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Tajikistan

Бесплатный фрагмент - Tajikistan

The country of Islam, Mountains and Rivers


Объем:
110 стр.
Возрастное ограничение:
16+
ISBN:
978-5-4474-9857-3
электронная
от 490
печатная A5
от 3216

Предисловие

Таджикистан — удивительная страна. Это гсударство, как может некоторые знают расположено в Центральной Азии, в области Памирских гор. И не зря именуется горной страной, так как 93% всей территории Таджикистана занимают горы и одна из самых больших гoрных систем в этой стране — Памирские горы, затем идут Алайские и Фанские горы. Самая высокая точка на бывшем пост советском пространстве находится именно в Таджикистане и именуется пиком Исмоила Сомони, бывший пик Коммунизма. Но не только горами богата эта страна, в Таджикистане также можно увидеть большие территории хлопка, особенно в Юго — Западных областях страны. Хлопок — одна из наиболее важных статей дохода в экспорте государства. Большинство населения страны — мусульмане сунниты, но встречаются и мусульмане шииты, а именно мусульмане исмаилиты, проживающие в основном в Горно — Бадахшанской Автономной области, то есть на востоке страны, в области Памирских гор. И именно население Горно — Бадахшанской Автономной области стояло на распутье по провозглашению независимости от Таджикистана, именно поэтому в 1992 году в этой Центрально — Азиатской республике разразилась Гражданская война, которая окончилась только в 1997 году, путем сохранения целостности государства и провозглашением Горно — Бадахшанской Автономной области в составе Таджикской республики. Таджикистан — одна из беднейших стран мира и беднейшая страна на пост советском пространстве. Согласно некоторым данным, примерно 70% населения живут за чертой бедности, а именно менее чем на 2 доллара в день. Тысячи таджикских граждан устремляются на заработки в Россию и другие страны. Причем не только на сезонные работы, но и на постоянное место жительство зарубежом. В сновном таджикские мигранты работают в сфере обслуживания за пределами своей Родины. И как ни странно заметить средняя зарпата в Таджикистане составляет примерно 1470 сомони, что в переводе будет эквивалентно 200 Евро в месяц. Следует заметить что это самый низкий показатель средней зароботной платы на пост советском пространстве, минимальная зарплата составляет около 450 сомони, что равняется примерно 60 Евро в месяц. Официальный язык в стране — таджикский, но все население говорит на русском, за исключением молодого и старческого поколений. Русский язык в Таджикистане имеет статус межрегионального языка, или интернациональным языком общения.

September 9, 1991 — Independence Day of Tajikistan Republic

Sunni Islam, Cotton, Aluminium, Pamir Mountains, Dushanbe city,

Mountain Badakashan Autonomus region — Khorugh city,

Region of Republican Subordination — Dushanbe city,

Sughd Velayat — Khujand city, Khatlon Velayat – Qurghonteppa city.

Pamir Mountains — one of the main mountains in the Republic of Tajikistan.

Alay Mountains – is the second largest mountain area in Republic of Tajikistan, situated near the Republic of Kyrgyzstan.

Fann Mountains – is the third largest mountain area in Republic of Tajikistan, situated near the Republic of Kyrgyzstan and Republic of Uzbekistan.

Salom, Tajikistan, I love you!

The most popular Tajik word is Salom and it means Hello. If you like Tajikistan and are interested in east culture, then this word will not only mean hello or greeting, but you will understand the other meaning that Tajik citizens and other people of the Islamic would put on it. Salom is often used to express good intentions regarding other person with who Muslim person is talking to. This is because the nation of the Tajikistan Republic is very strong and friendly, just like other nations not only in central Asia region, but also in such countries as Iran, Turkey, Pakistan etc. Of course we know that politic situation in these countries are not so idyllic but besides that the people of East and Islamic Culture countries is very kind. Four those who maybe do not know so much about this very amazing and interesting region will often found out that all these nations especially in Central Asia’s region will present the best side of their soul to an other nation.


