of Tajikistan administrative units — jamoats, but if it is necessary to write something, why not to write about some other geographic objects, such as lakes, in this Republic. Well, lakes cover about two percent of the Tajik territory, and you already know about some lakes. So, there is Zorkul Lake which is located in south-eastern Tajikistan, not so far from the Concord Mountain, its area amounts to about thirty nine square kilometres or 39 km2, and another lake, such as Turumtaykul Lake. So, as often happens, there are some places in Rushon district (one of the seven districts of the Gorno- Badakshan Autonomous Region, such as Darvoz district, Rostshala district, Vanj district, Murghob district, Ishkoshim district, and Shughnon district) where the administrative capital of the Gorno- Badakshan Autonomous Region — Khorugh city is located. In Rushon district is situated one of the largest lakes in the Republic of Tajikistan, i.e. the Sarez Lake. So, this lake is situated in remote mountainous area, of course, the Pamir Mountains, and its area amounts to about eighty square kilometres (80 km2). so the deepest place of that Sarez Lake is about five hundred metres (500 m), but the average depth of the Sarez Lake is about two hundred metres (200 m). Well, of course, this is not a small lake if you, for example, take into account the lake depth. In my opinion, a major part of lakes in the Republic of Tajikistan are very deep, or, at least, is rather deep. In mountainous areas, as it must be, lakes are very deep, especially in the Pamir Mountains. If you, for example, would look at some geographic objects, such as seas, many of them are not such deep as lakes in the Republic of Tajikistan, and that’s why the greater part of these mountainous areas in the Central Asia countries, such as Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, are very famous due to these lakes, and especially deep lakes lost in mountains. Well, probably, elevation of this Sarez Lake which is situated in the Pamir Mountains, Rushon district, is about three thousand and some three hundred metres above sea level, so the Sarez Lake is situated on 3 300 metres in high mountains, and that’s of course can make to think that this lake is one of the highest altitude lakes, or as a matter of fact, it is located in one of the highest mountain areas. This, of course, can give us some facts that water of Sarez Lake is to be very cold, but fresh and clear, as often many water resources in the Pamir Mountains are. So, also, let us look at some facts in these central and eastern parts of the Republic of Tajikistan that weather is cold throughout a whole year, and especially in eastern regions of Tajikistan where the temperature really can be about only +10 ºC in summer, i.e. in July; maybe as regards to Rushon district where Sarez Lake is situated the air temperature can be higher than in places near the Chinese border, well, it might rise up to +15 ºC or just a little higher, but that, of course, does not give a reason to expect that water temperature of Sarez Lake would be higher during summertime. Well, it is also very interesting to know that elevation of the highland area around Sarez Lake is about two thousand and three hundred metres above sea level.
* * *
There are three rivers in Tajikistan, such as Kyzylsu River, Muksu River and Zeravshan River.
All of these rivers are tributaries of the Amu Darya River, the only difference between them is the fact that Kyzylsu River flows into the Panj River which is a tributary of Amu Darya. So, Kyzylsu flows into the Panj River in south-west Tajikistan (Khatlon region). Another rive, the Muksu River is a tributary of Amu Darya in Uzbekistan territory, near the Aral Sea where Amu Darya flows into.
Ayni District — an administrative-territorial unit of Sughd Region — includes eight jamoats.
* * *
So, today you wrote about jamoats. Maybe it sounds somehow unbelievable for the Republic of Tajikistan, but in fact this is the third level of administrative division in the Republic of Tajikistan, after provinces and districts. So, districts in Tajikistan are consisting of jamoats, or as they are often referred to in this country, of municipalities. Well, there is one jamoat, called Alichur jamoat which officially belongs to Murghob district of the Gorno-Badakshan Autonomous Region or Province; therefore that means that Alichur jamoat is located near the Chinese border. Well, the population of this Alichur jamoat is about two thousand residents, and because of that this is one of the most unpopulated areas in the Republic of Tajikistan. You know also that Tajikistan country has big vast water resources, or, as a matter of fact, quite a big area of this country is occupied by lakes and rivers; and lakes are covering about 2 % of the whole area of the Republic of Tajikistan. Well, there is also one idea; why not to write about one lake, called Sarez lake which, like many lakes in Tajikistan, is located in highland areas, and in fact this lake is, as also many lakes, located in the Pamir Mountains in the central-eastern part of Tajikistan in the Gorno-Badakshan Autonomous Region, in Rushon district, and its altitude is about three thousand and two hundred meters high, so that means that Sarez lake is a real high altitude lake with elevation of three thousand and two hundred meters. Depth of some seas can be smaller if you take, for example, some lakes in the Republic of Tajikistan blic, and especially lakes in the Pamir Mountains; the depth of these lakes can be very big, they may be deeper that some seas… So, there is Sarez Lake which average depth is about 200 m, and the deepest point of that Sarez Lake in Rushon district reaches about 500 m.