The weather temperature in the Murghob city (east of the Tajikistn): +15oC (clouds and sun)


The national flag of the Republic of Tajikistam was adopted on November 24, 1992. Because it is a national flag of the independent Republic of Tajikistan it is considered as main symbol of freedom. But maybe more important is to know the meaning of ornaments find of Tajikistan flag. The flag consists of three horizontal stripes — red, white in the midlle of the flag and green stripe at the bottom. As you know in the middle of this flag so in the centre of white stripe is a crown with seven stars above the crown. Each stripe of this flag has a meaning for example the green line symbolise Islam religion that is official religion of the Republic of Tajikistan and as you may know the green colour is a symbolic colour of Islam. White line in the middle of the Tajikistan’s flag symbolise cotton because this is the main export product and the most cultivated product in the Tajikistan. Red stripe at the top of the flag symbolize sun, victory and maybe the most significant traits of the nation. Well, also the red colour stripe symbolize the unity of the Tajik people while white colour stripe symbolize the snow on the Tajikistan’s mountains, but the green line at the bottom symbolize the nature of the Tajikistan. The crown that is placed in the middle of the white stripe symbolize unity of the Tajik nation. The official national flag of the independent Republic of Tajikistan was adopted on November 24, 1992.

28 April, 2015, Tuesday

Maybe now it is time that I write on a paper all feelings in my heart. There are so many things to write about, but I will write in these pages just the most interesting things that I take interest in personally. There was a time and also sometimes now when I feel down. Suffering, gloom and darkness are strong words but I felt something in my heart. I want to tell you about one country that I started to interest about, that land which helped to get to know myself better and feel stronger. This country has a way of living that helps me not to fall down, that protects my heart and my image and keeps it exactly how it must be. Every day when I wake up or haven’t had good dreams I become aware that each morning and each new day can give me something new. Only the question remains — would you wake up and would not lose yourself in all that is around you and behind you? That is reason why it will be very hard to write this book but when it will be finished, I think that will be very important thing for me. I will express my love to that country. I will tell you about culture, style and everything that has that country. That won’t be difficult to understand. Now I will tell you what I am talking about — it is Republic of Tajikistan that can give and save me every day more stronger, help not to lose all the good things I have. Now it is spring and more precisely it is the end of second moth of spring, last days of April when sun shines more and more as always it is in spring. In place where I am at now is not so warm as it is in that country — Tajikistan but when I remember about it, my heart feels the same feelings that maybe Tajik people feel now. It is now so hard to feel also the same sun, the same air and environment that you feel in that country which is very far from here. But now i will try to recall all of that memories and knowledge that was very interesting to me. So as maybe you already know this country is situated in that part of the world that is called Asia, more precisely in one part of the Asia because Asia is very large, I mean has a very large area. Of course it is not situated not in South part of Asia, not in North, not in East and also not in South part of Asia. If you want to know exact location in this continent, Tajikistan is situated in the central part of Asia where winters are cold and summers — hot, where nights are much colder than days. And that area which many people call Central Asia have so many traditions and history, actually all of the nations that live in that part of the world, in that part of Asia. Not only Tajikistan, but also other nations around it have some things and history in common before they were independent countries and started to build up their life from blank page. It was very hard to do so and take a step further. Now we are living in the time that we can see that people from these countries are free and feel this freedom that they did not have before. And that is why it was very interesting and good to understand, that culture, traditions, religion, some styles are very important and precious to them. when your country is oppressed you are forced to feel not how you would like to, but how foreigner oppressors want you to feel. And when your country becomes independent you truly start to understand what is freedom.


Just a few words about one thing that I want to write about, what initiated my interest and what I feel in my heart and soul from the past and also present. This country is very close to my heart, I hold on to it every day. Maybe it sounds funny to you but Tajikistan can give me understanding how i can learn from all hard moments and things that can happen in one’s life. It was hard and very long road when economy and other important parts of life started to recover. If this bloom could happen and happened to Tajikistan after hard ten years then the life of each of us can start to rise and see some changes and all of what happened in recent years can give you life lessons, how to feel stronger and more clever that before. Past events that took place in this Central Asia’s republic were very terrible and dangerous, fortunately life does not stay in one place for eternity and after a while it gets better. And I will start to write about my lovely Republic of Tajikistan from that happy day when the life has gotten better.

29 April, 2015, Wednesday

I don’t have many ideas to write about, but there are some moments that recalls some feelings about the lovely Tajikistan. In the beginning I need to tell you about the Tajikistan’s landscapes. It is situated in the Central Asia next to Pamir Mountains with so many rivers that flow down the mountains, so many lakes with clean, cold and fresh water. Mountain areas can be really cold during winter. These areas are very isolated, with several villages and not so largely populated towns that are situated in that region which Tajik people call — Gorno Badakhshan. Badakhshan in fact is an autonomous district which is one of the official administrative division districts situated in the East part of Tajikistan near the China on the East and Afghanistan on the South. This part of the Tajikistan differs from other areas because the people of this district belong to other denomination. As maybe you already know Tajikistan’s official religion is Islam more accurately, Sunni Islam that is represented by majority of the Muslims in the world. Of course this means that the majority of Tajik people belong to Sunni Islam but inhabitants of the Gorno Badakhshan belong to Ismaili Islam. Very interesting to know about these differences. So Ismailism belongs to the Shia main stream of Islam. Although they are both branches of Islam they still have differences that you can see in everyday life of the Tajik people living in other parts of the country. Ismaili Muslims have different views of life which are not in the West parts of the Republic where the native Tajik people live. Also very interesting to tell about the population of 8.5 million is that despite all problems that Tajikistan has in all parts of country life, economy, poverty because of what many residents are forced to go to other countries, civil war for five years, the population grows every year. It was a hard time for nation during the civil war that took place in Gorno Badakhshan because large portion of population went to other countries, mostly to Afghanistan as immigrants in the beginning of nineties, so in 1992. The war ended only in 1997. Tajikistan was the poorest country in former Soviet Union. The impact of this war is not so important now because the country changes and life along with it and problems that seemed to be very difficult to overcome in the past is not so now because the viewpoint has changed. You know it is very hard to concentrate thinking so maybe now little bit about the capital — Dushanbe city. The capital is situated in the central part of Tajikistan on the West. The city is not so modern, not so comfortable without modern buildings but often it is like this in large cities that are situated near mountains. Also streets and roads are not so modern comparing to other capitals of Central Asia’s republics for instance in Astana (Kazakhstan) and Ashgabat (Turkmenistan) whose capitals are very modern and have amazing views of countries landscapes. But Tajikistan can be more interesting because of its unique way of living.


Gorno Badakhshan autonomous district was today’s main theme. Long and hard years of war that took place in this area brought a lot of suffering and problems which this district already had before the conflict began. The conflict started soon after the collapse of Soviet Union. When Tajikistan declared its independence from Soviet Union this autonomous district declared it s for Tajikistan. But Tajik government was not comfortable with this decision and so started the five year long conflict between the official Tajikistan’s government and government forces of Gorno Badakhshan. Probably the reason for this war was based on differences between two cultures — native Tajik people and nations that populated in Gorno Badakhshan. Also religious differences between two branches of Islam – Sunni and Ismaili. These were probably the hardest years in the history of the Republic of Tajikistan.

30 April, 2015, Thursday

Now for today it is important to start writing about one more interesting place or sight on your list and it is Dushamble Zoo which of course is situated in the Tajikistan’s capital. Well the zoo opened its doors in 1960 and now has a large collection of animals. The zoo owns something around 600 animals from various continents but mainly from Asia and Africa. During the civil war from 1991—1997 zoo had big problems, many animals died others get lost. During that time it was very hard to save all inhabitants of the zoo. Probably I need to tell something about the place where the zoo is built. It is situated in the centre of the Tajikistan’s capital — Dushanbe city on the Luchob river bank. One of the most interesting things to write about will be also the capital of Republic of Tajikistan so about Dushanbe city. The populations of this Central Asia’s city is 780 000 residents according to information collected in 2014. The population of this city consists of 75% of Tajik nation as it is common in many cities of Central Asia republics that there is a high percentage of native nation’s people. It is also interesting to mention Dushanbe Flagpole, national flagpole that is 165m high and since the 2011 it is the highest flagpole in the world. So that is one symbolic place which represents the national flag of the country. It is located near the Palace of Nations in Dushanbe. Well the flag of Tajikistan have three lines and these are red line at the top of the flag, after that in the centre is large white line and an the bottom or under the white one is green line. More over in the centre of the Tajikistan’s flag is symbolic figure with seven yellow stars. You know it is very difficult to write about other facts of Tajik’s capital but I will tell a little bit more about traditional food. Many families has a problem with food that means many families has low income and the traditional Tajik family’s menu consists of simple products which are often used for meals such as bread, potatoes and as in all traditional Islamic Asian countries — tea. These are the most popular products in Tajikistan, but also vegetables and fruits are cultivated. But the most popular still remains bread and potatoes because largest part of the population can get it. Many inhabitants live in poor districts under the poverty line. People has problems with food and they can not include some products in the everyday meals but maybe on traditional holidays on the most important Islamic feasts Oraza Bayram that is celebrated in the end of the Holy Month of Ramadan and Kurban Bayram that is celebrated on the seventeenth day after Oraza Bayram. So these days are very important to each Muslim person’s heart and on those holidays usually tables are laid with such products as dates, fruits and other that an average inhabitant cannot afford on weekdays. There is another important feast on the traditional calendar of Republic of Tajikistan and also the most important holiday in Islam that takes place on the 70’th day after Oraza Bayram and it is called Kurban Bayram or the day of sacrifice when the Muslim families have to bring the offering of animal. Most common offering in Turkmenistan is camel but in Tajikistan it is goat, sheep or rum. I tried to understand what is the idea of that because each sacrifice can make these innocent animals to suffer and that is not necessary but the Islam population keeps onto this tradition and try to carry out it every year on Kurban Bayram.