28 May 2015, Thursday
You already know most of geographic objects, but the most interesting ones still remain to be known, and rivers in the Republic of Tajikistan are to be written about; and why not to write about one river which flows through the Gorno-Badakshan Autonomous Region, and if you want to know to what district this river really flows, well, it will be Vanj district. As I am trying to remember, this is one of the seven districts in the Gorno-Badakshan Autonomous Region which is situated in southwest part of that autonomous province, and especially very close to the Afghanistan border, and it is the Yazgulyam River. So, this river is a tributary or a source river of the Panj River. There is no so much information available about this Yazgulyam River, exactly about the length of this river, but maybe it is not rather long, and probably like many other rivers in Tajikistan, and especially in southern Tajikistan, it has quite a fast current. Well, there was also very difficult to find any information about area where the Yazgulyam River flows into the Panj River. I don’t know, but you know, I love so much these areas of the Republic of Tajikistan, and especially south and east parts of this country. Not west, and not north, and maybe not the central parts of this Central Asia country, but only south and east parts of the Republic of Tajikistan. Why exactly only these places, maybe because I have some feelings in my heart which can be exactly the same as about that very remote places, places located in the Republic of Tajikistan and just really close to Afghanistan of the People’s Republic of China. Places which can give me something to see and feel, how it can be when you are not able to find any destination of choice from some situation which can be experienced in those areas. Just for a moment try to understand and to feel how it is when you are living in such areas where mountains take much space… Well, the poverty, maybe it’s not so hard to go through that, if you can really understand that you can do something but really live in some isolated places so characteristic to east parts of the Republic of Tajikistan. So there is one else river which starts in the Afghanistan territory, and its name is the Bartang River, it flows northwards to the border with the Republic of Tajikistan, the river crosses the border and the runs through the Tajikistan territory, and especially through Roshan district. So, probably, having got its name in Afghanistan as Bartang River in Tajikistan country this river has another name, and is called as Aksu River, and then as Murghob river, of course, in areas close to Murghob town. Passing the Murghob town the Murghob River runs to western parts of the Gorno-Badakshan Autonomous Region, and this river flows near the Sarez lake (which is situated in the Pamir Mountains in the Rushon district of the Republic of Tajikistan). So, after that this river turns south and crosses the border with Afghanistan. Well, maybe it should be noted that this river which is called as Murghob/ Aksu or Bartang river in Afghanistan it is called Bartang river, and in the Republic of Tajikistan this river is called as Murghob, near Murghob town in eastern parts of the Republic of Tajikistan, and as Aksu River. So in the Afghanistan territory this river flows into the Panj River which is a tributary of Amu Darya. So, it is also should be written that Aksu or Bartang river is a source river of the Panj river. Well, it’s also, of course, very interesting to know that this river, of course, flows through the highest mountainous places of the Republic of Tajikistan, of course, through the Pamir Mountains. So, the most part of the Murghob river length flows through Tajikistan, or the Pamir National Park territory, so, it is, as you know, the biggest Nature National Park in Tajikistan occupying about eighteen percent (18 %) of total area of the Republic, and there is one more interesting fact that the name of this river — Bartang — in English is meaning “the White Water”! Yes, it is true that the Aksu or Bartang River, or Murghob River, since this river has also the third name, has its starting point in north-eastern Afghanistan, i.e. in the Little Pamir Mountains, thus, these mountains are the second part, if I may say so, of the Pamir Mountains, but situated in the Afghanistan territory. So, in northeast Afghanistan the river Aksu has its beginning, and then runs northwards, to the Tajikistan borders.
* * *
There are about four hundred and nine jamoats in the Republic of Tajikistan (409 jamoats).
Alichur jamoat — in Murghob district.
The third level of administrative division in the Republic of Tajikistan — after provinces and districts — is jamoats. Each district in Tajikistan consists of jamoats. So, Murghob district includes six jamoats, and one of them is Alichur, its population amounts to about two thousand residents.