Today I will recall some things that can give more knowledge about the Tajikistan. It is time to speak about the capital of one of the Central Asia’s countries — Dushanbe. According to some information sources the population of this city in 2014 was780 000 residents so we can say that is not so largely populated city comparing to other Asian capitals in Muslim countries. But how it usually is in all Muslim countries there are many bazaars and shops but of course not like in the Europe or America. Only in capital you can find few supermarkets and big shops. Other interesting place in Dushanbe is the zoo which was founded in 1960 and is located in the capital’s centre near the river Luchob. The zoo owns approximately 600 animals from various continents but mainly from Asia and Africa. During the civil war from 1991—1997 zoo lost many animals.

1 May, 2015, Friday

Just a few minutes ago I decided to write about the national clothes of Tajikistan. Yes of course it is climate and other things that have something to do with national garments. People often wear summer dresses, shirts and other light summer clothes styled with sandals. But one other thing was very interesting to notice, it is the style that is commonly seen in different capitals of Central Asia republics. In Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan as well as in Tashkent and Ashgabat you can find people wearing very high quality clothes and formal suits. And you know how the weather is in the East and you can see many, many shops, banks and other places where the employees should wear official suits, which is hard in the summer time when the sun in up for long time and the weather is hot already in the early morning. Although comparing these other countries and their capitals with Tajikistan situation may differ. Not crucially different but little bit more casual because the economic situation of the Tajikistan’s cities is not that developed as in neighbour counties. However the situation has improved over the past years and what we can see now is far better than before. Dushanbe city tries to provide residents with more opportunities and that is reason why people from other districts are moving closer to the capital. If we take a look on other districts, provincial cities and poorly populated settlements the view is not so beautiful. Mountain areas are the poorest places in Tajikistan. What is occupation of people who live there? For example people of these mountain villages work in farms, rear animals such as goats, lambs and sheep. Besides this inhabitants of this isolated villages also cultivate the most necessary food products such as fruits and vegetables, wheat for preparation of bread also watermelons, melons, apricots, plums and the traditional food of Islamic countries — dates. Unfortunately not all of population has access to certain foods necessary of daily meals. This is a major problem. Tajikistan has a border with not so safe country namely Afghanistan. According to statistics official incomes of people who live near to the boarder are higher than in rest of the country. This is because many of those people are drug dealers and sell very strong drugs produced from flowers and plants that grow in these areas in South Tajikistan. Drugs are exported from Tajikistan to Afghanistan and other countries of Central Asia and then to Europe. That means that the population of south districts cannot survive with incomes that are provided by state government and people are forced to search for other options. This allows for people who live under the poverty line to double their income by production and export of drugs. Another interesting fact to know is that Tajiks are healthiest nation namely very low percentage of people have problems with health maybe only heart deceases.


Yes you know it was very interesting today to write about lovely Tajikistan and about occupations and businesses of people who live in isolated and poor areas in South Tajikistan, in Pamir Mountains near the border with Afghanistan. I want to point out that farming and drug dealing are not the only businesses. There are also many fields with beautiful and colourful flowers that are grown especially for export. It is very pleasant to watch how many flowers grow near snow covered Pamir Mountains. Even in the summer time the ice on mountain tops does not melt completely. The colour of these flowers usually is red — typical in Central Asia. But mainly Tajikistan is famous for production and export of cotton. It is used for manufacturing of clothes and other products. Cultivation and export of cotton is also popular in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

2 May, 2015, Saturday

Yesterday I wrote about some most celebrated religious feasts in Islamic cultures particularly in Tajikistan. For instance Oraza Bayram is celebrated in the end of Ramadan the Holy Month and second most celebrated feast is Kurban Bayram which is held on 70th day after Oraza Bayram. Besides these religious holidays Tajik people also celebrate the day of independence that was declared on the 9th of September, 1991. So in 2015, 24 years since the declaration of independence has passed and new history on Tajikistan has begun. Tajik people also celebrate State Language Day in the November. This is very symbolic event because it is native language of most of the citizens. According to statistics 10% of population is native Uzbeks but official language of the Republic of Tajikistan is Tajik. But of course Uzbek people are allowed to communicate in their native language with each other. Tajikistan has a strong position regarding traditions, lifestyle, religion etc. Now I will tell little bit about relationships with other countries. Historically and in present days Tajikistan has a friendly relationship with certain countries in Central Asia such as Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan but unfortunately Tajikistan does not have friendly relationships with two other Islamic countries – Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Tajikistan just does not hav any international relationships with Uzbekistan, but with Turkmenistan is a whole different story. Turkmenistan has closed all its borders with foreign countries, it is the safest place to live because there is very low crime level and it does not participate in war conflicts. Sadly it cannot be said about Tajikistan, because crime lever here is high and also shady economy because of drug trafficking. In the night time it is not so safe to be outside, not only in capital but also in smaller towns. Safest option is to stay at home. Dushanbe city is simple with not so many high buildings also city squares are free and easy and I started to feel some best feelings and love for those people who manages to live in bad economical situation and poor conditions. You have to be aware that in Tajikistan earthquakes may happen from time to time. But they are not major. But in case of this natural disaster people get help only more difficult is to provide necessary help to people who live in isolated areas because Tajikistan have not appropriate equipment and resources.


There have not been any major tragedies in history of Republic of Tajikistan, I mean natural disasters. And it is really good because in case of some major earthquake it would be very difficult to recover and rebuild the infrastructure. It would be nearly impossible to find budget to cover all the expenses for rebuilding process. Large part of Tajik nation and also people form neighbour countries are very poor and would not be able to sustain themselves anymore in case of tragedy. Fortunately no big natural disasters have happened except civil war that lasted for five years.

3 May, 2015, Sunday

Well today I will start with national drinks of Central Asia. The most popular is tea. Largest parts of Islamic countries such as Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan and Central Asia republics are no exception. Just few days ago when the spring started I had a cup of green tea. Green tea is very popular in republics of Central Asia. It is very difficult not to drink this amazing drink. Maybe some part of nation cannot afford to drink tea with sugar. The most interesting thing is that all of the nations who live in Central Asia do not consume alcohol. In my opinion this is because Islam forbids consumption of meat and alcohol. Probably this is the reason why these nations are very healthy and with strong views on life and religion. As I mentioned all of these counties drink tea and even Turkey and Iran grows and sells tea abroad. According to statistics most part of Tajiks drink tea maybe some part to not add any ingredients because of high price. Also other foods are pricy so large part of population eats only bread and drinks tea. Cakes, vegetables and fruits are very problematic to buy because the middle class citizen has low incomes, lower than in neighbour countries. Now I will write about other things of this amazing country and how to learn from life experience that is not so easy. Government provide citizens with some workplaces but still incomes are comparatively low but the prices in shops are the same as in neighbour countries with higher income. According to statistics collected in 2014 the average income has rose up over the past years and it is 900 Tajikistan Somoni (124 Euro) per person in Tajikistan. Somoni — state currency that was introduced in the end of 2000. One somoni consists of 100 Dirami or coins that are used for paying less than 1 Somoni. On the banknote you can see some historical persons form Tajik history and also some important places from main cities. For instance some banknotes has a picture of National Palace on them which is situated in the capital — Dushanbe. Also I want to point out that it is not true that the majority of people have average income in fact many citizens gets paid only the minimum wage that is only 250 TJS in 2013.


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